William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 6 of 48)
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the mantletree of a farm-houfe. He died of a deep confump-
tion, when he had juft entered his 25th year, June 9, 1776.
Coniidered as an antiquary, much merit is due to Mr. Ives,
whofe valuable collection was iormed in lefs than five years*
His library was fold by auction, March 3 6, 1777, including;
fome curious MSS. (chiefly relating to Suffolk and Norfolk)
belonging; to Peter Le Neve, T. Martin, and Francis Blome-


field. His coins, medals, ancient paintings, and antiquities,
were fold Feb. 13 and 14, 1777. Two portraits of him have
been engraven.

[R] " The author," fays Mr. Ives, [s] Among thefe are, " Remarks
c< clofed his life and his work together, upon our Engliih Coins, fiom the Nor-
The laft fheet was in the prefs at the man Invafion down to the End of the
time of his deceafe. To me he com- Reign of Queen Elzabeth," by Archbp.
mitted the publication of it. A fhort, Sharp; Sir W. Dngda'e's " Directions
but uninterrupted, friendthip lubfif?ed for the Search of Records, and making
between us. His affidu ty, induftry, ufe of them, in order to an Hiftorical
and application, will appear in the Difcous fe of the Antiquities of SciirTord-
courfe of the work." Mr. Swinden was (hire;" with " Annuls of Gonvile and
buried in the church of St. Nicholas at Cains-College, CambriJge ;'' the " Co-
Yarmouth, in the northaifle, where a ronation of Henry VII. and of Queen
handfome mural monument is creeled to Elizabeth," &c. i;c,
Ijis memory.



JUGLARIS (Atovsius), an Italian jefuit, and a celebrated
writer of panegyrics ; was born at Nice, and admitted into
the fociety in 1622. He taught rhetoric for the fpace often
years. Being afterwards called to the court of Savoy, to be
entrufted with the education of prince Charles Emanuel, he
began to publifh his firil v/orks at Turin. He died at Mef-
fina, Nov. 15, 2653. All his works were printed together
at Lucca, in 1710. This collection contains, i. A hundred
Panegyrics upon Jefus Chrift ; printed the fir ft time at Genoa
in s64f. 2. Forty Panegyrics written in Honour of Lewis
XIII. printed at Lyons in 1644. 3- Many Infcriptions,
Epitaphs, and Encomiums, upon feveral Subjects ; printed
like wife at Lyons in the fame year. 4. Panegyrics upon the
greateft Bifhops that have been in the Church; printed alfo
at Lyons in the fame year, and reprinted at Genoa in 1653,
with this title, " Pars Secunda Elogiorum humana com-

JUGURTHA, a brave and active Numidian prince, who
fuftained a war five years againft the power of Rome. He
was finally betrayed by his father-in' law Bocchus, and de-
livered into the hands of Sylla. He was expofed to the view
of the roman people, and dragged in chains to adorn the
triumph of Marius. He was thrown into a dungeon, and
died of hunger.

JULIA, a virgin, and martyr of Carthage, At the fack
of Carthage by Genferic, king of the Vandals, Julia was fold
to a pagan, and carried into Syria. Some time afterwards,
on her refufai to join in fome heathen facrifice, fhe was dif-
covered to be a chriftian, and put to death.

JULIA, the daughter of Caefar and Cornelia, and one of
the liveh'efr. and mod virtuous of the roman ladies. Shs
was firft married to Cornelius Csepion, but divorced from
him to become the wife of Pompey. Porapey was very fond
of her, and, on her account, neglecled the affairs of politics
and arms; but fhe died in childbed about cj years before

JULIA> the only daughter of Auguflus, and defervedly
his favourite, on account of her beauty, grace, and accomp ifh-
ments. She became the wife of Marcellus. She yielded,
however, to the allurements of that licentious period, and
became a debauched and profligate character. When a
widow, flie married Agrippa, and afterwards, at the command
of Auguftus, fhe became the wife of Tiberius, who, not
choofing to beafpeclator of her incontinence, withdrew from
Rome. Her father at length fent her into banifhment ; and
her hufband Tiberius fuffered her, on his coming to the
throne, to perifh with hunger. She had a daughter of the



fame name, and the wife of Lepidus, whofe morals were not
more correct than thole of her mother.

JULIA, the daughter of the emperor Titus, and the wife
of her coufm Sabinns. She is reprefented as having been
perfectly beautiful, but of a voluptuous temper. Her brother
Domitian became enamoured of her, and (he returned his
paffion. On his fucceedingto the empire, he caufed Sabinus
to be avTafFinated, that he might enjoy his fitter without re-
flraint; at the fame time he repudiated his wife Domitia.
She died in confequence of fomething that fhe had taken to
procure abortion, and was placed by the infatuated Domitian
among the gods.

JULIA (DOMNA), wife of the emperor Septimus Severus,
was born at Emefa in Syria, She had all the attractions, as
Gilba obferves, of beauty, united to a lively imagination, firm-
nefs of mind, and ftrength of judgement, feldoin beftowed on
her fex. She made no impreilion on the gloomy temper of
her hufband ; but in the reign of her fon fhe adminiftered
public affairs with equal prudence and moderation. She had
a philosophical turn of mind, and patronized art, genius, and
learning. Her character for chaftity has been fufpected, buc
her other virtues have been highly celebrated. On the ufur-
pation of Macrinus, the widow of Severus put herfelf to

JULIAN, the Roman emperor, commonly ftyled the
Apoilate, was the younger fon of Conftantius, brother of
Conftantine the Great. He was the firit fruit of a fecond
marriage of his father with the lady Baiilma, after the birth
of Gallus, whom he had by Galla his firft conibrt. He was
born Nov. 6, 331, at Conftantinople; and, according to,
the medals of him, named Flavius Claudius Julianus. Duiing
the life of Conftantine, he was kept at the court in that
city, and there received the firit rudiments of his education ;
but, upon the death of this emperor, all his relations being
fufpe&ed of criminal actions, Julian's father was obliged to
feek hisfafety by flight; and his fon Julian's efcape was en-
tirely owing to Marc, bilhop of Arethufa, without whofe
care he had inevitably perilhed in the perfection of his fa-
mily. As foon as the ftorm was over, and Conftantius, the
fon of Conftantine, quietly feated on the imperial throne, he
fent young Julian to Eufebius, bifhop of Nicomedia, who
was related to him by his mother's fide, and who took care
to breed him up in the chriftian faith; but at the fame time
put him into the hands of an eunuch called Mardonius, to
teach him grammar. This eunuch was a pagan; and he
had one Eulolius, a very untteady chriftian, for his matter
in rhetoric* Julian made a very quick progrefs in learning;



and, feeing fent at length to Athens to complete his edu-
cation, he becarre theVlarling of that capital nut fery of polite
literatvue, and particularly commenced an acquaintance with
St. B'afil and Gregory of Naz'anzen. This laft, however,
obferved fometh'iig in him which rendered his fincerity in the
chrittian faith fufpecled: anc! it is certain, that, ndtwithftand-
ina all the care of his preceptor Eufe-bius, this youns prince
was en ireiy pcrve^red by VJaximus, an Ephefian philoiopher
and maoic ; an. Hi? coufin Conftantius the emneror was
advertifed of his conduct; and Julian, to prevent rh? effects,
and fave his life, profefTed himfelf a monk and took the
habit, but, under this figure in public, he fecretlv embraced
paganifm. Some time before, his brother Gallus arid he
had taken orders, and execu?ed the office of reader in the
church ; but the religious fentiments of the two brothers were
widely different.

As foon as Julian had attained the age of manhood, ac-
cording to the Roman law, Conftantius, at the felicitation
of his confort, the emprefs Euiebia, railed him to the dignity
cf Csefar: this was clone on his birth day, Nov. 6, 355;
and at the fame time the emperor gave him his fitter Helena
in marriage, and made him general of the army in Gaul.
Julian tilled his command \\ith furprizing abilities, and
Slewed himfelf every way equal to the truft ; which was the
more extraordinary, as, being bred to the church, he had
never any inilructions in the military art. The principal
officers under him, from whom he was to expect afli fiance,
were very backward in performing this fervice; ( retrained
apparently by the danger of feeming too much attached to
him, and thereby incurring the emperor's difplcafuie, whofe
jealoufy on this head was no fecret. Under all thefe di fad-
vantages, our young warrior performed wonders: he was not
afraid to undertake the cnterpnze of driving the barbarians
out of Gaul; and he completed the clcfig ri in a very little
time, having obtained one of the mcft fignal victories of that
age, near StraCbourg. In this battle he engaged no lefs than
feven german kings, one of whom was the famous Chrodo-
rnairus ; who hnd always bea r en the Romans till this time,
but was now Julian's prifoner. 'I he defeat of the Salii and
Chamavi, French people, fol'owed at the heels cf this victory;
and the Germans, bems, beaten again, were conftramed to beg
a peace. Our hero was crowned with thele glorious laurels,
when Conftantius, who was hard prefTed bv the Periians, lent
for a detachment of troops fiom the army in Gaul ro augment
his forces. This order was ill relilhed by the Gauls, who
flomached much the going to fight out of their own country,
Julian took advantage of this ill humour, and got him'eif



declared emperor by the armv ; but, not being able to prevail
with Conftantius to recognize him as Inch he went with
thefe troops to Illyria. v here he continued till the death of
Conftantius which happened Nov. 2, 361.

Julian no fooner faw himfelf mafter of the worlj, than he
threw off all the diiguife of his religion, exprefcly pro'rfTcd
himfelf a pa^an, ordere'd their temples to be let op'.n and
re-efiab iihed their worfh ; p : he alfo aiTumed the character
and Nation of the fovereign pontiff, and was inverted therein
with the wh"le pagan ceremonial, refolving to effpc;- the m rk.
of his baptifm by the blood of the heathen facrifices. In
Ihort, He refolved to effect the utter ruin of chriftianity: and,
having obferved how all violent meafures had anfwered the
purpofe of his predeceiTbrs, infomuch that, on the contrary,
the blood of the martvrs had proved the feed of the chriftian.
church, he went to work the con-rary way; and employed
fuch.arms againft it as inuft probably have ended in its de-
ftruclion had it been a mere human invention, as he re-
prefented it. We find in this emperor all rhs great qualities
which a projeftor could conceive, or an adversary would re-
quire, to fecure fuccefs. He was eloquent and liberal, artful,
infmuating, and indefatigable; which, joined to a fevere
temperance, a love of juftice, and a courage fuperior to all
trials, firft gained him the affedions, a^id foon after the
peaceable poflefTion, of the whole empire. He was bred up in.
the chriftian religion from hi? infancy, ard wa obliged to pro-
fefs it to the time when he affumed the purple. His averfion
to his uncle Conftantine and h.s coufin Conftantius, for the
cruelties exercifed on his family, had prejudiced him againft
the chriftian religion ; and his attachment to fome platonic
fophifr, who had been employed in his education gave him
as violent" a bias towards paganifm. He was ambitious; and
pagan ifm, in f:me of its theurgic rites, had flattered and
encouraged his \iews of the diadem. He was vain, which
made him afpire to the glory of re-eflablifhing the ancient
rites. He was extremely knowing, and fond of g redan
literature, she very foul of which, in his opinion, was the
old theology : but, above all, notwitMVanding a confiderable
mix'ture of enthufiafra, his fuperftition was exceffive, and
what nothing but the blood of hecatombs could 'appeafe.

With thrie difpofitions he came to the empire, and con-
fequently wi'h a determined putpofe of fubverting the chrif-
tian and reitoring the pae^an worihio. His predecefiors had
left him the repeated experience of the inefficacy o; down-
right force. The virtue of the pail times then rendered this
eftort fruitlefs, the numbers of the present would have made
it now dangerous : iieceilary therefore to change
VOL. E his


his ground. His knowledge of human nature furnifhed him
with arms ; and his knowledge of the faith he had abandoned
enabled him to direcl thole arms to moil advantage. He
began with re-eflabliihin: paganifm by law, and granting a
full liberty of confcience to the chriftians. On this principle,
he reftored thole to their civil rights who had been banifhed
on account of their religion, and even affected to reconcile to
a mutual forbearance the various feels of chrirHanity. Yet
he put on this maik of moderation for no other purpofe than
to inflame the di {Tendons in the church. He then lined and
banifhed fuch of the more popular clercy as had abufed their
power, either iaexciting the people to burn and deftroy pagan
temples, or to co:nmit violence on an -oppofite feel: and it
cannot be denied, but that their turbulent and infolent man-
ners deferved all the feverity of his juilice. He proceeded
to revoke and take away thofe irnrrrunkies, honours, and
revenues, which lis uncle and coufin had granted to the
clergy. Neither was his pretence for this altogether unrea-
fonable. He judged the grants to be exorbitant; and, be-

fides, as thev were attendant on a national religion, when


the eftablifhment came to be transferred from chriflianity to
paganifm, he concluded they mufl follow the religion of the
ilate. But there was one immunity he took away, which
no gcod policy, even under an eftablHhment, fhould have
granted them; and this was an exemption from the civil tri-
bunals. He went Hill farther: he difqualified the chriitian
laity for bearing office in the flate; and even this the fecu-
rity of the eftablifhed religion may often require. But his
mofl illiberal treatment of the chriflians, was his forbidding
the profefTors of that religion to teach polite letters, and the
fciences, in the public fchools ; and Amm. Marcellinus cen-
fures this part of his conduct as a breach in his general
character of humanity, (lib. xx. c. 10 ) His more imme-
diate delign, in this, was to hinder the youth from taking im-
preffions to the difadvantage of paganifm ; his remoter view,
to deprive chriilianity of thefupport of human literature. . Not
content with this, he endeavoured even to deilroy what was
already written in defence of chrifhanity. With this view
he wrote to the governor and treafurer- general of Egypt, to
fend him the library of George bifhop of Alexandria, who,
for his cruelty and tyranny, had been torn in pieces by the
people: nay, to fuch a length did his averfion ro the name
of Chrift carry him as to detree, by a public edict, that his
followers Ihould be no longer called cluiftians, but galileans ;
well knowing the efficacy of a nick-name to render a
profeilion ridiculous. Mean while, the quarrels and ani-
moflties between the different feels of chriilianity furnifhed





him with the means of carrying on thefe projects.
being well allured that the arian church of EdefTa was very-
rich, he took advantage of their oppreffing and perfecuting
the Valentinians to feize every thing belonging to that
church, and divided the plunder among his foldieis; fcorn-
fully telling the Edeflians, he did this to er-fe them of their
burthens, that they might proceed more lightlv, and with
lefs impediment, in their journey to heaven. He we'.t far-
ther ftill, if we may believe the hiftorim Socrates, and, in
order to raife money to defray the extraordinary expence of
his Ferfian expedition, he impofed a tax or tribute on all
who would not facrifke to the pagan idols The tax, it is
true, was proportioned to every man's circuit) fiances ; how-
ever, no doubt, it was fome infringement upon his art of
toleration. And though he forbore perfecuting to death by-
law, which would have been a di:ec~t contradiction to that
aft, yet he connived at the furv of the people, and the
brutality of the governors of provinces, who, during his
Ihort reign, brought many martvrs to the ftake. He put
fuch into governments, whofe inhumanity and blind zeal for
their country fuperftitions were moil difting'iimed. And
when the fuffering churches presented their complaints to him,
he difmiffed them with cruel feoffs, telling them, their re-
ligion direftedthem to fufFer without murmuring.

Such were Julian's efforts to fubvert chriftianity ; and it
cannot be denied, that the behaviour of the chriftians fur-
niihed pretence enough for moft of the proceedings againft
them in the view of ftate-pohcy. Befides that they branded
the Itate religion, and made a merit of affronting the public
worfhip, it is well known that they were continually guilty
of feditions; and did not fcruple to afTert, that notlvng hin-
dered them from engaging in open rebellion, but the inipro-.
babili^y'of iucceeding in it for wane of numbers. Me^n
whiie, his projects to fupport and reform pagan ifm went
hand in hand with his attempts to deitroy chriftianity. He
wrote, and he preached, in defence of the gentile fuper'i-
tition, and has himfeif acquainted us with the ilf-fuccefs of his
miniftrv at Bercea. Of his controversial writings his an-

- *,*

fwerer, Cyril, hath given us a large fpecimen, by which we
fee he was equally intent to recommend paganifm, and to dif-
credit revelation, in his reformation of the gentile fu per-
dition, he endeavoured to hi-ie the abfurdity"of its traditions
bv moral and philofophical allegories. Thefe he found pro-
vided for h'm prirrcipally by pliilofophers of his ov/n feel,
the platoni. For they, not without the aiTiftance of the.
other, had., ever iince the appearance of chriftianity,
been refining the theology of paganifin, to oppofe- it to that

E 2, of


of revelation ; under pretence, that their new-invented alle-
gories were the ancient fpirit of the letter, which the firft
poetical divines had thus conveyed to poflerity. He then
attempted to correct the morals of the pagan priefthood, and
regulate them on the practice of the firrt chriftians. In his
epiftle to Aifacius, he not only requires of them a perfonal
behaviour void of offence, but that they reform their houfe-
hold on the fame principle: he directs, that they who attend
at the altar fhould-abftain from the theatre, the tavern, and
the exercife of all ignoble profeffions ; that in their private
character they be meek and humble ; but that, in the acts
and offices of religion, they aflume a character conformable
to the majefty of the immortal ,ods, whofe minifters they are.
And, above all, he recommends to them the virtues of charity
and benevolence. With regard to difcipline and religious
policy, he eftablifhed readers in divinity ; planned an eftabliiri-
ment for the order and parts of the divine offices defigned
a regular and formal fcrvice, with days and h A urs of worfhip.
He had aifo decreed to found hofpitals for the poor, monaf-
teries for the devout, and to prefcribe and enjoin initiatory and
expiatory facritice? ; with inftruct'ons for converts, and a
courfe of penance for offenders ; and, in all things, to imitate
the church difcipline at that time.

But the indifference and corruptions of Paganifm, joined
to the inflexibility and perfeverance of the Chriftians, keep-
ing his project from advancing with the fpeed he delired, he
grew chagrined, and even threatened, after his return from
the Perfian expedition, effectually to ruin the Chrifiian reli-
gion. He had before, in purfuance of his general fcheme of
oppofing revelation to itfelf, by felting one fed againft another,
written to the body or community of the jews; alluring them
of his protection, his concern for their former ill ufage, and
his fixed purpofe to fcreen them from future oppreffion, that
they might be at liberty, and in a diipofition to redouble their
vows for the profpei ity of his reign; and concluded with a
promife, that, it he came back victorious from the Perfiau
v;ar, he would rebuild Jerufalem. reiiore them to their pofTef-
iions, live with them in the holy city, and join.. with them in
their worfhip of the great God of the univerfe- The rebuild-
ing of the temple at Jerufalem was a fure means of deflroying
Chriftianity, fince the final deftruction of that temple had
been foretold both by Chrifl and his apoflles ; if therefore the
lye could be given to their predictions, their religion would
be no more. This fcheme, therefore, he fet about imme-
diately. The completing of fuch an edifice would be a work
of time, and he plealed himfelf with the glory of atchieving
fo bold an enterprize. Accordingly, the attempt was made,



and what was the confequence will be feen by the following
account of it from Ammianus Marcel linus. " Julian, having
been already thrice conful, taking Sallufl praefect of the feveral
Gauls for his colleague, entered a fourth time on this high f t appeared ft range to fee a private man affo-
ciated with Auguflus ; a thing of which, fince the confulate
of Diocletian and Ariftobulus,- hiftory afforded no example.
And although his fenfibiiity of the many a;id great events,
which this v -ar was likely to produce, made him very anxious
for the future, vet he "p^ fried on the various and complicated
preparations for this expedition with the utmoil application:
and, having an eye in every quarter, and being defirous to
eternize his reign by the greatnefs of his atchievements, he
projected to rebuild, at an immenfe expence, the proud and
magnificent temple of Jerufalem, which, after many combats,
attended with mu~h bloodihed on both fides, during the fiege
by Vefpafian, was, with great difficulty, taken and deftroyed
by Titus. He committed the conduct of this affair to Aly-
pius of Antioch, who formerly had been lieutenant in Britain.
When, therefore, this Alypius hsd fet himfelf to the vigo-
rous execution of his charge, in which he had all the affiftance
that the governor of the province could afford him, horrible
balls of fire breaking out near the foundations, with frequent
arid reiterated attacks, rendered the place from time to time in-
accemble to the fcorched and blafted workmen ; and the vic-
torious element continuing- in this manner, obftinately and re-
folutelv bent, as it were, to drive them to a diftance, Alypius
thought bed to give over the enterprize. In the mean time,
though Julian was fhll at Antioch when this happened, yet
he was to wholly taken up by the Perfian expedition, that he
had not leifure to attend to it. He fet out foon after upon that
expedition, in which he fucceeded very well at firft ; and, ta-
king feveral places from the Perfians, he advanced as far .as
Cteiipho without meeting with any bodv to oppofe him.
However, there pafTed feveral engagements in this place, in
which it is laid the- Romans had almoft always the advantage ;
but the difbefied condition of their army, for want of necef-
faries, obliged them to come to a decifive battle. This was
begun June 20, ^63, and victory appeared to declare itfelf
on their fide ; when Julian, who was engaged perfonally in
the fight without his he met, received a mortal wound upon
his head, which put a period to his life the following

We have, in the courfe of his memoir, had occafion to
exhibit fome qualities to the difadvantage of Julian ; yet we
mufl in justice add, that he was Ibber and vigilant, free from
the debaucheries of women ; and, to fum up all, remarkably

E 3 ziiiid,


mild, merciful, good-natured, and, in general, moft amia-
ble : except in his paflions which arofe from his averfion to
cVniftianity. Beiides his anivver to St. ^"y r ^> anc ^ Milbpogon,
he wrote fome other difcourfes, epiftles, &c. which are fo
many proofs of a genius and extraordinary erudition; and
wirre.i in io eiegan? a ft vie, that his letters have been intro-
d sred into the grammar-fchools amon? the Greek dailies.
And his refcttpts in the '\ heodoiian code fhew, that he made
riioie good laws, in th? fhort time-ot his reign, than anv em-
peror either before or after him. His works were pubhfhed in
greek and latin by Spanheim in 1696, 2 vols. folio.

JULIAN i S^ at , archbifhop of, Toledo, and author of
fome curious theological works, which were equally diftin-
gu <f heel for iMi-'itv and learning. His manners were as amiable

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 6 of 48)