William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 4 of 48)
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them with cold, diflant, and proud, civility. Friendfhip,
free and open conversation, rational enquiry, fmcerity, con-
tentment, and the plain and unadulterated pleaiures of life,
are no more: they departed from him along with his
poverty. New connections, new profpefb, new defires,
and new cares, take place, and en^rofs fo much of his time
and of his thoughts, that he neither improves his heart nor
his understanding. He lives ambitious and refllefs, and
dies* RICH."

JOSEPHUS (pLA\ius), the ancient hiftorian of the
Jews, was born at Jerufalem, of parents who belonged to the
priefthood, about A. D. 37. He loon difcovered great acute-
nefs and penetration, and made fo quick a progrefs in the
learning of the Jews, that h was occafionally confulted by
the chief priefts and rulers of the city, even at the age of 16.
HP. became of the feet of the Phariiees, of which he was a
very great ornament. A. D. 63, he went to Rome; where a
jew comedian, who happened to be in favour with Nero,
ierved him much at court, by maki g him known to Poppxa,
whofe protection was very ule ui to him Upon returning to
his country, where he found all things in tumult and con-
fufion, he had the command of feme noops, and diftinguifh-
ed himfelf at the fiege of jotapar, which he defended leven
weeks againil Vcfpafiaii and Titus. Upon the reduction of


s8 J O S E P II U S.

this place, Vefpalian granted him his life, at the intercefiion
of Titus, who had conceived a great efteem for him, and
carried him with him to the fiege of Jerufalem, After the
t3king of Jerufalem, he attended Titus to Rome; where
Vefpafian gave him the freedom of the city, and fettled a
peniion upon him. At Rome, he cultivated the greek lan-
guage, and applied himfelf to write his hiftory. He con-
tinued to experience favour un:i. r Titus and Domitian, and
lived beyond the igth year of Domitian, when he was 56;
for, his books of*' Antiquities" 'end there; and yet after that
peaod he compofed his books againft Apion.

His " Hiftcry of the Jewilh War and the Detraction of
Jerafalem," in feven book-, was compofed at the command

of Vefpafian, firft in the hebrew lanji/are. for the ufe of his

own countrymen, and afterwards offered to Vefpafian in

the greek. It is fingularly interefting and affecting, as the
hiftorian was an eye-witnefs of all he relates. With the
very ftrong colouring of an an : mated ftyle and noble expref-
on, he paints to the imagination, and affects the heart :
St. Jerome calls him " the Livy of the Greeks/' His
" Jewidi Antiquities," in 20 books, and written in greek,
is alfo a very noble work: their hift -ry is deduced from the
origin of the world to the !2th year of Nero, when the Jews
"began to rebel again ft the Romans. It has been obferved,
and very truly, that Jofephus in this work has acted the
politician rather than the good Ifraelite; inafmuch as, for
the fake of keeping well with the Romans, he has weakened,
er rather annihilated, the evidence for the miracles of the
Old Teftament ; not to mrntion other accommodations,
incompatible with the authority of the Revelation, and the
truth of hiitory. At the. concluiion of the " Antiquities,"
he fuhjoined the 4t Hiftory of his own Life," although, in
the editions of his works, it has ufually been confidered as a
diftinct production. He wrote alio two books againft Apion,
a grammarian of Alexandria, and a great adverfary of the
Jews. Thefe contain many curious fragments of ancient
hiftorians. We have alfo a difcourle of his " upon the
Martyrdom of the Maccabees" which is a mafter-piece of
eloquence; for he was ceitainly a great orator, as well as a
great hiftorian.

The works of Jofephus, with latin verfions, have been
often publifhed ; but the beft edition h that by Havercamp
at Amfterdam, 1727, in 2 vols, folio. They have alfo been
translated into modern languages ; into en^liihby L'Eilrange;
and again by Whifton, in 2 vcls. folio.

JOSEPH (BEN GORION), a celebrated jewifh hiftorian,
whom the Rabbins often confound with the abovementioned



Jofephus. He alfo wrote a hiftory of the Jews, which <
tranilated into latin by Gagnier. This Jofeph lived about
the conclufion of the ninth, or the commencement of the
tenth century.

JOSEPH (of PARIS), a celebrated capuchin, was the
great favourite and confidential counfellor of cardinal Rich-
lieu, and deeply concerned in the political intrigues of that
per;od. He employed emiffaries in negotiations at different
times in England, Canada, and Turkey; and was fo ufeful
to his employers, that Louis XIII. procured him a cardinal's
cap, which however he did not live to receive, a> he died of
an apoplexy at Kuel in 1638. His life has been feveral
times wr>tten, and involves many curious particulars in the
hiftory of France.

JOSEPH (father), an apoftate monk, who put himfelfat
the head of fix thoufand banditti, with the determination of
exterminating all traces of the roman catholic religion in
Hungary. With this view he deftroyed churches, put prieils
to the iword, and with his followers perpetrated all manner
of outrages. He murdered two nuns with his own hands,
after having given them up to the brutal violence of his
foldiers. In confequence of his fudden death, his accom-
plices difperfed, and moil of them came to an untimely

JOSHUA, the fun of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, was
firft called Hofea, which fienifies ^Saviour." He is alfo
called by St. Luke, and the author of Ecclefiafiicus, Jefus.
By the command of God, he undertook the government of
Ifrael, and was diftingmfbea by his piety, courage, and in-
tegrity. He died in the I loth year of his age ; his memory
and his victories were long preferved among the heathen na-
tions, and he is generally confidered as the original of the
Phoenician Hercules. Some writers contend, that the book:
which paries under the name of Jofhua was not written by
him, but there neverthelefs remain fufficient grounds to con-
clude that it was. At the cohclufion of the book, it is ex-
preffly laid, that " jofhua wrote thefe words in the book cf
the law of God." See chap, xxiv, v. 26.

JOViNIAN, a notorious heretic of the fourth century,
was by birth a latin, and obferved all the auileritics of a rno-
naftic life for a time ; but he afterwards gave himfelf up to ai!
manner of debauchery, to redeem, as it were, the time loft.
He was expelled Rome, and fled to Milan, with an intent
to engage Ambrofe, bifhop of that place, and the emperor
Theodofius, who was then in that city, in his favour; but
Syricius, then bifhop of Rome, difpatcbed three preibyters to


3d j O U B E R T.

Milan, Crefcentius, Leopardus, and Alexander, with letters
to that church, which are flill extant in Ambrofe's works,
acquainting them with the proceedings of himfelf and his
followers . in confequence of which he was rejected by Atn-
brofe, and driven out of the town by the emperor. From
Milan. Jovmian returned to the neighbourhoc d of Rome,
where his followers continued to affemble, under his direction,
till the year 398, when the emperor Honorius commanded
him and his accomplices to be whipped with fcourges armed
with lead, and banifh-d into different iflands. Joviniaii
himfelf was confined to Boas, a fmall ifland on the coaft of
Dalmatia, where he died, aDout A. D. 406, amidft all the
jollity and mirth < f a banquet. Jovinian wrote feveral books,
whirh \ver^ anfwered by Jerome, in the year 392. He did not,
like Hclvidius in the year 383, when he denied the virginity
of Mary, pretend that her huiband had knowledge of her; but
thatChriiVs body, if it were real, and not aerial, muft break
thefkin which is i.he token of virginity.

JOUBERT (LAURENCE), counlel'or and phyflcian in
ordinary to the kl:ig of I 1 ranee, firft doctor regent, and
chancellor and judge of the univeifity of Montpelier, -was
born at Valence in Dauphiny, 1529 or 1530 [A]. Having
made choice of phyfic for his profefiion, he went to Paris,
where he (ludied that art under Sylvius; and, going thence
to Italy, he attended the lectures of L'Argentier. After
this, he continued his {ladies at Montbrifon, a city in the
county of Forez. At laft, going to Montpelier, he became
the favourite difciple of Rondelet, upon whole death he
lucceeded to the regius profefibrfhip of phyiic in that univer-
fity in 1567; having giv^n abundant proofs of his merit, by
the difpu tat ions which he held upon feveral thefes. Thefe
were afterwards printed among fome other of his tracts at
Lyons in 1571. The fame of this phyfician was fo prodigious,

that nothing was deemed too difficult for his fkill ; infomuch


that Henry 111. who pailionately wifhed to have children, fent
for him to Paris, to remove thofe obftacles that rendered his
marriage fruitlefs; in which, however, the king was dif-
appoznted. Joubert died in 1582. His writings, in latin
and french, are numerous: the latin \vere printed at Frankfort,
1582, 1599, and 1645, in ,2 vols. folio. They are all, or
almoft all, upon phylic and furgery.

JOUBERT (FnANCis), a prieft of Montpelier, born in
1689, autho- of many works, the principal of which is a
good " Commentary upon the Revelations/' He was a

[wf] Thus fays La Croix da Mnine, in his 5Oth year, and, if fo, he muft
p. 285; but, in an imc: iption round have been born in i$zo.
his rn&ure in 1570, he is faid to die


j o v i u s. 3 i

ftrenuons Jahfenift, and on account of his principles confined
in thebafhle. He died in 1763.

JOVJUS (PAUL), in italian Giovio, -well known by his
hiftorical works, was born, 1483, at O mo in Italy. Lofing
his father in his infancy, he was educated by his elded brother,
Benedict [ovius, who, obferving his excellent genius, took
pains to ground him vvejl in grammar and clailical learning.
Paul did not fail to make an extraordinary proficiency ; and
afterward?, leaving Como, went to Rome for the fake of
the Vatican library. Here he wrote his fir ft piece, " De
Pifcibus Romanis/' and dedicated it to cardinal Lewis of
Bourbon; apparently determined therein by the favours he
received from the French king, Francis I. who had given
him a considerable penfion for many years. This attached
him fo zealouily to that prince, that he reprefented him not
as a captive but as a conqueror, when he was taken prifoner
and carried into Spain. In reality, Francis was flattered
by him fo agreeably, and expreffed fo much kindnefs for him,
that Paul, who was not of a temper to lofe any thing for
wantofaik : ng [N~l, tried his intereft for other favours from
the conftable of France, Anne de Montmorency. But here
he met with a rebuff; the conftable was affronted with his
forwardneis, and even taxed him with impudence. On the
other fide, the refufal was refented as an injury, and Jcvius
had recourfe to the author's weapon to revenge it. The
conftable happening to be difgraced fome time after, o:r
hiftorian made the following remark upon it: that " when
the Grand Signior, Solvman, turred his great favourite,
Ibrahim Bafhaw, out of his favour, and put him to death,
king Francis did, at the fame time, turn his great favouritCj
the conftable, Anne de Montmcrency, out of his favour;
but why," fays Jovius, " did not he alib put him to death?
It was not," adds he, cc that he had not well deferved it,
but becaufe that great king was good-natured and merciful,
whereas the Grand Signior was a cruel tyrant." But Mont-
morency, after the death of Francis, being recalled to court,
and made matter of the palace to Henry H. fettling the new
king's houleholJ, ftruck Jovius's name out of the lift of pen-
fioners of the crown.

[N] No man ever afked for prefents ric of Tyre. In another, he nfks the

with lefs referve than he did. Balzac marquis of Fefcara for two horles ; for

tells us, that, in one of his begging which effe<5l he defires him to itrike

letters, he declared folemnly, that, if the ground a liule harder than Nep-

the cardinal de Lorraine did not take tune did. tn a third, he wifhes a cer-

care to have his penfion paid him, he tain lady, who was his friend, would

would fey that the cardinal was no fend him forne fweet-mea's from Na

longer defcended from Godfrey, who pies, becaufe he begins to be tired of

promoted a pealant to the archbiihop new-laid eggs.


ga J O V I U S<

Jovius, however, did not let his fpirits link under this mif~
fortune: on the contrary, his foul ieems to have increafed its
ambition thereby; and, calling about how to repair it, he
refolved upon fomewhat that fhou'd make hinifelf large amends.
His reputation in the learned world was grown re a great
height by his writings; and, taking his Hand from that ground,
he aimed his views at a bifhopric. He had always teftified
a great regard for the houfe of Medicis, on whofe praifes he
had expatiated in his works: hence there wa3 room to believe,
that he flood well with the pontiff. Upon the ilrength of that
friendly difpoiicion towards him, added to his literary merit,
he applied to Clement VII. and obtained the bifliopric of
Noctra. It is ordinary to fee one promotion ftrve as a Hep
to- another. The fee of Como, the place of our bifhop's
birth, became vacant in 1548; and the flattering thoughts of
(hewing importance among his own people, and in his own
country, had irrefiilible charms. Impatient to be fo happily
feated, he immediately addreffed a petition for it to Paul ill.
but here he met with a rebuff; that pontiff giving him a
peremptory denial. Great croifes are generally obferved to
produce either rage or melancholy, according to the temper
of the fufferers. The latter of thefe did not enter into the
cornpofition of our hiiloriographer: on the other hand, he
was prefently all in a flame; and, to avoid the tormenting
fight of his own defeat in the promotion of his competitor,
he refolved to quit Rome, where he had relided from his
youth: happy, if his friends may be judges, in a golden
mediocrity, to retire to Florence. Here he chiefly employ-
ed himfelf in rimming and printing his hiftory; which had
indeed been the chief bufinefs of his life from his younger
days He formed the plan of it in ^515, and continued
working upon it to his death [o]; which happened in 1552,
at Florence. He was interred in the church of St. Lawrence
in that city, where there was a monument erecled to his
memory, with an infeription [p].

In his literary character, he is allowed to be a map of wit
as well as learning, and mailer of a bright and polifhed ftyle;
but it is agreed on all hands, that he was greatly cenfurable
on account of his morals. He is faid to have been of fo

[o] This is our author's principal It is very entertaining, but muft be

piece: it is a hiftory of his own time read with caution.

throughout the world, beginning with [P] There is the following diflich

1494, and extending to 1544. It was upon it, celebrating him as the glory

firit printed at Florence in 3 vols. fol. of the latin language ;
1352, and again at Strafbuig in 1556.

" Hie jacet, heu ! Jovius Romanae gloria linguse,
" Par cui non Cnfpus, non Patavinus, erau" Moreri.



difTblute a fpirit,, after lie was old and a bifhop, he
delighted to be reckoned among the young men who mads
Jove to the women, He was alfo very creel ulom in aflro-
logic:il predictions, and had great faith in other arts of
divination ufed by the heathens.

There was alfo another PAULUS Jovius, who was firft
a phyiician, and afterwards, in i;8<j, became bifhop of No-
cera. He was a man of letters and a poet, and has often
been confounded with our Jovius.

JOVIUS (BENEDICTUS), brother of the former, obtained
fome dillinclion as a poet and writer of hiftory.

JOUSSE (DAK i EL), a native of Orleans, was born in
1704, and was one of the mod 'diftinguifhed lawyers i'i
France. Me was aifo an upright and amiable man. L~l-
publifhed a number of works on legal fubjets, which vrers
quoted with refpect even in his lifetime. He died in 17*81.

JOUVENCY (JOSEPH), a French jefuit, was born in
1643, profeffedthe belies lettres at Caen firft, then at Paris;
and died in 1719 at Rome, whither his fuperiors had called
him, to continue the hiftory of the fociety. Jouvency had
the confidence to make an apology for the Jefuit Guignard,
\vhofe inflaming writings had put John Chattel upon at-
tempting the life of Henry IV. of France; and who, on
that account, fuffered as well as Chattel. Jouvency regard-
ed the arret of parliament, which condemned his brother Je-
fuit, as an unjufi determination; and he extolled to the very
Ikies this martyr of truth, this cbnft:an h-ro, tins imitator of
tke patience cf "J'efus Cb-ift, for refilling to aik pardon of the
king and jufVice, when he mac 3 e the amende honorable. TLs
judges who condemned him were in his eyes perfecutors;
and he made no fcruple to compare the firi^ prefident Harlay
to Pilate, and the parliament to Jews This continuation
of Jouvency makes the fifth part of the " Hiftory of the
Jefuits, from 1591 to 1616:" i^ was printed at Rome in
jyio, and condemned by two arrets of the parliament of
Paris in 171^. The laft arret fb'ppr^fles the work, and con-
tains a declaration of the French jeluits, touching the fove-
reigntv of the king.

There are alfo of father Jouvency latin e< Orations," in z
vols. lamo, a treadfe " de arte docendi 6c difcendi.' "Ap-
pendix de Diis & Heroibus Poeticisj" and notes, full of
clear nefs and prec'iion, upon Horace, Perfius, Juvenal,
Martial, and Ovid s 4< Metamorpholis." In all the wri tint's
of this jefuit there is great purity, eafe, as well as nchnefs of
expreiiion ; and he was, upon the whole, an excellent writer,
and a very learned man.



JOUVENET (JOHN), a French painter, was the Ton of
Lawrence Jouvenet, another painter, who defcended from
a race of painters originally of Italy. John was born at
Rouen in 1641. The fir/ft elements of his art were taught
him by his father, who afterwards fent him to Paris, to
improve thofe excellent talents which he had for defigning.
In that city he became a very able painter in a Ihort time. Le
Brun, iiril painter to the king of France, being fenfible of
his merit, employed him in the pieces which he did for
Lewis XIV. r.nd prefented him to the academy of painting,
where he was received with applaufe, and gave them for his
chef d'oeuvre a piture of Efther fainting before Ahafuerus,
which the academicians reckon one of their beft pieces.
-After having palled through all the offices of the academy,
he was elected one of the four perpetual reftors, nominated
upon the death of Mignard. His genius was for great works
in large and fpacious places ; as may be feen in the chapel of
Verfaiiles, where he painted a Fentecoit in the church of the
invalids,, in which there are the 12 apoftles in fre r co; in the
priory of St. Martin des Champs at Paris, where he did four
large picces'of the life of our Saviour; and, in fcveral other
churches, works which fhew that he is to be. ranked among
the beft mailers France hath produced. His pieces of the
eafel are not near fo valuable as thofe in the large way, the
vivacity of his genius not fufFeiing him to return to his work
in order to fmiih it; and there are but few of thefe. Indeed,
he painted a great many portraits, fome of which are in
very good eHeem ; though he was inferior in that way to
feveral of his contemporaries, who attached themfeives par-
ticularly to it.

In the latter end of his life, he was ftruck with a palfy on
his right fide ; fo that, after having tried, to no pnrpofe, the
virtue of mineral waters, he defpaired of being able to paint
any longer. However, giving a leclure to one of his ne-
phews, he took the pencil into his left hand; and, trying
to retouch his difciple's piece in fome places, the attempt
fucceeded fo .well, that it encouraged him to make others;
till at length he determined to finilh, with his left hand, a
large cieling, which he had begun in the grand hall of the
parliament at Rouen, and a large piece of the Annunciation,
which we fee in the choir of the church of Paris. Thefe
are his laft works, and they are no ways inferior to -any of
his beft. He died at Paris in 1717, leaving no fons to in-
herit his genius; but, in default of fons, he had a difciple in
his nephew, who, after his death, was received into the
royal academy of painting and fculpture.


J O Y N E R. 35

JOYEUSE (A:;NE DE), duke, peer, and admiral of
France, whofe name frequently occurs in Davila's hifr.ory.
He was refpeftable as a general, and as remarkable in military
fervice for his cruel y as he was mild and beneficent in private
life. He was one of the principal favourites of Henry the
"I bird of Fiance. He was killed in an expedition '..ft the
huguenots in 1587, in return for fome barbarity which he had
committed in a fuccefsful enterprise againft that party

JOYEUSE (FRANCIS DE), a cardinal and brother of the
above, was employed in many confidential and important
iervices by the momrchs Henry III. Henry IV. and
Louis XIII. He was eminently endowed with pruchnce,
fagacity, and the other requifites of a profound politician.
He founded many public edifices, and died dean of the college
of Cardinals at Avignon in 1615.

JOYNEi< (WjLLJAM, alias LYDE}, fecond fon of
William Joyner, aias Lyde [o^l, of Horfpath, near Oxford,
by Anne his wife, daughter and coheir of Edward Leyworth,
M. I), of Oxford, was born in St. Giles's parilh there,
April, 1622, educated partly in Thame, but more in
Coventry free-fchool, elected demy of Magdalen-college,
1626, and afterwards fellow. But, " upon a forefight of the
utter rum of the church of England by the Prefbyterians in
the time of the rebellion " he changed his religion for that

CJ *_J

of Rome, renounced his fellowship, 1644, and, being ta:<en
into the fervice of the earl of Glamorgan, went with him
into Ireland, and continued there till the royal caufe de-
clined in that country. He then accompanied that earl in
his travels. abroad, whereby he much improved hirnfelr. At
length, being recommended to the fervice of the Hon.
Walter Montague, abbot of St. Martin near Pontoife, h-3
continued feveral years in his family as his fteward, erieemed
for his learning, iincere piety, and great fidelity. At his
return he lived veiy retired in London ; till, on the breaking-
out of the popim plot in 1678, he retired to Horipath, where
he continued fome time, till, by John Nicholas, then vice-
chancellor, be was feized for a jefuit, or prieit, and bound to
appear at the quarter-feffions at Oxford. Being found to be
a mere lay papift, and difcharged, he went to Icktord, ail
obfcure village in Buckinghamfhire, near Thame, and there
fpent many years in a moft obfcure but devout retirement. In
1687, he was reilored to bis fellovvfnip by James 11. but
expelled from it after a year's enjoyment, and retired to bis
former recefs, where his apparel, which was formerly gay,

_ In the Gent. Mag. for 1781, Magdalen, Oxford, onEihvard Joyner,

p. 38, is a curious latin epitaph, taken alias Lyde, who was probably the elder

from the psrifli church of SL. Mary brother of William,

D at was

36 J U B A.

was then very ruftical, little better than that of a day-
labourer, and his diet and lodging fuitable In one of his
letters to Wood, April 12, 1692, he told him, that " the
prefent place of his reiidence is a poor thatcht-houfe, where
the roof is of the fame fluff in the chamber where he lodged,
which he aflured me was never guilty of paying chimney-tax.
However, he hoped that all this would not make a perfon
eg!eted and defpicabie who had formerly Hept in the royal
palaces of France, under a roof fretted and.emboffed with
gold ; whereas this is doubly and trebly interweavcd only with
venerable cobwebs, which can plead nothing of rarity betides
the antiquity." This perfcnage has written i, " The
Roman Emprefs, a comedy, Lend. 1670," 4to. 2. "Some
Obfervations on the Life of Cardinal Pole, 1686," 8ve.
3. Various Latin and Englilh poems fcattered infeveral books,
efpecially a large Englifh copy in '* Horti Carolini Rofa altera,
1640." He died at Ickford, Sept. 14, 1706.

JUAN (GEORGE), a Spaniard and knight of Malta. He
was eminently diftinguifhed by his fkill and knowledge in the
mathematics. He was chofen to accompany don Antonio
Llioa, with French academicians, to Peru, to afcertain the
figure of the earth. On his return he publithed, in Spanifh,
altronomical observations on the object of this voyage; to
which were acided an hiilorical narrative and remarks by

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 4 of 48)