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William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 42 of 48)
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excuiabif, fincc, fr>;ir. !HN ' Variit Leclicnes," the fir ft book
lie pnnt^d, it is plain he conkl h:ive \vritten better.
ho \vever ::s it wa^, it found a tribe of imitators, who admiral
it as a mod-!, and grevv n-.irncrous enotigli to form ;i leit in
the republic of loiters He w- ote I . L un ..-.v.monly

bad hand. His conversation and mien did not anhv^r pco],
expectations o!" him. " He \v. s one wh is wn

his life, fci fo mean in his countt -nance, hi- Jreis, and hi",
converfation, that thole, who had accu es to

>e of gicat men by their outward app. -e, aik-.\I, ; ' .

having icen Lipfius, wheiir.r that wa rea . And k is
Q c-



L I P S I U S.

certain, that fome foreigners, who came from the remote!!
part of Poland to fee him, as fome did formerly from foreign
parts to fee Livy, did often alk for Lipfius, even when they
had him before their eyes."

But the moil remarkable particular relating to Lipfius, and
one of the greatefl faults for which he is ceniured, is his
inconftancy with regard to religion. Thiscenfure is grounded
upon the following particulars : namely, That being born
a Roman Catholic, he profeffed the Lutheran religion, while
he was profeffor at Jena. Afterwards returning to Brabant,
he lived there like a Roman Catholic ; but, having accepted
a profeffor's chair in the university of Leyden, he publiihed
there what was called Calvinifm. At laft, he removed from
Leyden, and went again into the Low Countries, where he
not only lived in the Roman communion, but even became a
bigot, like a very weak woman. This he {hewed by the
books he publifhed ; one of which, written in 1603, was
intituled, " Diva Virgo Hallenfis," &c. another, in 1604,
*' Diva Schemienfis," &c. with an account of their favours
and miracles : in which works he admits the moil trifling
ilories, and the moil uncertain traditions. Some of his
friends endeavoured to difTuade him from writing thus, by
repreienting how greatly it w 7 ould ditninifh the reputation he
had acquired ; but he was deal to their expostulations. The
verfes he wrote, when he dedicated a filver pen to the Holy-
Virgin of Hall, are very remarkable, both on account of
the elogies he bellows on himfelf, and of the exorbitant
worfhip he pays to the Virgin. By his laft will, he left his
gown, lined with fur, to ths image of the fame lady. We
muft not forget to obferve, that Lipfius was luppofed, by
fome, to have compofed iuch works, only to perfuade the
world, that he was not fo cold and indifferent, with regard
to religion, as he found he was fufpeled to be; for, it had
been faid, that all religions, or none, were the fame to him,
and that he made no difference between Lutherarrifm, Cal-
vinifm, and Popery. But there feems no juft ground for
fuppofing this, lince his conduct may be explained very well
without it. It may naturally be refolved into the weak and
unfteady ftate of his mind, unlefs we may fuppofe that every
great Icholar muft needs think and aft like a philosopher and
man of ienfc, which, we preiume, is very far from being the
cafe.

But what appeared yet ftranger in his behaviour, and was

m-ver forgiven him, is, that while lie lived at Leyden, in an

outward proieffion of the Reformed religion, lie yet approved

icly the perfecuting principles which were exerted,

throughout all Europe, againft the profefibrs of it. What

Bayle



L I R O N. 365

Bayle has faid of him, xvith regard to this point, may ferve
for a proper conchrfion of the prefent article: " This man,"
fays he, " having been ruined in his fortune by the wars in
the 'Low Countries, fled to Leyden, where he found an
honourable retreat, and was chofen a pro fe (Tor, making no
fcruple of outwardly abjuring the Popiih religion. During
his (lay there, he published lonie pieces concerning govern-
ment, in which he advanced, among other maxims, that no
flate ought to fuller a plurality of religions, nor iliew any
mercy towards thofe who diilurbed the eflablifhed vvorfhip,
but purfue them with fire and fword, it being better that
one member Ihouid perifh rather than the whole body;
* Clemen tire non hie locus; ure, feca, ut membrorum potius
aliquod quam totum corpus corrumpatur.' This was very
unhandfome in a perfon kindly entertained by a Proteftant
republic, which had newly reformed its religion ; fince it was
loudly approving all the rigours of Philip II, and the duke of
Alva. It was, beiides, an exeeiUve imprudence, an abomi-
nable impiety ; fince, on the one hand, it might be inferred
from his book, that none but the Reformed religion ought
to be tolerated in Holland; and, on the other, that the Pagans
were very right in hanging all the preachers of the Gofpel.
He was attacked on this head by one Theodore Cornhert,
who preffed him fo clofelv, that he put him into the utmofr
perplexity. He was obliged, in his anfwer, to ufe many
ihiits and evafions; declaring, that thefe two words, U. - e
and Scca, were only terms borrowed from chi.rurgery, not
literally to lignify fire and fwo d, but only fome fmart and
effectual remedy. All thefe evafions are to be met with in
his treatife ' De una Religione.' It is indeed the moft
wretched book he ever wrote, excepting the {lories and filly
poems, written in his old age, concerning fome chapels of
the BieiTed Virgin : for, his understanding began about this
time to decay, as formerly Pericles's, fo far as to iuffer himfelif
to be tricked out, neck and arms, with amulets and o-ld
women's charms, and, being perfectly infatuated in favour
of the Jefuits, to whom he gave himfelf up. When he found
the wretched performance we are now fpeaking of likely
to be ceniured in Holland, he fneaked away privately from
Leyden,"

L1RON (JoHtc), a learned benediclJne, and author of
two very curious works. One was called " Bibliotheque
des Auteurs Chartrains;" the other, " Les Amenites de la
Critique." This litter is very intereiting and important,
and contains many valuable obfervations on ancient writers,
facred and profane. He publiihed alto ." Les Singularites
Hiftoriques et Literaires," conliiHng of anecdote-, facts,

names,



366 LISLE.

names, and dates, which hnd efcaped the compilers; a work
of much curiofity as well as learning. He died in 1749.

LISLE (GuiLLAUME DE), a great French geographer,
was born at Paris in 1675. He began at eight or nine y.ears
of age to defign maps, and his progrtfs in this way was even
rapid. In 1699, he firil diftinguifhed himfelf to the public
by giving a map of the world, and other pieces, which pro-
cured him a place in the Academy of Sciences, 1702. He
was afterwards chofen geographer to the king, with a pen-
fion ; and not only fo, but had the honour of teaching the
king himfelf geography, for whofe pnrticular i>fe he drew up
feveral works. De Lille's reputation was fo extended, and
fo well eftablifhed, that fcarcely any hiitory or travels were
poblimed without the embellifhment of his maps. He was
labouring a map of Malta for the abbe Vertot's hiflory,
when he was carried off by an apoplexy, in 1726. The
name of this geographer was no lefs celebrated in foreign
countries than in his own. Many fovereigns attempted to
draw him from France, but in vain. The czar Peter, when,
at Paris upon his travels, went perfonally to fee him, in order
to communicate to him fome remarks upon Mufcovy; and
flill more, fays Fontenelle, Cl to learn from him, better than
he could any where elfe, the fauation and extent of his own
dominions."

LISLE (Sir GEORGE) was the fon of a bookfeller in
London, had his military education in the Netherlands.

J

He iignaiized himfelf upon many occafions in the civil wars,
particularly at the lad battle of Newbury ; where, in the
dulk of the evening, he led his men to the charge in his ihirr,
that his peribn might be the more confpicuous : the king,
who was an eye-witnefs of his bravery, knighted him in the
field of battle. He was one of thofe, who, in 1648, fo
obflinately defended Cclchefter. This brave man was or-
dered to be (hot to death the fame day the parliament-army
entered the town. Being about to be executed, and thinking
that the foldiers who were to di (patch him, flood at too great
a diilance, he defired them to come nearer : one of them
faid, " I warrant we fhall hit you." He replied, \vith a
imile, " Friends, I have been nearer you when you have
miffed me." He was executed Aug. 28, 1648.

LISLE /JOSEPH NICOLAS DE), a great aftronomer, was
born at Paris in i<?S8. He was the friend of Newton and
Halley, both of whom held his learning and abilities in great
efteem. He was a member of all the Academics in Europe.
In 1726, he was invited to P^uilia, where he lemained till
1747, during which period his labouis in the different fciences
of geography and air.ro nomy were prodigious. Among the

numerous



LISTER. 367

numerous productions of his genius, the moil important
were his " Memoirs of the Hillory of Ailronomy." The-
memoirs of the Academy are full of his diflertatioiis, yet he
did. not himfelf publilh much. He died in 1768, at the
age of So. He was a man of unaffecled piety, and the moil
amiable manners ; and it is no mean argument in favour of
Chriilianity, that they, who have inveftigated nature with the
greateft aliiduity and fuccefs, have been thofe more eminently
diflinguifhed by their belief of Revelation, and conformity to
the duties it enjoins.

L1SOLA (FRANCIS DR), eminent by his embafTies, and
his zealous attachment to the court of Vienna, born at Be-
zancon in 1639. He was four years in England for the
emperor Ferdinand III. and was afterwards envoy extraordi-
nary at Madrid at the death of Philip IV. in 1665. He is
the author of a work, intituled, " Bouclier d Etat & de
juttics," on the pretenfions of Lev/is XIV. which very
much difoleafed the court of France. He died before the

i

opening of the treaty at Niinegnen.

LISTER (MARTIN), an Englifh phyfician, and natural
philpfopher, was born in Buckinghamshire [Y] about 1638,
and educated under his great-uncle Sir Martin Lifter, knt.
phylician in ordinary to Charles T. and president of the
college of phyficians. He was afterwards fent to St. John's
college in Cambridge, where he, took his firil degree in arts
in 1658; and was made fellow of his college by a mandate
from Charles II. after his Reiloration in 1660. He proceed-
ed M. A. in 1662; and, applying himfelf clofely to phyfic,
travelled into France in 1668, to improve himfelf farther in.
that faculty. Returning home, he fettled in 1670 at York,
where he followed his profeliion many years with good repute.
At the fame time, he took all opportunities, which his
buiinefs would permit, of profecuting refearches into the
natural hiftory and antiquities of the country; with which
view he travelled into feveral parts of England*, efpecially in
the North.

As this iludy brought him into the acquaintance of Mr.
Lloyd, keeper of the Aihmolean mufeum at Oxford, he
enriched th.it ilorehoufe with feveral altars, coins, and other
antiquities, together with a great number of valuable natural
eurioiities. He al(o lent feveral oblervations and experiments,
in various branches of natural philofophy, to the fame friend ;
who communicating fome of them to tUe Royal Societv, our
author \vas thereupon recommended, and elected a fellow.
In 1684, refolving, by the advice of his friends, to remove

[Y] From the regifter of St. John's ftiira mnn, of which country his great-
coilege \ bat, Woo J f ys he was a York- uncle was a native.

to



368 L I S T E R.

to London, he was created doctor of phyfic, by diploma, at
Oxford ; the chancellor himfelf recommending him, as a
perfon of exemplary loyalty, of high efteem among the moft
eminent of his profeffion, of iingular merit to that univerfity
in particular, by having enriched their mufeum and library
with prefents of valuable books, both printed and mairafcript;
and of general merit to the literary world by feveral learned
books which he publifhed. Soon after this, he was elected
fellow of the college of phyficians.

In 1698, he attended the earl of Portland in his embaffy
from king William to the court of France; and, having
the pleafure to fee a book he had publilhed the preceding
year, under the title of " Synopfis Conchyliorum," placed
in the kinp-'s library, he prefented that monarch with a

O J 1

fecond edition of the treatife, much improved, in 1699, not
Jong after his return from Paris. Of this journey he had
publifhed an account, containing obfervations on the ilate
and curiofities of that metropolis; which, as a trifling piece,
was traveftied by Dr. Win. King, in another, intituled, " A
Journey to London." In 1709, upon the indifpofition of
Dr. Hannes, he was made fecond phyfician in ordinary to-
queen Anne; in which port he continued to his death,
Feb. 1711-12. Beiides the books already mentioned, he
publifhed others: thefe are, i. " Hiitorias Animalium Angliae
tres Traclatus, &c. 1678." 2. ' k John Gaedertius of Infefts,
&c. 1682," 4to. 3. '1 he fame Book in Latin. 4. ** De
Fontibus medicalibus Angliae, Ebor. 1682." There is an
account of moil of thefe tracts in Phil. Tranf. No. 139,
143, 144, and 166. 5. " Exercitatio anatomica, in qua de
Cocbleis agitur, &c. 1694," 8vo. 6. ** Cochlearum &
Limacum Exercitatio anatomica; accedit e Variolis Exerci-
tatio, 169;," 2 vol. 8vo. 7. " Conchyliorum Bivalvium
utriufque Aquas Exercitatio anatom, tertia, &c. 1696," 4to.
8 " Exercitationes mcdicinales, &c. 1697," ^ vo *

LISTED (Sir MATTHEW) was phyfician td-Anne of
Denmark, and one of the phyiicians in ordinary to king
Charles I. He was alfo preiident of the college in London,
and one of the moil eminent of his profeffion in the king-
dom.

LITHGOW (WILLIAM), a Scotchman, born the latter
end of the fifteenth century, whofe fufFerings by imprifon-
ment and torture at Malaga, and whofe travels on foot over
Europe, Alia, and Africa, feem to raife him almofl to the
rank of a martyr and a hero, publilhed an account of his
peregrinations and adventures. Though the author deals
much in the marvellous, the horrid accounts of the flrange
cruelties, cf which, he tells us, he was the fubje&, have,

however,



LITTLETON. 369

however, an air of truth. Soon after his arrival In England,
from Malaga, he was carried to Theobald's on a feather-bed,
that king James might be an eye-witnefs of his martyred
anatomy, by which he means his wretched body, mangled,
and reduced to a fkelcton. The whole court crowded to fee
him; and his majefty ordered him to be taken care of; and he
was twice fent to Bath at his expence. By the king's com-
mand, he applied to Gondamor, the Spaniih ambaflador,
for the recovery of the money and other things of value,
which the governor of Malaga had taken from him, and for
a thoufand pounds for his fupport. He was promifed a full
reparation 'or the damages he had fuftained ; but the perfidious
minirter never performed his promife. When he was upon
the point of leaving England, Lithgow upbraided him with
the breach of his word, in the pre fence-chamber, before
feveial gentlemen of the court. This occasioned their fighting
upon the fpot; and the ambailadbr, as the traveller oddly
exprefled it, had his fithila contrabanded with his lift. The
unfortunate Lithgow, who was generally commended for his
fpiritcd behaviour, was fent to the Marfhalfea, where he
continued a prifoner nine month?. At the conclusion of
the octavo edition of his travels, he informs us, that in his
three voyages his painful feet have traced over, betides pafTages
of leas and rivers, thirty-fix thouland and odd miles, which
drawetb near to twice the circumference of the whole earth.
Here the marvellous iesms to rife to the incredible ; and to
fet him, in point of veracitv, below Coryat, whom it is
neverthelefs certain that he far outwalked. His defcription
of Ireland is whimvical and curious. This, together with
the narrative cf his fufferings, is reprinted in Morgan's
44 Ph;i j iiix Britannicus.' His book is very fcarce.

LITTLE ION' or LYTTLETON (THOMAS), ths
celebrated Engliih judge, was defcended of an ancient family,
?.nJ born about the beginning of the fifteenth century at
Frankley in YVorcefterlhire. Having laid a proper founda-
tion of learning at one of the universities, he removed to the
Inner Temple ; an>', applying himfelf to the law, became
very eminent in that profetfion. The firil notice we have of
his diftmguilhing himfelf therein is from his learned lectures
on the flatute ot Weftminfter, " <Je donis conditionalibus,"
" of conditional gifts." He was afterwards made, by Henry
VI. ileward or judge of the court of the palace, or marfhalfea
of the king's houfehold; and, in 1455, king's ferjeant, in
which capacity he went the Northern circuit as a judge of
the aflize. Upon the revolution of the crown, from the
honfe of Lan after to that of York, in Edward IV, our
jud^e, who was now made IhenfF cf Worcefterlhire, received

VOL, IX. B b a pardon



370 LITTLETON;

a pardon from that prince ; was continued in bis pod of
king's ferjeant, and alfo in that of juftice of affize for the
fame circuit. This pardon paffed in the fecond year of
Edward IV ; and, in the fixth, he was appointed one of the
iudges of the court of Common Pleas. The fame year,
1466, he obtained a writ to the commifTioners of the cufloms
of London, BriftoL and Kingfton upon Hull ; to pay him
a hundred and ten marks annually, for the better fupport of
hi? dignity; a hundred and fix millings and eleven pence
farthine, to furnim him with a furred robe; and fix (hillings
and fixpence more, for another robe, called Linura. In 1473,
he refided near St. Sepulchre's church, London, in a capital
manfion, the property of the abbot of Leicefler, which he
held on leafe at the yearly rent of i6s. In 1475, he was created,
among others, knight of the Bath, to grace the folernnity of
conferring that order upon the king's eldeft fon, then prirue of
Wales, afterwards Edward V. The judge continued in the
favour and efteem of his fovereign and all others, for his
great Ikili in the laws of England, till his death, which
happened Aug. 23, 1481, in a good old age. He was
honourably interred in the cathedral- church of Worcefter,
where a marble tomb, with his ftatue thereon, was erefted
to his memory; his pifture was alfo placed in the church
of Frankley ; and another in that of Hales-Owen, where
his defcendants purchafed a good eftate. He married, and
had three fons, William, Richard, and Thomas. Richard,
being bred to the law, became eminent in that profeffion :
it was for the uie of this fon, that our judge drew up his
celebrated treatife on tenures, or titles, by which all erlates
were anciently held in England ; this was written in the
latter end of his life, and printed probably in 1477. The
judge's third fon, Thomas, was knighted by Henry VII.
for taking Lambert Simnel, the pretended earl of Warwick.
His eideft fon and fucceflbr, Sir William Littleton, after
living many years in great fplendor at Frankley^ died in
1508; and from this branch of the judge the famous lord
Lyttelton of Frankley co. Worcefl. who was created a baron
of Great Britain, Nov. 1756, derived his pedigree.

LITTLETON (ADAM), a learned En^liihman, was
defcended from an ancient family, and born Nov. 8, 1627,
at Hales-Owen in Shropshire, of which place his father was
nnniiler. Being educated under Dr. Bufby at Weflminiler-
fchool, he was chofen thence iludent of Chnft-church,
Oxford, in 1647 ; but ejected by the parliament- vifitors the
next year. However, he became ufher of Weftrninfter-fchool
foon after; and, in 1658, was made fecond mailer, having
for ibme time in the interim taught fchool in other places,

and ?



LITTLETON. 371

and, after the Rcftoration, at Chelfea in Middlefex, of which
church he was admitted rector in 1674. H? was made
prebendary of Weftminfler the fame year; and had likcwife
a trrant from Charles II. to fucceed Dr. Bufby in the mailer-

o

fhip of that fchool, for which he was highly qualified He
had been ibrne years before appointed king's chaplain, and,
in 16/0, accumulated his degrees in divinity, which w:is
conferred upon him without taking any in arts, on account of
his extraordinary merit; in theatteftation whereof lie brought
letters from Henchman, biihop of London, recommending
him to the univerfity as a man eminently learned, of iin^ular
humanity, and fweetnefs of manners, blamelefs and religious
life, and alfo for his exquifite genius and ready faculty in
preaching. He was for fome time fub-dean of Weilminiler ;
and, in 1687, licenfed to the church of St. Botolph Alderf-
gate, which he held about four years, and then resigned it,
poffibly on account of fome decay in his conftitution.

He died June 30, 1694, a^ed 67 years, and was buried
in his church at Chelfea, where there is a handfome. monu-
ment, with an epitaph to his memory. He was an excellent
philologift and grammarian; an indefatigable reftorer of the
Latin tongue, as appears from his Latin " Dictionary; and
an excellent critic in the Greek, a ** Lexicon," in which
language he laboured much in compiling, but was prevented
from finifhing by death. He w^as alfo well fkillcd in the
Oriental languages, and in Rabbinical learning ; in proiecu-
tion of which he exhaufted greac part of his fortune, in
purchaling books and manufcripts from all parts of Europe,
Afia, and Africa, Some time before his death, he made
a fmall elTay towards facilitating the knowledge of the He-
brew, Chaldee, and Arabic tongues ; which, if he had had
time, he would have brought into a narrower compafs. He
was farther verfed in the abftrufe part's of the mat hematics,
and wrote a great many pieces concerning myftical numera-
tion, which came into the hands of his brother-in-law I.
Hofkin. He was extremely charitable, eafy of accefs, com-
municative, affable, facetious in conversation, free from
paffion, of a ftrong conftitution, and a venerable countenarr.j.
Eelides his *' Latin Diet onary^" he publiihed, i. ik Tra -
comcedia Oxonienfis, a Latin Poem on the Pariisi.
Vifitors, 1648," a fingle iheet, 4to. (Jor;bifi;l. 2. Wl Pi:
timericus, &c. 1658," 4to. Greek and Latin. 3. Dial:
in oclo Traftatus diftributa," &c. printed with the ib: ir.cr.
4. " Elementa Religionis, five quatuor* Capita catechetica
totidem Lingnis delcripla, ia Ufum Scholarum, 1658," 8vo.
to which is added, 5. <s Complicatio Radicum in priniJEva
Hebraeorum Lingua.*' 6. 4< Solomon's Gate, or an Entrance

B b 2 into



372 LITTLETON.

into the Church, &c. 1662," 8vo. Perhaps this title was
taken from the North gate of Weftminfter-abbey, fo called.
7. " Sixty-one Sermons, 1680," 8vo. 8. " A Sermon at a
folemn iMeeting of the Natives of the City and County of
Worcefter. in Bow-church, London, 24th of June, 1680,"
4to 9. c * Preface to Cicero's Works, Lond. 1681," 2 vol.
fol. 10. "A Tranflation of l Selden's Jani Anglorum
Facies altera,' with Notes, publifhed under the Name of
Redman Weftcote, 1683," fol. With this were printed
three other tracts of Selden, viz. his " Treatife of the Judi-
cature of Parliaments, &c." " England's Epitomis." "Of
the i.'itpofition of Inteftate's Goods." 11. lt The Life of
Themiftocles, from the Greek," in the firft vol. of Plutarch's
lives, by feveral hands, 1687, 8vo. He alfo publifhed,
" Differtatio epittolaris de Juramento Medicorum qui OPXOS
'innoKPATOYS dicitur, &c.' : as alfo " A Latin Infcription,
in Profe and Verfe, intended for the Monument of the Fire
of London, in Sept. i6o6.' J This is printed at the end of
his Dictionary ; as is likewife an elegant epiftle to Dr. Baldwin
Hamey, M. D.

LITTLETON (EDWARD), LL. D. was educated upon
the royal foundation at Eton-fchool, under the care of that
learned and excellent mailer, Dr, Snape, who never failed,
by proper culture and encouragement, to give a genius like
our author's fair play, and brighten it into all pofiible per-
feclion. His fchool-exercifes were much admired; and,
when hi: turn came, he was trani planted to King's College,
Can bridge,, in 1716, with equal applaufe. A talent for
poetry feidom reils unemployed; it will break out, and (hew
itfelf upon lome occalion or other. Our author had not
been long. at the univerfity, before he diverted a fchool-fellcw ?
whom he had lef at Eton, with a humourous poerr ?
wherein he defcnbes his change of ftudies, and hints at
the progrefs he had made in academical learning. This was
followed by that celebrated one en a fpider. Ancl, as both
thefe poems have furreptitioufly crept into Mifcellanies, in a



Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 42 of 48)