William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 44 of 48)
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Sherlock, in Vindication of that Part of Jofephus's Hiftory,

ruin the one half of tl em more eafily the houfe of commons. There is a

than the whole body at once. And virulent fatire upon him, on this occa- Howard delivered it as tlieir fmn, in a poem called " Fadtion di fplay-

j':dp;>:ment at Rome. '* Divifion of Ca- ed," fnppofed to be written by the

tholics," fays he, " will be the e^fieit late W. Shippen, efq. many years a

wav for Proteftants to tleftroy them." remarkable member of the houfe of

Collection of letters fet out by orJer of commons.


382 LLOYD.

which gives an Account of Jaddus the High PriefPs fub-
mitting to Alexander the Great, 7691." 7. "A Difcourfe
of God's Ways of difpofing Kingdoms, i6gi." 8. "The
Pretences of the French Invafion examined, &c. 1692."
9. "A DiiTertation upon Daniel's 70 "Weeks-," printed under
his article in the General Dictionary, the fubftance inferted
into the chronology of Sir Ifaac Newton. 10. An Expo-
lition of Daniel's Prophecy of 70 Weeks," left printed im-
perfect, and not publimed. 11. " A Letter upon the fame
Subjecl, printed in the ' Life of Dr. Humphrey Prideaux.'
p. 2,88. edit 1758," 8vo. 12. "A Syftem of Chronology,"
left imperfect, but out of it his chaplain, Benjamin MarfhaJ,
jcompofed his " Chronological Tables," printed at Oxford,
1712, 1713. 13. " A Harmony of the Gofpels," partly
printed in 410, but left imperfect. 14. "A Chronological
Account of the Life of Pythagoras, &c. 1699." I 5- He is
fuppofed to have had a hand in a book published by his fon
at Oxford, 1700, in folio, intituled, " Series Chronologica
Olympiadum Hthmiadum Nemiadum, &c. 73 16. He afiifled
Dr. Wilkins in his " EiTay toward a real Character, &c."
17. He wrote fome " Explications of fome of the Prophecies
in the Revelations." See Whifton's EiTay on that book, and
his life, p 31. fecond edit. vol. i. 18. He added the Chro-
nology, and many of the References and parallel Places,
printed in moil of the Englifh Bibles, particularly in the
editions in 4to. 19. He left a Bible interlined with notes in
ihort hand, which was in the pofTeflion of Mr. Marflial, his
chaplain, who married his relation.

LLOYD (ROBERT), M. A. fon of Dr. Pierfon Lloyd,
fecond m after of Weftminfter-fchool [B], where Robert was
educated, and whence he was admitted of Trinity-college,
Cambridge, and took the degree ofM. A. At the univerfity,
as at Weftminfter, he diftinguifhed himfelf by his poetical
genius and his irregularities. He was for fome time employed
as one of the aimers of Weftminfter-fchool, where he wrote
his celebrated poem called "The Aftor, 1760," which not
only gave proofs of great judgement on his fubjecl:, but had
alfo the merit of fmooth verlificaticn and great ftrength of
poetry. In the beginning of the poetical war, which, for
fome time, raged among the wits of this age, and, to which
the celebrated " Rofciad" founded the firft charge, Mr. Lloyd
was fufpecled to be the author of that poem. But this he

[B] Afterwards chancellor of York, courfe of almoft 50 years fpent in the

and portioniil of Waddefdon, Bucks ; fervice of the public at Weftminfler-

whofe learning, judgement, and mo- fchool. He had a penfion from his

deration, endeared him to all who majefty of 400!. which ceafed with his

partook of his iuftrutions, during 3 life, Jan. 5, 1781.

hone illy

L O B O. 383

honeftly clifowned, by an advertifement in the public papers;
on which occaflon the real author, Mr. Churchill, boldly
ilcpped fonh, and, in the lame public manner, declared him-
felf, and drew on that torrent of " Anti-Rofciads," '- Apo-
logies," " Murphiads," " Churchilliads," " Examiners,"
&c. which, for a long time, kept up the attention, and em-
ployed the geniufes, of the greateft part of the critical world,
After Mr. Lloyd .quitted his place of u flier of Weftminfter-
fchool, he relied entirely on his pen for fubfiftence; but,
being of a thoughtlefs and extravagant difpofition, lie foon
made himfelf liable to debt?, which he was unable to anfwer.
In confequence of this fituation, he was confined in the Fleet-
prifon, \v here he depended for fupport almoft wholly on the
bounty and generofity of his friend Churchill, whofe kindnefs
to him continued imdiininifhed during all his neceffities. On
the death of this liberal benefactor, Mr. Lloyd funk into a
flate of defpondency, which put an end to his exigence
Dec. 15, 1764, in'lefs than a month after he was informed
of the lofs of Churchill. Mr. Wilkes fays, that " Mr. Lloyd
was mild and .affable in private life, of gentle manners, and
very engaging in converfation. He was an excellent fcholar,,
and an eafy natural poet. His peculiar excellence was the
dreffing up of an old thought in a new, neat, and trim,
manner. He was contented to fcamper round the foot of
Parnaffus on his little Welch poney, which feerns never to
have tired. He left the fury of the winged fleed, and the
daring heights of the facred mountain, to the fu' lime genius
of his friend Churchill ' A partial collection of his poetical
works was made by Dr. Kenrick, in two volumes 8vo, 1774;
and a good imitation by him, from u The Spectator," may
be feen in the feveirh volume of the " Select Collection
of Mifcellaneous Poems, 1781," p. 223, He was alfo
the author of " 'I he Capricious Lovers,' 3 a comic opera,
1764, 8vo ; and of four other dramatic works. His imitation
of Theocritus, on the king's going to the houfe, deierves
much praife.

LOBINEAU (Guv ALEXIS was born at Rennes in 1683.
He was diftinguiihed as an hifrorian, upon which fubject he
publifhed many works, among which thofe bell known are,
" A Hiftory of Britanny," " A Hiftory of the Coriqueft of
Spain by the Moors." " A Hiftory 'of Paris,'' and " A
Tranflation of Polybius." He was a very good fcholar, ard
tranilated many of the plays of Ariflophanes ; but thefe were
not publifhed. He died in 1727.

LOBO (JEROME), a jefuit of Lifborij was fent on a miffion
to the Indies, and penetrated into AbyiTmia, of which he
publifhed a very accurate and important account. This was


3&4 LOCKE.

written in Portuguefe, and was tranflared into French by the
abbe le Grand. It is worthy of remark, that Lobo's book
was the firft effay of Dr. Johnfon in literature, and he tran-
flated Le Grand's French verfion into English. Lobo, on
his return from the Indies, was made retor of the college of
Cambria, and died in 1678.

LOBO (RODRIGUEZ FRANCIS), a celebrated Portuguefe
poet. He was born at Leiric, a fmall town of Eftraraadura ;
and wrote, among other poems, a comedy called " Euphro-
fvne," which is a favourite poem among his countrymen.
His "Poems"' were published in folio in 1721.

LOCK ART (ALEXANDER). He was born at Carnwath
near Edinburgh, 1673, and brought up to the ftudy of the
law, in which he made an amazing progrefs He was -a
member of the Scottiih parliament at the time of the Union,
and ftrongly oppoled that meafure. He afterwards became
a parti zan for the exiled family, and was. fent to the court
of St. Germain's, during the latter end of queen Anne's
reign ; but, failing in all his attempts to prevent the Hano-
verian fucceffion, he retired to his country honfe, where he
wrote the <c Memoirs of Scotland," puolimed at London,
1714. He was killed in a duel 1732, aged 57.

LOCKE (JoHN), one of the greateft men that England
ever produced, was defcended from a genteel family in
Somerietfhire, once poifelTed of a handfome eftate, but much
impaired when it came into his hands from his father, who
was bred to the law, and who fol'owed it till the breaking out
of the civil war under Charles 1. when he entered into the
parliament's fervice, and was made a captain. However, his
fon being born lonp; before at Wrington near Briflol in 1632.
he bred him up with great Uriel ncis in his infancy, and then
fent him tctWeftminfter-fchool. Hence he became ftudent
of Chrift-church in Oxford in 1651, where he made a
diftinguifhed figure in polite literature; and, having taken
both his degrees in arts in 1655 and 1658, he entered
on the phync line, went through the nfnal conrfes prepa-
ratory to the practice, and got fome bunncis in the profeffion
at Oxford. But his conftitution not being able to bear
much fatigue of this fort, he ghcily embraced an offer, that
was made to him, of going abroad in quality of lecretary
to Sir William Swan, who was appointed envoy to the
elector of Brandenburg, and fame other German princes, in

This employ continuing only for a year, he returned to
Oxford, and was prolecuting his medical ftudies there, when
an accident brought him acquainted with lord Alhley, after-
wards earl of Shaftefbury, in 1666. His lordi'hip being

ad vi led

LOCKE. 385

advifed to drink the mineral waters at Aclon, for an abfcefs
in his breaft, wrote to Dr. Thomas, a phyfician at Oxford,
to procure a quantity of thofe waters, to be ready at his coming
there. Thomas, being called away by other bufmefs, eafiiy
prevailed with his friend Mr. Locke to undertake the affair ;
who, happening to employ a perfon that; failed him, was
obliged to wait upon his lordfbip on his arrival, to excufe
the difappointrnent. Lord Afhley, as his manner was, re-
ceived him with great civility, and was fatisfied with his
apology; and, being much pleafed with his convcrfation,
detained him to fupper, and engaged him to dinner the next
day, and even to drink the waters, as he had fame deiign of
having more of his company, both this and the next furnmer
of 1667 ; after which, he invited him to his houie, and
followed his advice in opening the abfcefs in his breail, which
faved his life, though it never doled. That cure gave his
lordfliip a great opinion of Locke's {kill in phyfic ; yet, upoa
a farther acquaintance, he regarded this as the lead of his
qualifications. He advifed .him to turn his thoughts another
-way, and would not fuffer him to pratife phyfic out of his
houfe, except among fome of his particular friend-.. He
urged him to apply himieJf to the lludy of political iubjefts,
both eccleiiaftical and civil. This advice proved very agree-
able to Locke's temper; and he quickly made fo cbnii'derable
a progrefs in it, that he was confuiied by his patron upon all
occalions, who likewife introduced him into the acquaintance
of the duke of Buckingham, the earl of Halifax, and Jems
other of the moil eminent perforis at that time. About 1669,
he attended the countefs of Northumberland into France,
with her hulband ; but, the earl dying at Turin, in May
1670, Mr. Locke, who was left in France to attend the
countefs, returned with her ladyfhip to England. On his
return, he lived, as before, at lord Afhley's, then chancellor
of the exchequer who, having, jointly with fome other lore-:,
obtained a grant of Carolina, employed our author to draw up
the fundamental conflhutions of that province. He fbll
retained his {Indent's place in Ciuift-churcb, whither he we:;.:
occasionally to refide, for the fake of books and iludy, as
wel! as the air, that of London not agreeing with his

He had conceived an earlv difgnft again {I the mr ' of

V * *

Ariftotle, and had a particular averfion to the fcholaftic Jif-
putations. In this difpofition he read ]3es Cartcs's ph :iy

with pleafure ; but, upon mature confideration., Luviing it
wanted a proper ground-work in experiments, he refolved to
attempt fonlethmg in that wav. Accordingly, having nc'.v
got fome leifure, he bezan to form the plan of his <; Eda/
VOL. IX. C c oa

336 LOCKE.

on Human Underflanding" in 1671; but was hindered from
making any great progrefs in it by other employment in the
fervice of his patron, who, being created earl of Shaftefbury,,
and made lord-chancellor the following year, appointed him
iecretary of the prefentations. He held this place till No-
vember 1673, when the great feal being taken from lord
Shaftefbury, the fecretary, who was privy to his mofl fecret
affairs, fell into diigrace alfo, and afterwards affiited in
fome pieces the earl procured to be published, to excite the
nation to watch the Roman Catholics, and oppofe their
defigns. However, his lordlhip being itill at the board of
trade, Locke alfo continued in his poft of fecrerary to a com-
miffion from that board, which had been given him in
June this year, and was worth 500!. per annum, and
enjoyed it till Dee. 1674, when the commivTion was

Feb. the 6th this ye?.r, he took his batchelor's degree in
phylic, at Oxford; and, the following fummer, went to
Montpelier, being inclinable to a confumption. This ftep
was taken with the confent and advice of his patron [c], and
he flayed here a confiderable time. His thoughts were now
ehieny employed upon his Effay; and, falling into the
acquaintance of. Mr. Herbert, afterwards earl of Pembroke,
he communicated that c'eiign to him[DJ. In the interim
he did not negledl: his profeffion; he was much efteemed by
the faculty, efpecially by the celebrated Dr. Sydenham,
whofe method of practice he approved and followed [E],
In that fpirit he wrote fome Latin verfes, which were pre-
fixed to the ;< Obfervationes Medics," &c. which Sydenham'
published in 1676; and, in 1677, having left Montpelier,
he wrote to Paris to Dr. Mapletoft, another learned phy-
fician, and ^rofefTor at Grefham-college, intimating, that, in
cafe of a vacancy by that friend's marriage, he fhouB be glad
to fucceed him.

He continued abroad till he was fent for by the earl of
Shaftefbury in 1679, w h en his lordfhip was made prefident
of Sir William Temple's council; but, being again difgraced
and imprifoned in lefs than half a year, he had no oppor-
tunity of ferving his client, who, however, remained firm-
ly attached to him; and, when he fled into Holland, to avoid

[c] He had affifted his lordfhip a obfervations to Dr. Mapletoft, who had

Ettle before, in a piece, intituled, "A turned them into elegant Latin : there

Letter from a Perfon of Quality, to his are fome letters of his to Dr. T. Moly-

Frrend in the Country, Sec." printed neux, to the fame purpofe, wherein he

rn ^675. explains his notion of acid and alkali,

[i>] He dedicated both the Abftradt, and other hypothefes in phyfic, ad-

and the Effay itfelf, to this nobleman, mimbly well. "Familiar Letters,'*

[E] See Sydenham's words in the p-2*4? 2^5; zSf, 286.

a pro-

LOCKE. 387

S. profecution for high treafon, in 1682, he was followed
by our author, who found it necefTary, for his own fafety, to
continue abroad after his patron's death, with whom he was
much fufpecled of being a confederate. This fufpicion was
ftrengthened by his keeping company with feveral malcon-
tents at the Hague, efpecially one Robert Fergufon, who
wrote fome tracts againft the government; fo that, upon a
iuppofition of factious and difloyal behaviour, he was re-
moved from his ftudent's place at Chntl-church in 1684, ^7
a fpecial order from king Charles II, as vifitor of the college.
Locke thought this proceeding very injurious ; and, on his
return to England, after the Revolution, put in his claim to
the ftudentfhip; but, that ibciety rejecting his pretenfions, he
declined the offer of being admitted a fupernumerary fludent.
In the fame fpirit, when he was offered a pardon from James
II. in 1685, by Sir William Penn, the famous quaker, who
had known him at college, he rejected it, alleging, that,
being guilty of no crime, he had no occafion for a pardon.
In May, this year, the Engliin envoy at the Hague demanded
him to be delivered up by the States Genera], on fufpicion
of being concerned in the duke of Monmouth's invafion.
Hereupon he lay concealed near twelve months, during which
he fpent his time in writing books [F], and chiefly his " EfTay
on Human Underftanding." Towards the end of 1686, the
juil-mentioned fufpicion being blown over, he appeared again
in public. In 1687, he formed a weekly aiTembly at Amfler-
dam, with Limborch, Le Clerc, and others, for holding
conferences upon fubjects of learning; and, about the end of
the year, finiihed his great work, the " EfTay, &c." after
upwards of nine years fpent upon it. At the fame time, he
made an abridgement of it:, which was tranflated into French
by Le Clerc, andpubliihed in his " Bihliotheque Univerfelle"
in 1688. This abridgement was apparently fent abroad to
feel the pulfe of the public ; and, being found to pleafe a
great number of perfons, fo much as to raife a general defire
of feeing the work itfelf, our author put that to prefs foon
after [G ] his arrival in England, whither he returned in the
fleet which conveyed the princefs of Orange to her hulband,
Feb. 1689.

As he was efteemed a fufferer for Revolution principles,
he might eailly have obtained a very considerable poft; but

[F] Particularly in making abftracls [G] It did not however come out

of books, to be inferred in Le Clerc's till 1690. This was foon followed bf

" Bibliotheque Univerfelle;" he alfo feveral editions in folio and 8vo. The

infertetl there his new method of a com- beft is generally allowed to be the fixtli

mon- place-book, under the title of inSvo,
" Nouvelle Mithocte de dreffer des

C c a he

3 88


he contented himfelf with that of commiffioner of appeals,
worth 200!. a year, winch was procured for him by lord
Mordaunt, afterwards earl of Monmouth, and next of Peter-
borough. About the fame time, he was offered to go abroad
in a public character ; and it was left to his choice, whether
he would be envoy at the court of the emperor, that of the
elector of Brandenburg, or any other, where he thought the
air moil fuitaMe to him ; but he waved all thele on account
of the infirm fiate of his health, which difpofed him gladly
to accept another offer, that was made by Sir Francis Maiham
and his lady, of an apartment in their country-feat at Gates
in EfTex, about 25 miles from London. This place proved
fo agreeable to him in every reipec~r., that it is no wonder he
fpcnt the greateir. part of the remainder of his life at it. The
air refrored him, ahnoil to a miracle, in a few hours after
his return at any time from the town, quite fpent and unable
to fupport himfelf. Befides this happinefs here, he found in
lady Maiham a friend and companion exactly to his heart's
wifh ; a lady of contemplative and fludious complexion, and
particularly' inured, from her infancy, to deep and refined
{peculations in theology, metaphyfics, and morality. She
was alfo fo much devoted to Mr. Locke, that, to engage his
refidence there, Ihe provided an apartment for him, of which
he was wholly m after ; and took care that he fhould live in
the family with as much eafe as if the whole houfe had been
his own. He had too the additional iatisfaction of feeing


this lady breed up her only Ion exactly upon the plan which
he had laid down for the bell: method of education; and, what
muft needs pleafe him flill more, the fuccefs of it was iuch
as leemed to give a fandHon to his judgement in the choice
of that method. In effect, it is to the advantage of this
lituaiion that he derived fo much ftrength as to continue
exerting thofe talents which the earl of Sbaftefbury hadobferved
to be in him for political fubjech. Hence we find him writing
in defence of the Revolution in cue piece ; and confidering the
great national concern at that time, the ill {late of the iilver
coin, and propoimg remedies for it in others. Hence he was
'made a commiflioner of trade and plantations in 1695, which
engaged him in the immediate bufineis of the flate; and, with
regard to the church, he published a trcatile the fame year,
to promote the fcht-me, which king William had much at
heart, of a comprehend on with the dhTenters. This, how-
ever, d'ew him into one controversy, which was fcarceiy
cr.cied, when he entered into another in defence of his effay,
which held till 1698; foon after which, the afthma, his
constitutional diforder, increafing with his years, began to
,,e him; and he became io infirm, that, in 1700, he


LOCKE. 389

refigned his feat at the board of trade, becaufe he could no
longer bear the air of London, fufficient for a regular at-
tendance upon it.

After this refignation, he continued altogether at Gates,
in which fweet retirement he employed the remaining laft
years of his life entirely in the ftudv of the Holy Scriptures;
and, by that itudy began to entertain a more noble and elevated
idea of the Chriflian religion than he had before; fo that,
if ftrength enough had been left for new works, he would
probably have written fume, in order to have infpired others
with this grand and fublime ide:i in all its extent. The
fummer before his death, lie began to be very fenlible of his
approaching diflblution, but employed no phyfician, refting
folely in his own fkill. He often fpoke of his departure, but
always with great compofure; and, feeing 1 is legs begin to
fwell, he prepared to quit the world. As he was incapable
for a considerable time of going to church, he thought proper
to receive the facrament at home; and, two of his friends
communicating with him, as foon as the office was finithed,
he told the rninifter, " That he was in the fentiments of per-
fect charitv towards ail men, and of a fmcete union with the

j *

church of Chrilt, under whatever name diftinguifhed." Ke
lived fome months after this, \\lii -:h time was fpent in acts
of piety and devotion; and, the day before his death, lady
Malham being alone with him, and fitting by his bed fide,
he exhorted her to regard rim world only as a ftate of pre-
paration fora better; adding, u That he had lived long
enough, and thanked God for having paffed his life fo hap-
pily, but that his life appeared to him mere vanity." He left
alfo a letter to be delivered, after his death, to his friend
Anthony Collins, efq. concluding, " that this life is a fcene
of vanity, which foon palTes away, and affords no folid fatis-
faction, but in the conicioufnefs of doing well, and the hopes
of another."

He expired Cl. 28, 1704, in the 7?d year of his age.
His body was interred in the church of Gates, where there

* *

is a decent monument erected to his memory, with a Latin
infer ipti on wrifen by hhnfelf. Mr. Peter Coite, who had
known him long, and fome few years before he died, lived
with him as an amanuenns, pub!iiheci a paper 1705, intituled,
" The Character of Mr. Locke,''' .reprelendng him in a very
advantageous light, feveral particulars of which he retracted
afterwards. This conduct of Cofte's being highly difapp roved
by Des Maizeaux, he reprinted the character in fome pod-
humous pieces of our author. But the highett elogium
upon him was certainly that of the late queen Caroline, con-
fort to George II. who erected a pavilion, in Richmondtpark,

C c 3 in


in honour of philofophy, where ihe placed oiir author's
with Bacon, Newton, and Clarke, as the four principal
Englilli philofophers.

His works are, i. "Three Letters upon Toleration;"
the firfc, printed at Lc\don in 1689, was m Latin. 2. " A
Regilter of the Changes of the Air obferved at Oxford,"
infcrted in Mr. Boyle's ' General Hillory of the Air, 1692,"
Svo. 3. " New Method for a Common-Place Book, 1686.'*

4. *5 Eifay concerning Human Underftanding, 1690," fol.

5. " Two Treatifes of Civil Government, &c. 1690," 8vo ;
again in 1694, and in 1698. A French tranilation at Anir
iterdam, and then in Geneva, in 1722. 6. " Some Con-
fiderations of the Confequences of lowering the Intereft, and
raifingthe Value, of Money, 1691," Svo. and again in 1695.
7. Some obfervations on a printed paper, intituled, " For
coining iilver Money in England, &c. j: " Farther Obferva-
tions concerning the railing the Value of Money, &c."
g. " Some Thoughts concerning Education, &c. 1693,"
8vo. and again in 1694 and 1698; and again after his death,
with great additions ; and in French, intituled, " De PEdu-
pation des Enfans, Amfter. 1695." 10. " The Reafonable-
nefs of Chriftianity, &c. 1695," Svo. ii. " Vindication of
the Reafonablenefs, xc, 169^,'* Svo. 12. "A fecond Vin-
dication, &c. 1696," Svo. 13. "A Letter to the Biihop
of Worcefter, 1697," SVP, 14. "Reply to the Biihop of
Worcefter, &c. 1697," 410. 15. " Reply, in Anfwer to
the JBifhop's lecond Letter, 1698." 16. Pofthumous Works
of Mr. John Locke, viz. " Of the Conduct of the Under-
ftanding ;" " An Examination of Malebranche's Opinion,
&c.' ; " A Difcourfe of Miracles;" " Part of a fourth
Letter for Toleration^' i6 Memoirs relating to the Life of
Anthon>', firft earl of Shafteibury ;" to which is added, his

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 44 of 48)