William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 40 of 48)
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which was not ftri&ly true; he alio confuted other notions of
Vander Waeyen in the fame piece. This being printed at
Amilerdam in 1699, the two Burmans, one profeMcr of

[N] The title IF, " Kiftoria Tr.qui- and progrefs of perfection, and the

fitionis, coi fuhjungitur Liber Sen- real and pretended caufes of it. In this

tentbmm Inquifitioms Tholofanae ah edition, Mr. Chanuler had theafiiftanoe

Anno 1307 ad 13235 Aniftel. 1691," of fome papers of our author communi-

fol. It was tranflated into -Englifti by cated to him by Anthony Collins, efq.

Mr. Sarn. Chandler, and printed at and the corre<Slions and additions of

London, 173 1, in z vols, 4^0; to Francis a Limborch, a relation cf our

which the tranflator has prefixed a author. S^e Chandler's preface,
large introduction concerning the rife


kiftory and eloquence at Utrecht, and the other minifter at
Vmfterdam, publifhed a book in vindication of their father's



memory, intituled, " Burmannorum Pietas," " The Piety
of the Bnrmans;" to which Limborch made no reply. In
1700, he published, in Low Dutch, at Amfterdam, a book
of piety, containing inftruclions for dying perfons, or means
for preparing him for death ; with a difcourfe upon the death
of John Owens, minifter of the Remonftrants at Gouda. At
the fame time he began a commentary upon the Acts of the
Apoftles, and upon the Epiftles to the Romans and Hebrews,
which came out in 1711.

Having been perfectly temperate through life, he preferred
the vigour of his mind, and health of his body, to a con-
iiderable age. But in the autumn of 1711, he was feized
with the St. Anthony's fire; which, growing more violent
in the winter, carried him off, April the 3Oth, 1712. His
funeral oration was fpoken by John Le Clerc, who gives him
the following character: "Mr Limborch had many friends
among the learned, both at home and abroad, efpecially in
England, where he was much efteeined, particularly by abp.
Tillotfon, to whom his hiftory of the inqumtion was de-
dicated, and Mr. Locke. With the latter of thefe he firft
became acquainted in Holland, and afterwards held a corre-
fpondence by letters, in which, amoeg other things, he has
explained the nature of human liberty, a fubjeft not exactly
underftood by Mr. Locke. He was of an open fmcere
carriage, which was fo well tempered with humanity and
difcretion as to give no offence to any body. In hisinftruc-
tions, when profefTor, he obferved the greateft perfpicuity,
and the jufteft order, to which his memory, which retained
whatever he had written, alrnoft to a word, contributed very
much, and, though a long co uric of teaching had given him
an authority with thole about him, and his advanced age had
added a reverence to him, yet he was never difpleafed with
others for differing from him, but would both cenfure, and
be ceufured, without chagrin. Though he never propofed
the uncierftanding of languages as the end of his ftudies, yet
he had made large advances in them, and read over many
of the ancient and modern writers, and would have excelled
in this part of literature, if he had not preferred that which
was more important. He had all the qualifications i'ui table
to the character of a divine. Above all things, he had a love
for truth, and purfued the fearch of it, by reading the
Scriptures with the beft commentators. As a preacher, his
fermons were methodical and loiid, rather than eloquent,
If he had applied himfelf to the mathematics, he would un-
doubtedly have excelled therein ; but he had no particular


34$ L I N A C R E.

fondnefs for that ftticfy, though he was an abfolute mailer oi
arithmetic. He was fo perfectly acquainted with the hiftory
cf his own country, efpecially for 150 years, that he even
retained the rnoir, minute circumflances, and the very time of
each tranfaclion ; fo that fcarce any one could deceive him in
that particular. In his manner, he was grave without pride
or fullennefs, affable without affectation, pjeafant and fa-
cetious, upon occaiio , without finking into a vulgar lownefs,
or degenerating into malice or ill-nature. By theie qua-
lifications he was agreeable to all who convex led with him ;
and his behaviour towards his neighbours was fuch, that all
who knew him, or had any dealings with him, ever com-
mended it.

L1MN/E.US (JoHN), a celebrated German lawyer, born
at Jena in 1592. He was chofen to fuperintend the education
of many voung men of high rank; and, among the reft, of
Albert Margrave of Brandenburg* He was author of various
works, which difcover profound learning, but not an equal
degree of tafte. He died in 1663.

LI NACRE (Dr. THOMAS), a very learned Englim phy-
fician, was defcended from the Lmacres, of Li nacre-hall, in
Derbyfhire, but born at Canterbury about 1460- He was
educated in the king's fchool there, under the learned Wil-
liam Selling, alias Tilly; and, being fent thence to Oxford,
v;as chofen fellow of All-Souls-college, in 1484. He made
2 great progreis in learning at the univeriity ; but, for farther
improvement, travelled to Italy, with his mailer Selling,

who was fent ambaflador to Rome bv Henrv VII. At Flo-


rence he was much refpecled by Lorenzo de Medici s, one of
the politeft men of his age, and a great patron of letters;
that cuke favoured him with the advantage cf having the fame
preceptors with his own fons. By this lucky opportunity,
DC acquired a perfect knowledge of the Greek tongue, under
Demetrius Chalcondylas, a native of Greece, who had fled
to Italy, with other learned men, upon the taking of Con-
ftantinople by the Turks ; and he improved himlelf under his
.Latin matter Aug. Politian, fo far as to arrive at a greater
corre&nefs of ilyle than even Pclitian himfelf. Having thus
laid in an uncommon flock of clafiical learning, he went to
Rome, and ftudied natural philofophy and pliyfic under
Hermolaus Barbaras. Upon his return home, he applied
himfelf to the practice of this la ft art at Oxford; where he
was created M. D ; and, being made public profefTcr of his
faculty, read medicinal lectures. But he had not been long
at Oxford, before he was commanded to couit by king
Henry, who appointed him preceptor and phyfician to his
fon, prince Arthur ; and he was afterwards made phyfician



L I N A C R E. 349

to that king, as alfo to his fucceflbr, Henry VIII. ar.c! to the
princefs Mary.

After receiving all thefc honours, as attefbitions and re-
wards of fuperior merit in his profeffion, he reiblved to
change it for that of divinity. To this ftudy he applied
himfelfin the hitler part of his life [o] ; and, entering into
the priefthood, obtained tlje relory of Merfharh, O61 1509-,
bur, resigning it within a month, he was inflalied into a
prebend of Wells, and afterwards, in 1518, into another of
York; he was alfo precentor in the latter church, but re-
figned it in half a He had other preferments in the
church, ibme of which he received from archbiJhop War-
ham, as he gratefully acknowledges in a letter to that prelate.
Dr. Knight informs us, that he was a prebendary of Sr,
Stephen's, Weftminfter; and biihop Tanner writes, thai he
was alfo rector of Wigan, in Lancafhire. He died of the
flone, in great pain and torment, Gel. 20, 1524, and was
buried in St. Paul's cathedral ; where a handfome monument
was creeled, 1111557, to his memory, with a Latin infer ip-
tion upon it, by the famous Dr. Cains. Cay gives him the
character of the moil learned man of his age, both in Greek
and Lati i, as well as in the art of phyfic. He farther adds,
that he had an utter deteftation of everv thing trickifh or
dimonouraWe ; that he was a moft faithful friend, and by
all ranks of men valued and beloved. Fuller copies Cay, in
telling us, that Linacre was eftecmed the ornament of his age,
for his accur te Ikill in the Greek and Latin tongues, and
in other fciences as well as his own profefTion ; and that
he left it doubtful whether he was a better Latinifl: or
Grecian, a belter grammarian or phyiician, a better icholar
or man.

Freincl enlarges farther; and fays, that, if we confider him
with regard to his ikili in ihe two learned languages, he was
much the moil accomplifhed fcholar of that age ; that it is
paying no compliment to him to fay, that he was one of the
firil, in conjunction with Colet, Lily, Grocyn, and La timer,
all of whom got their knowledge of the Greek tongue abroa-J,
who revived the learning of the ancients in this ifland [p].
He made it his bufinefs, in fludying phyfic, and he was the

[o] S'r John Cheke, in ce-'furing Pronunc. Gr&cx Linguae." However,

this c'-.uige, ohferves, that he did ;iot hs ftill had his thoughts upon phyfic,

begin this ftudy, till he was br^lc^n as appears from his projeding the

by age nnd infirmities; and trr.r upon college of phyficians, and heiug preii-

leading the 5th, 6th, and 71!;, .'-.-.; :?rs d -nt there till his death,

of St. Mathew, he threw the book [P] Linacre was the firll perfon,

away with violence, and fwnre, that who taught Greek at Oxford. Life of

this was either not the Gofpel, or we Erafmus, p. 109.
were not Chrillians. Cutke, <( De


35 o ' LINACRE.

firft Englishman that ever did fo, to be well acquainted
with the oiiginal works of Ariftotle and Galen. No one
of the faculty had more at heart the honour and advancement
of it than Linacre ; of which his donation of two phyfic
lectures, one in each univerfity [Q^], are a confpicuous
proof. But he had ilill farther views for the advantage of
his profeilion. Observing how the practice of phyfic was
then managed, and that it was moftly engrofTed by illiterate
monks and empirics, who in an infamous manner impofed
upon the public, he faw there was no way of redreffing this
grievance, but by giving encouragement to men of reputation
and learning, and placing the power of licenfing in proper
bands. Upon thefe motives, he projefled the foundation of
the college of phylicians ; and he was the firil president after
its erection, and held that office for the feven years he lived
afterwards. The aflemblies were kept in his houfe, which he
left at his death to that community, and which they ftill
continue to pofTefs. " The wifdom of fuch a plan,*' con-
tinues Freind, " fpeaks for itfelf. Linacre's fcheme, without
doubt, \vas not only to create a good underftanding and
unanimity among his own profeffion, which of itfelf was an
excellent thought, but to make them more ufeful to the
public ; and he imagined, that by feparating them from the
vulgar empirics, and fetting them upon fuch a reputable foot
of difHnction, there would always arife a fpirit of emulation
among men liberally educated, which would animate them
in purfuing their inquiries into the nature of difeafes, and
the methods of cures, for the benefit of mankind ; and per-
haps," concludes the doctor, " no founder ever had the
good fortune to have his deligns fucceed more to his wifh.' 1
We iliall give a lift of his translations and other works

[<i.] That at Oxford was left to of the ftyle, guefs it to have been

Merton- college, and the Cambridge written in a cbflical age." " A

lecture was given to St. John's college Latin Tranflation a of Proclus's Sphere,

there. Wood and Knight inform us, Venet. 1499*" and 1500, without

tha 1 ; Linacre fludied for Come time in the dedication to prince .Arthur;

this laft unirerfity. which has been fmce printed feparately

[R] His tranflntions are, i. The by Maittaire, in " Annal. Typogr."

following pieces of Galen : " De Tem- 3. " The Rudiments of Grammar, for

perameniis & de inequali Tempers, the Ufe of the Princefs Mary." This

&c." " De tuenda Sanitate, &c." was tranilated by Buchanan into Latin,

" De Methodo medciidi, &c." " De and printed with the title of " Rudi-

Naturalibus, &c." " De Pulfuum menta Grammatieis Thomse Llnacri,

Ufu." " De Syraptcmatibus, &c." Paris, apud Rob. Stephan. i53 6 -"

Dr. Fieind declares, th^.t any one, per- 4. " De emendata Strudlura Latini

ufing the preface of the book '* De Sermonis, Libri fex." This, fays

Methodo medendi," without knowing Dr. Knight, has been had in the higheft

it to be a tranflation, would, perhaps, reputation as a claflic.
from the exailnefs and propriety


LINDSAY. . 351

LlNTANT (MICHAEL), a French poet. He was the
friend of Voltaire, and three times obtained the prize of the
French academy. He pub!; died a great number of odes,
epiftles, &c. all of which have merit, but difcover more
tafte than genius. He was confidered as one of the mod
accomplished men of his age, and died in 17495 univerfally

LINDANUS (WILLIAM), a Dutchman, and appointed
by Philip II. of Spain to the bifhopric of Ruremonde. He
publiihed a number of works on theological fubjects, and
was well veifed in the learned languages. He was a pure
writer, an amiable prelate, and a very learned man.

LINDEN BRUCH (FREDERIC), a learned critic of the
feventeenth century, who pubiifhed editions of Virgil, Te-
rence, and other claffic authors. He was a laborious man,
and fome of his performances are fcarce and valuable.

LINDSAY (JOHN), a learned divine, of St. Mary's
Hall at Oxford, officiated for many years as minifter of the
nonjuring fociety in Trinity-chapel, Alderfgate-ilreet, and
is faid to have been their iaft minifter. He was alfo for fome
time a corrector of the prefs to Mr, Bowyer the printer;
finimed a long and ufeful life, June 21, 1768, at the age of
82 ; and was buried in lilington church-yard. Mr. Lindfay
pubiifhed " The Short Hiftory of the Regal Succeffion,"
&c. with " Remarks on WhiHon's Scripture Politics, &c.
1720," 8vo ; which occurs in the Bodleian Catalogue.
His valuable tranflation of Mafon's tt Vindication of the
Church of England, 1726," (reprinted in 1728) [s], has a


[s] In a letter to Dr. Z. Grey, gnje myfelf with the good old

May 27, 1720, Mr. Lindfcy i"av:. : Fanftnw, without getting a curate,

*' You give me great fatisfaclion by cannot te!!. 1 am every day at her

telling me that my poor endeavours are 1 ,u!y (hip's houfe in Lirle Ormond-

favonrably cenfureil by yourfelf and fireet." And ? in a fubfequent letter,

other friends at Cambridge; I fhsll May 14, 1747* " I removed lail

not grow proud on rhat account, becaufe Chriftmas from the Temple, and took.

I know liow much mare is due to vour a fm.>!l houf-; in Pear-tree-trreer, rear

candour tha r i to my own abilities. S~. Luke's, Old lireet, where I fper.d

Your promoting its fa'e will be a gre?.t my time chiefly among books, or in my

obligation to me; for. you know the ga-'Jen. That I am ft ill a dealer ig the

bookfellers will not promote any thing Former, you may perceive by thefe

which is rv>t their own propeitv; arid prop.-fals. You k.-.ow I publifheu chs

thi-. is a very weigliry burthen for my gre.iteft part of Mafon's works fever*!.

we k fho'.il.iers. I heartily thank V':u years r.go; but had not tlien the whole.

for your k ; nd invitation to Houghton; Now, leaving luckiiy rocnred ths laft

w'nich I pleafe myfc'f with tha hopes fermous, which I h-yJ btcn ib long i;i

of an opportunity of accepting; for I quell of, I have primed them on tlie

am now, by the doctor's direclion, to fame paper and letter whb the refi,

ride moderately ami frequently ; in which makes the collection comp'ete.

pvirfuance of wliich, i am looking ouc There are a good mar,y copies of the for-

for a horfe able to carry rny weight merftill on my bands; which I hope, may

afy Ijurrur/s. Whether I can d'fsa- so off now, T;:jf-? v/!;o have the reft



large and elaborate preface, containing " a full and particular*
Series of the Succeilion of our Biihops, through the feveraf
Reigns fmce the Reformation," &c. He dates the fecond
edition from " Islington, 13 Dec. 1727." In 1747, he
published, in the fame fize, " Two Sermons preached at
Court in 1620, by Francis Maforij" which he recommends,
" as well for their own intrinfic value, as to make up a
complete Collection of that learned Author's Works." He
had a nephew, who died curate of Waitham Abbey, Sept. 1 7,


LINDSAY (SiR DAVID KNIGHT). He was born at the

Mount in Fifefhire, 1496, and educated in St. L unard's
college, in the imiverfity of St. Andrew. After the b^tle of
Flodden, 1515, he wenc over to France, and diflinguifhcd
himfelf both by his academical exercifes, and his military
achievements. Soon after the battle of Pavia, where Francis
I. was taken prifoner, he returned to Scotland, and was by
James V. appointed Lyon king at arms, or mafler of the
herald's office, a place which he held till his death. Adorned
with all the learning which the age he lived in could afford,
he was confidered as one of the nioft polite gentlemen in
Scotland, and employed in feveral foreign embalnes. Paf-
fionately devoted to the mules, he wrote feveral fine poems,
forne of which have been pubiifhed, particularly his iatires
on the vices of the clergy. He likewife wrote a hiftory of
Scotland, in three volumes, MS. a copy of which is now in
the advocate's library at Edinburgh. Fie died at the Mount,
the place of his nativity, 15^7, aged 61.

LINDSAY (DAvip). He was born at Pitfcothie, in
Fifefhire, 1527, and educated in St. Leonard's college, in the
univerlity of St. Andrew, where he took his degrees, and
fpent fome years in France and Italy. At what time he
returned to Scotland is not certainly known, but it was before
the year 1559, for then we rind him very active in promoting
the Reformation. In 1565, he efnoufed the caufe of the
nobles of Scotland againtl queen Mary, but did not obtain
any place either of honour or emolument. Seemingly dif-
gufted with the conduct of thofe in power, he retired to his
country -houfe at Pitfcothie, where he wrote the ' { Hiftory of
Scotland, from 1437 to I 54 2 >" a wor ^ much eileemed for
private anecdotes, that general hiftorians have taken no

already, m.iy have thefe fermons by thset. I fliall begin to publifh the firft

themfelves. I prefurve, fir, upon the week in fune. Whatever encourage-

favour of yonr imereft to promote this ment you "procure me ftiall be placed

method of diftribucinc; them. All I to the long account of former obliga-

need to obferve to you is, that they will lions."
no more thai five farthings per

HO tree



notice of, but juftly defpifed on account of the poverty of the
ftyle, and his mofl injurious reflections. He died at Pit-
cothie, 1693, a e ^ 66.

LINGELBACK (JOHN), a German painter, was horn at
Francfort on the Main, 16:15: the name of his matter is not
known. At the age of fifteen, he went to Holland to improve
himfelf; and his pictures there acquired a degree of perfection ,
which even then produced a great demand for them. His
fmall figures were fo true, that thev feemed to be formed by
nature; and they were likewife accompanied with a frefh and
delightful landfcape. Lingelback palled into France, in 164.5.
This voyage increafed the number of his admirers, and ?iu;
price of his works.- The able men lie found there delighted
him, and infpired him with an emulation to make the tour
of Italy*; and, having made a fufficient purfe for it in two
years at Paris, he let out for Rome, where ho renewed his
ftudies with great application. Nothing eicaped his inquiry
in the neighbourhood of that city : the fea-profpects, velTels,
antiquities, fountains, fairs, the mountebanks, and preachers,
that are feen there in public places, were the fubjects of his
beir. pictures.

But whi ill his art feemed to engage his whole attention,
love broke in upon his ftudies. A young woman, daughter
of an architect, was continually at her window, which was
over againft his : tender looks, exprelnve geftures, and billets-
doux, became at length his whole . employment, and thefe
produced rendezvous in churches and on walks. At 1'iiL, the
. clamfel found means to introduce her lover into her father's
houfe ; whence, as he was retiring one ni^ht, he was fur-
prized by two brothers of his rmftrefs, who attacked him
bnikly; but he defended himfelf with fo much bravery that
he wounded them both, and got off with a flight fcratch,
happy to have efcaped fo well! This proved a warning to
him to bid adieu to intriguing, fo general, but lo dangerous,
in that city. He applied himfelf afrem to his ftudies, which,
by his fuccefs, made him amends for the lofs of h ; ,s miftrefs.
He continued in Italy till 1650, and then returned, through
Germany, to Amfterdam -, where the proficiency he had
made in France and Italy focn difpiayed itfelf in an ample
form. His pictures are adorned with ruins of antiquity,
animals, - aggons filled with beautiful figures ; his diftances
are of a clear blue; and his ikies, which are lightly clouded,
have a cheurful air, and give a ilren^th to his fore-grounds ;
nor can any thine; be better underftbod than the praJation of

y o o

his colours. His genius was ib fertile, that he never repeated

the Anne fubiecl in his pictures. He engraved alib ibme

i ir ^


Vol.. IX. A a * The

354 L I N N M U S.

The time of Lingelback's death, his fettled fortune, children,
or difciples, we know not. His merit alfo, though very
great, is little known in France: his works have difcovered
it at Paris, and begin at length to find a place in col-
lections. Thev poffefs a fine tone of colouring, a pleafant
and lively touch, a lightnefs of pencil, and a neatnefs very

LINIERE (FRANCIS), a Fench poet of fome reputation,
but of the very worft kind, for he was a profeiTed atheifh
He was a man of oreat vivacity, wit, and humour, but of
profligate and debauched morals. His verfes were remarkable
for their eafe and elegance, and his fat ires had confiderable
point. He died an unbeliever, as he had lived, at the age
of -6, in 1 704.

LINNAEUS (CHARLES VON), the father of modern
botany, vas the foil of a Swedifh divine, and born May 24,
1707, at Roefhult, in the province of Smaland, in Sweden ;
of which place his father had the cure when this fon was
born, but wasfoon after preferred to the living of Stenbrihulr,
in the fame province, where dying in 174$, at the age of 70,
he was fucceeclcd in his cure by another fon. V\'e are told,
in the commemoration. -fpeech on this celebrated man, delivered
in his Swedifh majefty's prefence, before the Royal Academy
of Sciences at Stockholm, that the anceflors of this family
took their furnames of Linnaeus, Lindclins. and Tifiar.der,
from a large lime-tree, or linden-tree, yet {landing on the
farm where Linnaeus was born ; and that this origin of fur-
names, taken from natural objects, is not very uncommon in

This eminent man, vvhofe talents enabled him to reform
the whole fcience of Natural Hiftory, accumulated, very
early in life, fome ot the higheft honouis that await the

.> * o

moil fuccefsful proficients in medical fcience ; lince we
find, that he was made profeffor of ph\fic and botany, in
the univerfity at Upial, at the age of thirty-four; and,
fix years afterwards, phyfician to his fovereign, the late
king Ado.'phus, v, ho, in the year 1753, honoured him
flill farther, by creating him knight of the order of the
Polar Mar. His honours did not terminate here ; for, in
1757, he was ennobled ; and, in 1776, the prefcnt king of
Sweden accepted the refignation of his office, and rewarded
his declihiii;?; years by doubling his pension, and by a
liberal donation of landed property, fettled on him and his

It feems probable that his father's example fir ft gave
Linnaeus a talte for the fludy of nature ; who, as he has him-
felf informed us, cultivated, as his fait amufement, a garden


L I N N M U S. 355

plentifully flored with plants. Young Linnaeus focn became
acquainted with thefe, as well as the indigenous ones of his
neighbourhood. Yet, from the ftraightnefs of his f - bur's
income, our young naturalift WHS on the point of being
deflined to a mechanical employment; fortunately, however,
this defign was over-ruled. In 1717, lie was iVnt to Ichool
at Wexllo ; where, as his opportunities were enlarged, Ins
progrefs in all his favourite purfuits was proportionally ex-
tended. At this early period he paid attention to other
branches of natural biliary, particularly to the knowledge of
infecls ; in which, as is manitcll from his oration on the
fubject, he muft very early have made a great proficiency,
fince we find that he was not lefs fuccefsful herein than in
that of plants, having given them an arrangement, and

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 40 of 48)