William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 43 of 48)
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very imperfect condition; and, though undoubtedly (as the
author was very young when he wrote them) fome of the
lines might have been improved ; yet, on the contrary, they
have fuffered in the attempt, and names have been introduced
altogether unknown to the author. Dr. Morell gave a genuine
copv of them [z j, as tranfcribed by a gentleman, then at Eton-
fchool, from the author's own writing; with fuch remains
as could be found of a Pailoral Elegy, written about the

[z] Thefe verfes are inferted correftly in an edition of " Dodfley's Poems,"
enriched with notes, 1782.



fame time by Mr. Littleton, on the death of R. Banks,
fcholar of the fame college. Whether, as our author fays,
his academical {Indies checked his poetical flights, and he
rejected thefe trifles for the more folid entertainment of philo-
fophy, is unknown, nothing more of this kind was met with.
Dr. Morell found a poetical cpiitle fent from fchool to
Penyfton Powney, efq; but, as this was written occafion ally,
and fcarcely intelligible to any but thofe who were then
at Eton, he has not printed it. In 1720, M.r. Littleton
was recalled to Eton as an afiiflant in the f:hool-. in which
office he was honoured dnd beloved by all the young gentle-
men that came under hi> direction ; and fo efteemed by the
provoft and fellows, that, on the death of the Rev. Mr.
Malcher, in 1727, they elected him into their focie'v, ?nd
prefented him to the living of Maple Derham in Oxford hire.
He then married Frances, one of the daughters of Ban hun
Goode, efq. an excellent lady. June 9, 1730, he was ap-
pointed chaplain in ordinary to their majefties a 1 1 in the
fame year took the degree of LL. LX at Cambridge. But,
though an admired preacher and an excellent fcholar, he
i'eems to have been as little ambitious ofappearing in print
as the great Mr. Hales, formerly of the fame co'leoe not
having printed anything, that is known of, in his life .me;
and probably, like Hales too, never penned any thing till it
was abfo lately wanted. He died of a fever in 1734, and was
buried in his own parifh-church of Maple Derham, leaving
behind him a widow and three daughters ; for whoie benefit,
under the favour and encouragement of queen Caroline, his
64 Difcourfes" were firft printed.

LI VI A (DRUSILLA), a noble Roman lady, the wife of
Tiberius Claudius Nero, by whom ihe had the emperor
Tiberius and Drufus Germanicus. Auguflus, feeing her acci-
dentally, became enamoured of her perfon, and married her,
though at that time pregnant. She was a woman of eminent
abilities, and of fuch iniinuating addrefs, that Ihe prevailed
on the emperor to adopt her children by Drufus. Her reputa-
tion is far from immaculate; for, Ihe is accufed of accomplifh-
ing the death of all the relations of Auguilus ; and, by lome,
even of accelerating the deceafe of her hufband, that there
might be no bar to the fucceffion of her own fen to the
empire. Her ion, for whom ihe became thus guilty, treated
her with the bafeft ingratitude; nor did his cruelty end with
the life of a mother whom he hated. He allowed no honours
to be paid to her memory, and neglected to obierve the
accuftomed decencies at her funeral.

LIVINEIUS or LIVINEUS (JOHN) was born at Den-
dermonde; but, having been educated at Ghent, whence his

B b 3 family

374 L I V I U S.


family originally came, he took the furiiame of Gandenfls.
His mother was .fillet to the learned Levinus Torrentius,
biiiitjp of Antwerp. He ft udied polite literature at Cologne,
and took afterwards a journey to Rome, whers he v lined the
libraries, efpecially that of the Vat)- n His fkill in the
Grel" congue gained him the frienuip'p of the cardinals
Siriet and Cara r a. He tranflated i>\to Lati me of the
worVs of the Greek fathers, and, if he had lived longer,
ve tranfhted more He died at Antwerp in 1,599*
where he w-^ ch?.nt*r and cnnon

L T .VLNG^TO> JOHN), a ri b id prefbyter of the church
of ^ n-J, ua> bom in 1603. In 1617, he was lent to
the college c,f GLifgow, Vvhere he remained until he pafled
M. A. in 1621. After this, he exercifed the mini%v in
various places, as cccaiion offered, till 1628, when he was,
by the fentence of the General Afiembly, fent to Ancrum
in Teviot-dale, He was twice fufpended by bp. Down, and
was one ofthof? who tender -d the covenant to the kii.g a little
before he landed in Scotland. In 1663, as he would not
fubfcribe or take the oath of allegiance, he was banifhed out of
the kingdom, and retired into Holland, where he preached to
the Scots' congregation at Rotterdam till his death, Aug. 9,
1672. His works are "Letters from Leith, 1663, to his
Pariiliioners at Ancrum." *' Memorable Chara&eriftics of
Divine providence.;" and a "Latin Tranllation of the Old
Teilament," not publif:.-.ed.

LIVIU3 ( ANDRONICUS). a comic Latin poet, who
flourished at Rome 240 years before the Chriftian sera. He
was the firfc who turnro the fatyrical and Feicennine verfes
into the form of a regular play. He was the freed man of
M. Livius Saiinator, and tutor to his children. He appeared
as. an aftor in his own plays, which, even in the time of
Cscero, were become obfolete.

LIVIUS (TiTus), the beft of the Roman hiftorians, as
he is called by Bayle, was born at Patavium, or Padua.
There is a line in Martial,

" Cenfetur Apoaa Livio fuo tellus ;''

on the authority of which, fome moderns have contended,
that Aponus was the birth-place of our author; but it does
not appear that any luch town was then in being, Aponus
being a celebrated fountain in the neighbourhood of Patavium ;
whence Martial, by poetic licence, here ufes " Apona tellus'*
for Patavium itfelf. He was fprung from an illuflrious
family, which had given feveral confuls to Rome ; yet was
himielf the moft illuftrious perfcn of his family. We know


L I V I U S.


but few circumstances of his life, none of the ancients having
left any thing about it; and fo referred has he been with
regard to himfelf, that we fhould be at a lofs to determine
the time when his hiftory was written, if it were not for one
pafTage which accidentally efcaped him. He tells us there,
that '* the temple of Janus had been twice fhut fince the reign
of Numa; once in the confulihip of Manlius, after the firft
Punic war was ended; and again, in his own times, by
Auguftus Ccefar, after the battle of Aftium.' Now, as the
temple of Tanus was thrice ihut by Auguftus, and a fecond
time in the year of Rome 730, Livy niuft needs have been
employed upon his hiftory between that year and the battle
of A6lium. It appears, however, hence, that he fpent
near twenty years upon it, fince he carried it down to beyond

He was then come to Rome, where he long redded ; and
fome have fuppofed, for there is not any proof of it, that he
was known to Auguftus before, by certain philofophical
dialogues, which he had dedicated to him. Seneca fays
nothing of the dedication, but mentions the dialogues, which
he calls hiitoncal and philofopnical ; and alfo forne book?,
written purpoiely on the fubject of philofophy. Be tins as
It will, it is probable that he began his hiftory as foon as he
was fettled at Rome ; and he leems to have Devoted himfelf
fo entirely to the great work he had undercaken as to be
perfectly regardlefs of his own advancement. The tumults
and dift.racr.ions of Rome frequently obliged him to retire to
Naoles, not only that he mis'ht be lefs interrupted in the

^ J t_J A

purfuit of his deftined talk, but alfo enjoy that retirement and
tranquillity which he could not have at Rome, and which
yet he ieerns to have much fought ; for, he was greatly dif-
fatisiied with the manners of his age, and tells us, that " he
fhould reap this reward of his labour, in compoiing the
Roman hiftory, that it would take his attention the
prefent numerous evils, at leait while he was employed upon
the firft and earlieft ages."

He ufed to read parts of this hiftory, while he was cofn-
pofing ic, to Msecenas and Auguftus; and the Jatter conceived
fo high an opinion of him, that he pitched upon him to fuper-
intend the education of his grandibn Claudius, who was
atterwaids emperor. Suetonius relates, that Claudius, at the
exhortation of Livv, compoied feveral volumes of Roman
hifcory : he adds, indeed, that Sulpcius Flavius nfTilled him;
otherwife we might reafonably wonder how foftttpid a creature,
as the emperor Claudius is reprefented to have been, mould
ever have been able to write hiftorv, or nny 'hing die. After
the death of Auguilus, he returned to the place of his birth,

B b 4 where

376 L I V I U S.

\vhere he was received with ail imaginable honour and refpecr. ;
an>' there he died, in the fourth year of the reign of
Tiberius, a^ed above feventy. Some fay, he died on
the fame day with Ovid: it is certain, that he died the fame

Scarcely any man was ever more honoured, alive as well as
dead, than this hiilofian. Pliny the younger relates that a
gentleman travelled from Cnles in the extreme!! parts of
Spain, to fee Livv ; and, though Rome abounded with more
ilupendous and curious fpectacles than any city in the world,
yet he immediately returned ; as if, after having fecn Livy,
nothing farther could be worthy of his notice. A monument
was creeled to this hiftorian in the temple of Juno, where
the monaftery of St. Juftina was afterwards founded. There,
in 1413. was difcoveied the following epitaph upon Livv:
64 OiTa Titi Livii Patavini, omnium Mortaliuni judicio
digni, cujus prope invidlo Calamo invicli Popuh Romas ii
Res geftar confcnberentur :" that is, " The Bones of Titus
Livius of Patavium, a Man worthy to be approved by all
Mankind, by whofe almoft invincible Pen the A6h and
Exploits of the invincible Romans were written." Thefe
bones are faid to be preferved with high reverence to this day,
and are Ihewn by the Paduans as the moft precious remains.
In 1451, Alphonfus, king of Arragon, fent his ambaffador,
Anthony Panormita, to defire of the citizens of Padua the
bone of that arm with which this their famous countryman
had written his hiftory ; and, obtaining it, caufed it to be
conveved to Naples with the greateft ceremony, as a moft
invaluable relic. He is faid to have recovered from an ill
jflate of health, by the pleafure he found in reading this
hiftory ; and therefore, out of gratitude, was induced to pay
extraordinary honours to the memory of the writer. Panor-

^ _

mita alfo, who was a native of Palermo in Sicily, and one of
the ableft men of the I5th century, fold an eilale to purchale
this hiftcrian.

The hiftory of Livy, like other great works of antiquity,
is tranfmhted down to us exceedingly mutilated and im-
perfect. Its books were originally an hundred and forty-two,
of which are extant only thirty-live. The epitomes of it,
from which we learn their number, all remain, except thole
of the i36th and I37th books; and many have been ready
to curie the epitomifers, fuppofmg them to have contributed
not a little to the neglcft fir it, and then to the lofs, of their
originals. Lord Bolingbroke, fpeaking of epitomilers, fays,
that "They do neither honour to themfelves, nor good to
mankind; for iurely the abridger is in a iorm below the
tranflator; and the book, at leait the hiftory, that wants to


L I V I U S. 377

Ibe abridged, does not dcferve to be read. They have done
anciently a great deal of hurt, by fubftituting many a bad
book in the place of a good one; and by giving occafion to
men, who contented themfelves with extracts and abridge-
ments, to neglect, and, through their neglecl, to lofe, the
invaluable originals," Livy's books have been divided into
decades, which fome will have to have been done by Livy
hiinielf, becaufe there is a preface to every decade; while
others fuppofe it to be a modern contrivance, fince nothing
about it can be gathered from the ancients. The firfl aecade,
beginning with the foundation of Rome, is extant, and treats
of the affairs of 460 years. The fecond decade is loft, the
years of which are feventy-five. The third decade is extant,
and contains the fecond Punic war, including eighteen years.
It is reckoned the moil excellent part of the hiftory, as giving
an account of a very long and {harp war, in which the
Romans gained fo many advantages, that no arms could
afterwards withstand them. The fourth decade contains the
Macedonian war againft Philip, and the Aiiatic war againfl
Antiochus, which takes up the fpace of about twenty-three
years. The five firft books of the fifth decade were found, at
Worms, by Simon Grynueus, in 1431, but are very defective;
and the remainder of Livy's hiitory, which reacheth to the
death of Drufus in Germany, in 746, together with the
iecond decade, are fupplied by Freinfhemius.

Never man perhaps was furnifhed with greater advantages
for writing hiftory than Livy. Betides his own great genius,
which was in every refpefl admirably formed for the purpofe t
he was trained, as it were, in a city, at that time the emprefs
of the world.

The encomiums beflowed upon Livy, by both ancients
and moderns, are great and numerous. Qui:i6t.i!ian fpeaks
of him in the higheil terms, and thinks that Herodotus need
not take it ill to have Livy equalled with him. But the great
probity, candour, and impartiality, are what have diflinguifh-
td Livy above all hiftorians, and very defervedly furely; for
neither complaifance to the times, nor his particular con-
nexions with the emperor, could reftrain him from f peak ing
well of rompev, fo well as to make Auguflus call him a
Pompeian. This we learn from Cremutius Cordus, in
Tacitus, who relates alfo, much to . the emperor's honour,
that this gave no interruption to their friend (hip.

But, whatever elogies Livy may have received as an hiflorian,
he has not efcaped cenfure as a writer. In the age wherein
he lived, Afiuius Poliio charged him with Patavinity, which
Patavinity has been varioufly explained by various writers,
but is generally fuppoied to relate to his ilyle. The moft


37 s

L I V I U S.

common opinion is, that this noble Roman, accuftomed to
the delicacy of the language fpoken in the court of Auguilus,
could not bear with certain provincial idioms, which Livy,
us a Paduan, ufed in divers places of his hilrory. Pignorius
is of another mind, and believes that this Patavinity regarded
the orthography of certain words, wherein Livy uied one
letter for another, according to the cuftom of his country,
writing " fibe" and " quafe" for "iibi" and "quaii;" which
he attempts to prove by feveral ancient infcriptions. Chevreau
maintains, that it does net concern the ftyle but the principles
cf the hiftorian : the Paduans, he fays, preferved a long and
conftant inclination for a republic, and were therefore at-
tached to Pompey; while Pollio, being of Caelar's party, was
naturally led to fix upon Livy the fentiments of his country-
men, on account of his fpe?iking well of Pompey. But we
may reafonably wonder, that this point could ever have
furmfhed occanon for fuch difference of opinions, when
Quin&itian, who mud needs be iuppoied to have known the
true import of this Patavinity, has delivered himfelf in fuch
explicit terms upon it. Speaking of the virtues and vices of
ftyle, he remarks, that Vetius had ufed Tufcan, Sabine,
and Praeneftine, words and phrafes in his writings; for which,
fays he, he has been cenfured by Lucilius, as Livy has for
his Patavinity by Pollio. " Taceo de Tufcis, & babinis, &
Praeneilinis quoque : nam ut eorum fermone utentem Veclium
Lucilius inieclatur, queinadmodum Pollio deprehendit in
Livio Patavinitatem ; licet omnia Italica pro Romanis ha-
foeam." Can it be doubted, after this, that the Patavinity of
Livy relates to his language 1 Yet the learned MorhofT has
written a very elaborate treatife to prove it.

Is it worth while to mention here the capricious and
tyrannic humour of the emperor Caligula, who accufed Livy
of being a negligent and wordy writer, and refolved therefore
to remove his works and ftatues out of all libraries, ^iiere
he knew they were curioufly preferved? or the fame humour
in Domitian, another prodigy of nature, who put to death
Metius Pompofianus, becaufe he made a collection of fome
orations of kings and generals out of Livy's hiilory? Pope
Gregory the Great, alfo, would not fuffer Livy in any
Chriftian library, becaufe of the Pagan fuperftition, where-
with he abounded; but the fame reafon held good againft all
ancient authors ; and, indeed, Gregory's zeal was far from
being levelled at Livy in particular, the pontiff having de-
clared war againft all human learning.

Though we kno*v nothing of Livy's family, yet we learn,
from Quindilian, that he had a fon, to whom he addrefTed
fome excellent precepts in rhetoric. An ancient infcription



fpeaks alfo of one of his daughters, named Livh Qunrta ; the
fame, perhaps, that efpoufed the orator Lucius Magius, wh^rn.
Seneca mentions, and obferves, that the appJ. he ufuaiiy
received from the public, m his harangue?, w; re not fo
much on his own account as for the fake of his fatLer-ia-

Our author's hiflory has been often publifhed with and
without the fupplement of Freinfhemius. The beft editions
are, that of Gronovius, " cum Noti? vadcrum & i'uis,
Lugd. Bat. 16:9," 3 vol. 8vo ; that of Le Cierc, at " Am-
iterdam, 1700." 10 vol. i2mo ; and that or Crevier, at
*' Paris, 1735)" 6 vol. 410. Thefe have the Supplements.
Livy's hiftory has been tranflated hito aim oil all languages ;
and Erpenius alfures us, that the Arabians have it entire in
their?. If this be true, it is a point worthy of the moft
diligent refearches ; for, certainly. Livy's hiftory entire would
be a valuable acquisition, in whatever language it might be
found. A lately-difcovered fragment of it was pubiifhed, in
1773, by Dr. Bruns.

LLOYD (WILLIAM), a very learned Englifh biihop,
was originally of Welih extraction, being grandfon of David
-Lloyd, of Henblas, in the iile of Anglefey; but he was born
at Tilehu , in Berklhire, in 1627, of which place his father,
Mr. Ridiard Lloyd, was then vicar, and recl.or likewife of
Sunning, in the fame county. He took care himfelf to
inftrucl: his fon in the rudiments of grammar and claflical
learning, by which means he came to underftand Greek and
Latin, and fomething of Hebrew, at eleven years of age ;
and was entered, in 1638, a ftudent of Oriel-college in Ox-
ford, whence, the following year, he was removed to a
fcholarfhip of Jefus-college. In 1642, he proceeded bachelor
of arts, which, being completed by determination, lie left
the univerfitv, which was then garrifoned for the ufe of the

J tv

king ; butj after the furrender of it to the parliament, he
returned, was chofen fellow of- his college, aad commenced
mailer of arts in 1646. In the year of king Charles's murder,
our author took deacon's orders from Dr. Skjnner," biihop of
Oxford, and afterwards became tutor to the children of Sir
William Backhoufe, of Swallowfieid, in Berkthire. In 1654,
upon the ejection of Dr. Pordage by the Prefbyterian com-
mittee, he was prefented to the reclory of Bradiield, in the
fame county, by Elias Afhmole, efq. patron of that living
in right of his wife. Accordingly, he was examined by the
triers, and pafled with approbation; but defigns b?ing laid
againft him by Mr. Fowler and Mr. Ford, two minifters at
Reading, who endeavoured to bring in Dr. Temple, pre-
tending the advowfon was in Sir Humphrey Forfler, he chofe



to refign his prefentation to Mr. Afhmole, rather than under-
go a conteft with thofe bufy men. In 1656, he was ordained
prieft by Dr. Brownrig, bilhop of Exeter, and the fame year
went to Wadham-colltge, in Oxford, as governor to John
Backhoufe, efq. who was a gentleman- commoner there.;
with him he continued till 1659. Sent. 1660, he was in-
corporated mailer of aits at Cambridge; and, about the
fame time, made a prebendary ot Rippon in Yorkshire. In
1666, he was appointed kind's chaplain; and, in 1667. was
collated to a prebend of Saliibury, having proceeded doctor
of divinity at Oxford in the act preceding. In 1668, he was
presented by the crown to the vicarage of -St. Mary's in
Reading; and, the fame year, \\as inftalled archdeacon of
Merioneth, in the church of Bangor, of which he was made
dean in 1672. This year he obtained alfo a prebend in ihe
church of St. Paul, London. In 1674, he became i evi-
dentiary of Salisbury; and, in 1676, he fucceeded Dr.
Lampiugh, promoted to the fee of Exeter, in the vicarage
of St. Martin's in the Fields, Weftminfterj upon which
occafion he refigned his prebend of St. Paul's.

Our author had ihewn his zeal in feveral tracts againfl
Popery, and, in the fame fpirit, he publilhed, in 1677,
" Confiderations touching the true Way to fuppreis Popery
in this Kingdom, &c." on occafion whereof is inferred an
hiilorical account of the Reformation herein England; but
his defign was mifreprefented, and himielf charged with
favouring the Papiits. The fact was thus: in this piece he
propcfed to tolerate fuch Papiits as denied the Pope's in-
fallibility, and his power to depofe kings, excluding the reft ;
a method which had been put in practice both by queen
Elizabeth and king James, with good fuccefs, in dividing,
and fo by degrees, ruining, the whole party- However, he
was fufpected of complying in it with the court; and the
iuipicion increafed upon his being promoted to the bifhopric
9 of St. Afaph, in 1680; iniomuch, that he thought it ne-
ceiTary to vindicate himielf, as he did effectually, by mewing,
that, at the very lime he made the juft- mentioned p-ropoialj
the Papiits themfelves were in great apprehension of the
thing, as being the moil likeiy to blaft their hopes, and to
preierve the nation from that ruin which they were then
bringing upon it [A],


[A] Coleman at that time wrof to (Vlves; by propnfition? to the

the pope's intermincio thus: "Theie rnent to accord their conjnnc"lon to

is but one thing to be feared (whereof thofe that lequire ir, on conditions

1 have a great apprehenfitfn) that can piejutlicial r o the authority of the pope,

hinder the fuccefs of our defigns ; which ;i^d fo u> perfccute tiK- rett of them

;^, a divifion among the Catholics them- witli mure ap^eurancc of juftice, and


LLOYD. 381

At length the fufpicion entirely vanifhed in James IPs.
rein, upon his being one of the fix prelates, who, with
archbiihop Sancroft, were committed to the Tower, in June
1688, for fubfcribing and prefenting the famous petition to
his majelly againil diftributing and publifhing in all their
churches the royal declaration for liberty of conference.
The ifTue of this affair is the funjec~t of general hillory, and
well known; and, about the end ot the fame year, our
bilhop, having concurred heartily in the Revolution, was
made lord almoner to king William III. In 169?., he was
translated to the fee of Litchfield and Coventry, and thence
to Worcefter in 1699. In this biihopric he fat till the 91 ft
year of his age, when, without loiing the ufe of his under-
ftanding, he departed this life at Hartlebury-caftle, Auguit
30, 1717* He was buried in the church of Fladbury, near
Evefham, of which his ion was rector ; where a monument
is erecled to his memory, with a long infcription, fetting
him forth as an excellent pattern of virtue and learning, of
quick invention, firm memory, exquilite judgement, great
candor, piety, and gravity ; a faithful hiftorian, accurate
cbronologer, and ikilled in the Holy Scriptures to a miracle;
very charitable, and diligent in a careful difcharge of his
epiiccpal office.

Befides the " Confiderations, &c." mentioned above, the
reft are, I. " The late Apobgy in Behalf of Papifls, re-
printed and anfweied, in Behalf of the Royalifts, 1667," 410.
2. " A feaibnable Difcourle, mewing the Necefiity of main-
taining the eftablifhed Religion in Oppofition to Popery, 1673,"
4to ; there was k fifth edition that year. 3. " A reafonable
Defence of the Seasonable Difcourfe, &c. 1674," 4to. Thefe
were anfwered by the earl of Caftlemain. 4. " The Dif-
ference between the Church and the Court of Rome." 5.
The following fermons : " A Sermon before the King,
1665." " At the funeral of Bilhop Wilkins, 1673." " ^ e '
fore the Kine, 1674.." " At the Funeral of Sir Edmundbury
Godfrey, 1678." " At St. Martin's in the Fields, Nov. 5,

1679 ' " Before the Kin?, Nov. 24, ibid." ' Before
King William and Queen Mary, Nov. 5, 1689." *' Before
the King and Que- n, 1690." 6. " A Letter to Dr. William

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 43 of 48)