William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 5 of 48)
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Ulloa. Both were translated into French, and publifhed in
two volumes, 4to. at Amfterdam. He was eleclecl member
of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, and of that of Berlin.
He alio publifhed i mechanical treatife on the inftrucYion and
management of veife's, which was alfo tranflated into French.
Juan died at Madrid in 1773.

JUBA, PRINCE of Mauritania and Numidia, who, having
taken part with Poinpey againft Julius Ccefar, was defeated and
driven from his dominions, and finally came to a miierable

JUBA, fon of the preceding, was led captive to Rome to
adorn the triumph of Julius CWar. His captivity was, ho.v-
ever, very honourable. He applied himfelf to the cultiva-
tion of his mind, became the favourite of Auguftus, and was
by him married to Cleopatra, the daughter of Antony.
Auguftus alio reinftated him in the dominions of his father,
where he was received with divine honours. He wrote feveral
books, and in particular a hiftory of Rome, in Greek, of
which a few fragments remain. This is often quoted by
ancient writers. Juba wrote alfo the hiftory of Arabia, and
an account of the antiquities of Affyria, with various other
trads on the drama, and a grammar, which now are loft.


I R E N IE U S. 37

IREN^EUS (SAINT), bifhop of Lyons in France, was,
\mdouhtedlv, by birth a Greek, and, not improbably, bora
at or near the city of Smyrna. He was trained in the ftudies
of phtlofophy and human learning : in the doctrines ot
Chriftianity, two difciples of St. John the apoftle. Papias and
Polycarp, were his matters. The latter he is laid to have
accompanied in his journey, about the Fafcai controverfy, to
Rome; where, by his and Anicetus's perfuafion, he was-
prevailed upon to go to France ; great numbers of Greeks
reading in fome parts of that kingdom, efpecialiy about
Marfeilles, and the church there beginning to be difturbed
by feveral pernicious hereiies. In his journey, arriving at
Lyons, he continued feveral years there, in the ft at ion of a
prefbyter, under the care and gover : nent of Pothinus, the
bifhop of that city ; and, by his behaviour, diftinguiihed
bimfelf fo much, that, about 177, he was chofen to draw up
the judgement and* opinion of the churches of Lyons and
\ienne, were lent to thofe in Afia, in order to com-
pofe the differences lately raifed by Montanus and his fol-
lowers. In the fame letter, they took occafion alfo to give an
account of the perfecution, which then raged peculiarly among
them, under Marcus Antoninus.

Upon the martyrdom of \ o:hinus at Lyons, Irenseus fuc-
ceeded to that chair, in a troublefome and tempe'Uious time,
when the church was afTaulted by enemies from without, and
betrayed by heretics from within. Thefe circumftances re-
quired both courage and conduct in the governors, and our
new bithop gave confpicuous proofs of his qualifications in
both refpe&s. He is laid to have held a provincial fynod at
Lyons, where, by the affiftance and fuffrage of 12 other
bifhops, he condemned the herefies of Marcion, Valentmus,
and Baiilides. He had perfonally encountered fome of thefe
ringleaders among the Gnoftics, and leadihe books ot others;
when, at the requeft of many who importuned him, he fet
aboutthe elaborate work '' Againil Hereiies," part of which
is fti'l extant under his name. It was compofed in the time
of Eleutherius ; upon whofe deceafe Victor, fucceeding to the
fee of Rome, headed afrelh the difpute about the time of cele-
brating Hafter, and endeavoured imperioufly to oppole the
Roman cuftom upon the Afiatics. To heal the fchilm,
fynods were called in feveral p'aces ; and, among the reft,
Irenaeus convened one of the churches of France under his
jurifdidtion ; where, having determined the matter, he wrote
a fynodical epiftle to pope Vilor, and told him, that they
agreed with him in the main of the controverfy, but withal
adviied him to take heed how he excommunicated whole
churches, for obferving the cuiiom derived down to them

D 3 from

3 3 I R E T O N.

from their anceftors. He obferved, that there was as littfe
agreement in the manner of the preparatory fail before Eafter,
as in the div itfelf, fome thinking they were to fad but one
day, others two, oiher more, and fome mcafuring the time
by a continued faft of 40 hours; and that this variety was of
long (landing, and had crept into feveral places, while the
governors of the church took lefs care about thefe different
cuvtoms than about maintaining a fincere and mutual love
and peace towards cne another; putting him in mind too of
Anicetus and Polycarp, who, though they could not agree
about their different ufages, did yet mutually embrace, or-,
derly receive the communion together, and peaceably part
from one another. Jrenaeus wrote alfo, to the fame ef-
fect, to feveral other Whops, for allaying this unhappy dif-

The church had, for fome years, enjoyed thofe calm and
quiet days from without, which had been abufed by animofi-?
ties and contentions from within, when the emperor Severus,
hitherto favourable, began a bitter and bloody peifecution
againft the Chriftians, and profecuted them with great feverity
in all parts of the empire. He had once governed the province
pf Lyons himfelf; and, probablv, then taking- peculiar notice
of Irencs?us, and the nourifhing ftate of the church in that
city, might therefore give more particular orders for proceed-
ing againft them in this place. The perfecution, which in.
other pairs picked out fome few to make examples of, was
general here ; and, in this general rage of their enemies,
Jrenceus, having been prepared by feveral torments, loft his
Jife by decollation. It is not eafy to affign the certain date
of his martyrdom, whether it was when the emperor pub-
Jifhed this edict, about A. C. 202 ; or in his expedition to
Britain A. C. 208, when he took Lyons in his way.

Irensus wrote feveral books, which were all loft, except
his five againft herefies ; and the far greateft part of the ori-
ginal Greek is wanting in thefe. They have been many
times publifhed : particularly by f. Erneftus Grahe, at Ox-
ford, 1702, fol. and there is prefixed an account of Iren?3us,
from which this is taken. Tertullian calls him " omnium
doctrimrum curiofiffimus explorator, 1 ' a rnoft curious fearcher
into all kinds of dodlrine.

1RETON (HENRY), a fingnlar character: though na-
turally a lover of juflice, he made no fcruple of facrificing
even that to liberty, of which he was pafiionately fond. He
proceeded upon Cromwell's plan, and gave abundant proof
of his being every way qualified for that extenlive command,
lignalizing his valour and conduct in the field ; and difplayed
Jiis capacity in the government of Ireland, of which he was



made lieutenant. He died at the liege of Limerick, the 26th
of November, 1651, much lamented by the republicans,
who revered him as a foldier, a ftaiefman, and a faint.

1REVISA (JoHN), a Cornifh man, vicar of Berkeley, 'm
Gloucefterlhire. He tranfiated t; The Polvcromcon," at
the direction of his patron Thomas baron of Berkeley, 1387,
10 Rich. II.

RUS, :i celebrated german lawyer in the n 2th century.
After ftudying the law at Conftantinople, he taught it at
Ravenna, where a difpute ariiing between him and his col-
leagues about the word * al/ he fought for the meaning of it
in the roman law; and thence took a liking to it, applied to
the ftudy of it, and at lafl taught it publicly at Boulogne in
1128. He had a great number of difciples, became the
father of the GlolTators, and had the title of ** Lucerna Juris."
Thus he was the reftorer of the roman law, which had been
deftroyed by the invalion of the Barbarians. He had great
credit in Italy with the princcfs Matilda ; and, having engaged
the emperor Lotharius to order, by an edict, that Juftinian's
law Ihould refume its ancient authority at the bar, and that
the code and digeft fhould be read in the fchcols, he was the
lirft who exerciled that profelTion in Italy : his method was to
reconcile the " refponfa jurifprudentum" with the " leges/'
when they feemed to clalh.

It is alfo faid, that he prevailed with Lotharius, vvhofe
chancellor he was, to introduce into the univerfities the
' creation of doctors, and that he drew up the form of that
ceremony ; fo that, from this time, there were promoted to
that degree, Bulgarus, Hugolin, Martin, Pileus, and fome
others, who, after Irnerius, began to interpret "the roman
laws, and that which is called the Glofs. Thefe ceremonies
had their commencement at Boulogne, whence they fpread
into all other univerfities, and paffed from the faculty of law
to that of divinity; and, for inftance, the univerlity of Paris
having adopted them, they were ufed for the firft time, in the
perfon of Peter Lombard, mailer of the fentences, who was
created, in this form, D. D. Irnerius died fome time be-
fore 1150, and was interred at Boulogne.

ISAAC (KARO), a Rabbi, was one of thofe Jews, who
left Spain on an edict of Ferdinand and Ifabella, in 1492,
which obliged the Jews to quit their dominions within four
months, or elfe embrace Chriftianity. Karo went firft to
Portugal; and, travelling thence to Jerufalem, he loft his
children and his books on the road. He lived in great foli-
tude j and, to confole himtelf, compofed a book, intituled,
* f Toledot Jrfkach, The Generations of Ilaac." It is a

D 4 com-r


commentary upon tbe Pentateuch, partly literal and partly
cabbaiiftical, in which he examines the fentiments of other
com ment?. tors. It has gone through ieveial editions: the
firft was printed at Conftantinople, in 1518. theie is ano-
ther of Mantua ; and a third or' Amff,erdam, in 1708. Bux~
torf afcribes' to our rahH a ritual, mLtultd, " Even Haheier,
The Rock of Support."

IS/EUS, a celebrated Greek orator, and native of ChaJcis,
in Syria; the fchclar of i \fias, and pre.c,i> : or of Dernof-
thenes. He taught eloquence, with repu-'tion, at Athens.
There are afcribed to him 64 oration* . but he CMYipoJfd no
more than 50, of which we have oiil.y jo rer.-aining which
were admirably translated by : 'ir William Jonts in 1^79.
He took Lyfjas for his modtl, and has im'raced him <o
well, that they mijjht eaiily be confounded one for the other,
but for the figures which If^us fir 11 m; df frequent ufe of.
Our author \W:S aho the fnft who applied eloquence to -[taie-
affairs, in which he was followed by his icholai Uemodhene'Sf

ISr-LlN (JAMES CHRISTOPHER), in Latin Ifel us, a
German learned in antiquities bo c h eccleliaftical nnd pro-
fane, was horn at Kafil in 1681. He wa^ made prottlfor
of hiftory and eloquence at Marpourg, in 1704, but was
recalled to Baiil, to teach hiftoiy and antiquity in l}o;,
where he was allo promoted to the divinity-chair in 171 i.
He went to Paris in 171- : his defign was to m.^ke a viiit to
Holland, and thence C'cfs the water to England ; bin, being
nominated reclor of the univeriuy of Basil was obliged ro
return into his own country. Sho.tly a't-r, rhe Academy
of Infcriptions and Bellas i cttres at Par s n ade him an
hone rary fc reign member, in the loom of M. Cuper. liifliii
v;as allo lib ari^n at Baf'l, where he drd in Tj .7. He pub-
Ijlhed a great number of books, of which the principal are,
j. 4< De '. allis trahfeuntibus Carmen Heroicum '
2. *' De Hiircricis i atmis mehoris diflritatio.'" 3. Dif-
fertations and orations upon various fubje&s.

ISIDC'RE (S^iNT , furnamed PEIU^IOTA or DA-
CIATF, fr^m his retiring into a lolitude near ihe town which
bears in th t! e!e names, was the raoit celebrated of the difci-
ples of John Ci rvfoftom. He orofefled the monailic life
frcm his youth, and retired fiom .the world; but was far
from being uiclefs to it. 1 his appears by his letters of
which, Suidas fay?, he vvro*e no leis than 3000 : and Nice-
phorus aifutes us, that he compofed feve-al work?, anJ men-
tions particularly ten chiliads of his epiilles. ^ixtus Seneniis
allo adds, that he faw, in the library of St. Mark, at Venice,
a MS, containing 1184 of fuch epiilles, which are not now
extant. In a word, he acquired a great reputation for learn-

I T T I G I U S. 41

g and r>iety, and flouriTied i-i the time of the general coun-
cii held in 4?. f, as appears bv his Imers to M. Cyril of
Alexandria. He died about 4^.0. We have r-m'ui ling 2012
o* his lifers in fve looks: they a<e fbort ; but there are
important thiivs i'i the n about many paffages of Scripture,
as we!! as tl-e..>'opiral c]ue i^ns, and points concerning eccle-
fiafhcai ciilVipline : they are written in good Greek, and in
an ao.reeahle rl< ri 1 v>y!e. The heft edition of Sr. Ifidore's
wo'ks is that of Paris', (618, folio, in greek, and latin.

IsUCRATLS 'he G'eek or nor, was born .it Athens,
in Hie firft year of the 86Ui Olympiad, i. e. 436 years be-
f o e Chnft." He was the fen of Theodore, who, having gat
money by nuking m-.1l.:al inilrumtnts, was a hi.- to give him
the bed eduction. H nee he had Prodicus, Gorgias, and
other Greek orarors, for his m.ifters, whom be fo >n laipalfed
bv his elx]irnc:e and l*arni:v.^. lie firft tried to fp.-ak in
public; but, not <: cceeJmg, he applied himfelfto ta e difci-
p!e. , and Ipeuk. craiions in p'ivate. He conitantly tefiified
the \varrnett a.'.edion for his country, and was fo deeply
afFef'C'' -'t the lofs ot t -e b.i t'e of Clie ons^., that lie refufecl
to eat anv thing for tiie !p ;ce of four davs, and died with
grief at the-a.^e of 98. We have 21 oruf.ons o{ his compofing,
wliich. have Been trarvflated, from the greek in'o la 1 in, by
Wolrius, an! of wnicii a good cdrinn was pubii i.ed by Dr.
Baftie, in 1749, vols. Hvo. liberates particularly excelled
in the harmony of IDS hngua^e, the ju'hi fs of his thoughts,-
and the elegance of his exprellions. 1'here are alfo nine let-
ters a (crimed to him;

I^-RAE v (VlEVASSFH BI-N\ a learned rabbi and phyii-
cian, and chi?f of the jews, who refided in the Low Countries ;
\vas a:i agfii' iti their heiiisir with the protelor, for their fet-
tbu.e it in tn.;l.inJ ; tor \\bich he is laid to have offered
200,000, hut upon condirion that^. St. Paul's cathedral
ihould have been appropriated to their ufe. But this was not
altogether relifhed by the gen ralitv of the people, particularly
the clergy, feveiai of whom, contrary to their inftr u&ions
from Cromwell, exerted the whole force of their arguments
agamft the rabbi, in a let difputat ; on , and backed it with all
the weight of their authority. Heath, in his " Flagellum,"
tells u-, that Oliver t4 gulled the jews of their earneft-money.' 1
Mention is made of leveral of Ben ITrael's works in the
Bodleian Catalogue. See alfo " Wolfius's Bjbliotheca He-
brsea.*' Died 1657.

1 i'TKnlUS ( I HOMAS), a learned proferTor of divinity
at l.eipfjr, was fon of John Ittigius, profeflbr of phyfic in
the fame univerfity, and born tiiere in 1644. He received
the tirft part ot his education at Leipfic ; then went to Rof-



toe, and laftly to Strafburg, to perfect his ftudies, after which
he was admitted a profelfor in philofophy at Leipfic, and pub-
lifhecl a treatife upon burning mountains. He then became a
miniilcr, and exercifed that function in divers churches in the
fame place. In 1680, he was made arch-deacon, and licen-
tiate in divinity ; and, in 1691, profefTor extraordinary in the
fame faculty, and ordinary profeilor the enfuing year. He
furnifbed feveral papers published in the Leipfic Acts : befides
which we have of his, " DifFertatio de hserefiarchis aevi
apoftolici ejus proximi ;" " Appendix de haerefiarchis ;"
*' Prolegomena ad Jofephi opera ;" Bibliotheci patrum apofto-
licorum Grseco-Latina ;" *' Hiftoria fynodorum national iu HI
in GalJia a reformat is habitarum i" 4< Liber de bibiiothecis
&: catenis patrum ;" " Exhortationes theologies ;" " Hiflorise
ecclefiafuciE primi &: fecund i feculi felecta capita." Some
part of this laft did not appear till after the death of the author,
which happened in April 1710, at the ag;e of 66.

JUDA HAKKADOSH, or the SAIST, a rabbi cele-
brated for his learning and riches ; who, according to the
jewilh hiftorians, lived in the time of the emperor Antoninus,
and was the friend and preceptor of that prince. Leo of
jVIodena, a rabbi of Venice, tells us, that rabbi juda, who
xvas very rich, collected, about 26 years after the definition
of the temple, in a book which he called the " Mifna," the
conftitutions and traditions of the jewifh magiilrates and
doctors who preceded him, and divided his work into fix parts :
the mil treating of the agriculture of feeds ; the fecond of

o o

feftivals ; the third of marriages, and every thing relating
to women ; the fourth of damages, interests, and all kinds of
civil affairs ; the fifth of facrifices ; and the iixtli of legal
clean nefs and un cleanness : but as this book was fhort, and
hardly intelligible, and gave occanon to feveral difputes, tvvo
rabbis, Rabbena and Ale, who lived at Babylon, collected
all the interpretations, clilputcs, and additions, that had been
made till their time upon the " IMiiha," and formed the
book which is called the " Babvlonifh Talmud or Gemara,"
divided info 60 parts, called MafTachot or Treaties. JJ it is
preferred to the Jerufalem " 'I'almud," compofcd fome years
before by rabbi Jochanan of Jerufalem, which is ihort, and
in a rude ft vie.

The " Mifna" is the text of the " Talmud," of which
we have a good edition in hebrevv and latin, by Surenhufius,
\vith notes, in 3 vpls. folio. It is to be wilhed that the fame
was done to the " Gemara."

JUDA-CH1NG, a celebrated rabbi and native of Fern,
\vas entitled the chief of the jewilh grammarians. He


J U D E X. 43

flourifhed in the nth century. He left behind him many
works in arable, and among others an arable dictionary.

TUDKX (MATTHEW), one of the principal centuriators
of "Magdeburg, was born 1528, at Tippolfvvald, in Mifnia.
His inclination to literature being ftrong, he was fent by his
father to (rudv at Drefden : but he did not continue long
there ; for, the college of Wittenberg being more to his
mind, he removed thither, and afterwards was driven, by ne-
ceifity, to Magdeburg. Here he fupportcd himfelf by being
tutor in the family of a lawyer, who fent him with his foil
to Wittenberg, in 1546- This gave him an opportunity of
completing his own (Indies ; fo that he obtained the degree
of M. A. in this univerfity, 1548- He then returned to
Magdeburg, and taught the fecond form there for fome
years. In 1554? he was chofen minifter of St. Ulric's
church in the fame city. He was now 26 years of age ; and,
falling in love with a young maiden of 16, he married her,
though me had no fortune. He told his friends, who feemed
concerned at the match, that from his youth he had always
prayed to God to give him for his wife a young girl of a
good family, honeftly educated, adorned with virtue and
piety, on account of her tender age unacquainted with wicked-
iiefs, and tractable ; rather than a woman proud of her
family, nicely and delicately bred, and haughty on account of
her fortune ; and, lince he had his wifh, he fubrnitted and
trufted to Providence. He lived above 10 years with his wife
in an agreeable and religious manner, and had fix children by

Mean while, he quitted his church at Magdeburg, being
promoted to the divinity profefior's chair at Jena in 1559 ;
but did not keep porTeflion of it above 18 months, being de-
prived by order of John Frederic duke of Saxony. How-
ever, he flayed fix months longer at Jena, and thence return-
ing to Magdeburg was obliged, in fix months more, to retire
to Wifmar. He fufFered many perfecutions and vexations
during this interval. He was alfo feverely abufed in the
libels which were made at Wittenberg againft the Centuriator.
In fhort, his life, after he was grown up, was a feries of
vexations and perfecutions : and that, perhaps, may account
for the ihortneis of it ; for he died in 1564, aged not quite
36. He was a man of good morals, laborious, zealous,
learned, and wrote a great many books. He underflood
mufic very well, and had fome knowledge of mathematics.
He could write verfes both in latin and greek, and had de~
iigned to write an' eccleliaflical hifcory of his own time. All
the world knows what lhare he had in the two firft Centuries


I V E S.

of Magdeburg, and that it was a very heavy tafk. He left
live children with his wife.

1VES, or YVES, in latin Ivo, the celebrated bifhop of
Chartres, was bom, in the territory of Beauvais, 103$. He
was rail fed to the fee of Chartres in 1092 or 1093. under the
pontificate of Urban XI. who had depofed Geo.froy, our
author's predeceffor in the fee, for divers crimes whereof he
was accufed. Ives particularly fignalized his zeal againit
Philip 1. who had put away his wife Bertha of Holland, and
taken Bertrade of Montford, the wife of Fouques de Requin,
count of Aiijou. This divorce was contrary to the ecclefi-
aftical law ; and the affair would have been attended with bad
confequences, had not the prince been prudently managed by
fome about him. After this, the bifhop employed himfelf
wholly in the functions of his miniftry, made leveral religious
foundations, and died 1115, at the age of 80. His corpfe
was interred in the church of St. John in the Vale, which he
had founded. Pope Pius V. by a bull, dated Dec. 18, 1570,
permitted the monks of the congregation of Late ran to cele-
brate the fe nival of St. Ives. We have, of his compiling,
" A Collection of Decrees ;" " Exceptiones ecclefiafticarum
regularum ;" befides " 22 Sermons," and a " Chronicon ;"
all very important pieces, which were put together, in 1647,
by John Baptitl Souciet, a canon of Chartres, in one vol.
folio, divided into parts. The " Decrees" were printed in
1561, and there has been another edition fince.

A collection of canons called the " Pannomia," or <( Pa-
normia," and forne other pieces printed in the *' Bibliotheca
patrum," arealfo afcribed to our bilhop; whole body, which
the worms had fpared, is laid to have been dug up and abufed
by the Proteflants, during the rage of the civil wars in

IVES (JoHN), was the only fon of one of the moft emi-
nent merchants at Yarmouth. He was entered ot Caius-
college, Cambridge, where he did not long relide ; but, re-
turning to Yarmouth, became acquainted with that celebrated
antiquary Thomas Martin of Palgrave, and caught from him
that tafte for antiquities which he purfued during the fhort
period of his life. He was defied F. S. A. 1771, and F. R. S.
5772; and, by favour of the earl of Suffolk, in him the
honour of Suffolk Herald Extraordinary was revived ; an
office attended with no profit, but valuable to him by the
accefs it gave to the MSS. muniments, &c. of the Heralds
college, of which he thereby became an honorary member.
His Srfl attempt at antiquarian publication was by propofals
(without his name), in 177!} for printing an account of


I V E S. 45

Lothingland hundred in Suffolk ; for which he had engraved
feveral imall plates of arms and monuments in the churches of
Frifton, Gorlefton, Loud, LoweftofTe, and Somerliton, from
his own drawings. His next effay was the fhort preface to
Mr. Swinden's " Hiftory and Antiquities of Great Yarmouth
in the County of Norfolk, 1772," 4to. Mr. Swinden, who
was a fchoolmailer in Great Yarmouth, was a mod intimate
friend of Mr. Ives, who not oiv'.y afftfred him with his purfe,
and warmly patronized him, while living, but fnperintended
the book for the emolument of the author's widow, and de-
livered it to the fubfcribers [R], In 1772, he caufed to be
cut nine wooden plates of old Norfolk feals, intituled,
'* Sigilla antiqua Norfolcienfia. ImprefTit Johannes Ives,
S. A. S." and a copper-plate portrait of Mr. Martin holding
an urn. Aug. 16, 1773, by a fpecial licence from the Abp.
of Canterbury, he was married, at Lambeth church, to Mils
K ett(of an ancient family in Norfolk).

In imitation of Mr. Walpble (to whom the firft number
was inicribed), Mr. Ives began in 1773 to publifh "Select
Papers [s"|," from his own collection ; of which the fecond
number was printed in 1774, and a third in 1775. In
1774, he publifhed, in 121110, " Remarks upon the Gari-
anonum of the Romans ; the Scite and Remains fixed and
defcribed ;" with the ichnography of Garianonum, two
plates, by B. T. Pouncey ; iouih view of it, Roman anti-
quities found there, map of the river Yare, from the original
in the corporation cheil at Yarmouth, and an infcription on

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 5 of 48)