William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 9 of 48)
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Auguftus Caefar ; and is written with great puiity and ele-
gance, excepting here and there a word, which favours of
encroaching barbarifm. La Mothe le .Vayer thinks " his
manner of writing fo excellent as to be worthy the age of
Auguftus rather than that of the Antonines." There are
editions of him in all fizes ; and the belt critics, particularly
Graivius, have written notes upon him.

JUSTIN (iurnamed the MARTYR), one of the earlieft
writers of the chriftiau church, was born at Neapolis, the
ancient Sichem of Palestine, in the province of Samari?.
His father Prifcius, being a Gentile Greek, brought him up
in his own religion, and had him educated in ail the Gre-
cian learning and philofophy. To complete his iludie?, he
travelled to Hg-ypt : the ufual tour on this occalion, as beino-

O- *. ' ' O

the feat of the more mysterious and recondite literature at this
time: he was fhewn, as he tells you, at Alexandria, the re-
mains of thcfe cells, where the feventy tranilators of the

and remember, fays he ngain, that I clufion was thrown out of the houfe of

foretold the" time. After he had been lords], he faid, Sir, don't you remember

fome time in London, he made a vifit to what i told you of the persecution wo

thsdodtor at his houfe on Tower-hill ; bavefiuce futfered, and rfche time when

ivh-re, prefently nft-r the common it would hegin > and now you fee all 1.

forms of congratulating one another [it accor Jir.sly come to pafs.
was aboui the time that the bill of ex-

F 4 Bible


Bible performed what is called the Septuagint Verfiop. He
had ; fr>m his fir ft application to philofophy, difliked the
Itoic and peripatetic ; and chofe the feel: of Plato, with whofe
ideas he was greatlv taken, and of which he refolved to make
Hmfelf : . Teller, -'e \\\\s profecuting this denVn in contem-
plation and folitary walks by the fea-fide, when there met
him one dav a grave and ancient perfon of a venerable afpect,
who, falling into dncourfe upon the fubje& ot- his thoughts,
turned the converfation, by degrees, from the fancied excel-
lence ot platonihn to the f-iperior perfection of Ohrifti an ity ;
and performed his part fo well, as to raife an ardent curiofity
in our platonift to enquire into the merits of that religion.
JHe gives this account himfelf in his " Dialogue with Try-
pho ;" and the icfuh of that enquiry was his conversion,
which happened about the i6th year of Trajan's reign, A.C.

J 3 2

>everal of hi - old friends among the Heathens were not a

little troubled at the lofs of fo eminent a pei-fon : for their
fatisfaction, therefore, h? drew up an account of his conduct,
with the reafons of if, in the T i r w of bringing them into the fentiments. However, in lay ; ng down his former pro-
fcfllon, lie ftill retained the ancient drefs ; preaching and de-
fending the Chriftian religion under his old philofophic gjarb,
the pallium, or cloak, or the Grecian phiiofophers. About
the beginning of Antoninus Pius's reign, he went to Rome,
and there he ftrenuoullv fet himfelf to defend and promote
the Chriftian cauie : in which fpirit finding the heretic Mar-


cion -very bufy in propagating his pernicious principles, he re-
folved particularly to oppolc him. This heretic was the
fon of a bill" op born in t'ontus, and, for deflowering a vir-
gin, had been excommunicated. Upon this, he fled to
Kome, where he broached his errors: the chief of which
was. " That rhere are two Gods, one the creator of the
world, whom he iuppofed to be the God of the Old '1 eftament,
and the author of evil ; the other a more fovercign and fupreme
bc-ing, creator of more excellent things, the father of Chrifr,
whom he fent into the world to diiTolve the law and the pro-
phets, and to defiioy the works of the other Deity, whom he
ft y led the God of the Jews." jufrin encountered this heretic
both in word and writing, and comp fed a book againft his
principles, which he alfo published. In the fame fpirir, when
the Chriftians came to be more feverely dealt with, traduced,
defamed, and perfected, by virtue of the (landing laws of the
empire, Juftin drew up his firlt apology about the year 160 ;
and prefented it to ihe emperor, with a copy of his predeceffor
Adrian's refcript, commanding that the Chriflians ihould not


be neecHefsly and unj lively vexed. This addrefs was not with-
out its fuccefs : the emperor, being in his own nature of a
merciful and generous difpofition, was moved to give orders,
that the Chriftians fhould be treated more gently, and more
regularly proceeded againft.

Not long afterwards, lufh'n made a vifit into the Eaft ; and,
among other parts, went to Epheius. Here he fell into the
company and acquaintance of Trypho, a Jew of great no:e ;
with whom he engaged in a difpute, that held for two days :
an account whereof he afterwards wrote in a piece, intituled
his " Dialogue with Trypho." By the conclusion \ve learn,
he was then ready to let fail to ,',phefus. He returned at
lail to Rome, where he had frequent conferences with one
Crefcens, a philosopher of fome repute in that city ; a man,
who had endeavoured to traduce the Chriftians, and reprefent
their religion undei the mod infamous character. Mean while,
he prefentedhis second apology to Marcus Antoninus on the
following occafion. A woman at Rome had, together with
her hufband, Uved in all manner of wantonnefs, and, from a
vicious courfe of Jife, had been converted to chriftianity ;
but, being reclaimed herfeif, fought alib to reclaim her huf-
band, till, at length, finding him quite obftinate, ihe pro-
cured a bill of divorce. The man, enraged at this, accuted
her to the emperor of being a chriltian : but, fhe putting in a
petition for leave to anfwer it, he relinquiihed that proiecu-
tion ; and. falling upon her converter, one Ptolomeus, pro-
cured his imprisonment and condemnation. On that occalion,
Lucius, a chriftian, being prefent, prefumed to reprefent, how
hard it was, that an innocent and virtuous man, charged with
no crime, i'houid be adjudged to die, merely for bearing the
name of a chriftian : a procedure, that muft certainly be a
reflection upon the government ; which words were no iooner
out of his mouth, than he, together with a third perf n, were
fentenced to the fame fate. The feveri'y of thefe proceedings
awakened Juftin's folicitude and care for the reft of his brethren ;
and he immediately drew up his fecond apologv> wl>erein,
among ether things, he heavy complaints ot the malice
and envy of his amagonift Crefcens. The phiioibpher, nettled
at this charge, fet himielf ro turn the emperor's disfavour
againft Juftin ; and, whether or not through the influence of
Crefcens, he was foon after, with fix of his companions,
apprehended and brought before the pra?fr-6l of the city. After
their examination, this lentence was pronounced, that "They
who refuie to facrifice to the gods, and to obey the imperial
edicts, be firft fcourged, and then beheaded, according to the
laws :" which was put in execution upon [uthn and the reft.
This happened, according to Earonius, A. Ct 165, not long




after JufHn had prefented his fecond apology ; which is faid,
therefore, in the language of thofe times, to have procured
him the crown of martyrdom.

JUSTINIAN, the fir it Roman emperor of his name, was
nephew of Juftin I. and fucceeded his uncle in the imperial
throne, Aug. i, 527. He began his reign with the character
of a mod religious prince, publishing very fevere laws againft
heretics, and repairing ruined churches ; in this fpirir, he
actually declared himfelf protector of the church. While he
was thus re-eftablifhing cbriftianity at home, he carried his
arms againft the enemies of the empire abroad, with fo much
faccefs, that he reinilated it in irs ancient glory. Fie was
very happy in having the beft general of the age. Belifarius
conquered the Periians for him in 528, 542, and 54.3. The
fame general exterminated the Vandals, and took their king
Gillmier prifcner in 533, He alfo reccr. Africa to the

empire by a new conqueft; vanquished the Goths in It.
takingr captive their king Vidges ; and, l-.-.i'-ivj defeated the
Moors and the Samaritans. But, in the r.-.idit of thefe glorious


fucceiTes without doors, the emperor WAS near finking under
a potent faction within. Hypalius, Poinpeius, and Probus,
three nephews of the emperor Anaftafius, who was the imme-
diate predeceflor of Juftin, combining together, raifed a moft
dangerous mfurredrion, in order to dethrone Juftinian. The
confpirators made two parties, one called the Varti, and the
other "Veneti ; and at length they grew fo ftrong, that the
emperor, in defpair of being able to refill them, began to
think of quitting the palace ; and had certainly fnbmkted to
that difgrace, had not the emprefs Theodofia, his confort,
vexed at his betraying fo much tamenefs, and reproaching him
with his pufillanimity, put new ipirits into him. In fine, ihe
prevailed fo far, ihar he fortified liimfelf againft the rebels,
and fucceeded. Belifarius and Mundus defended him io well,
that the confp ; racy was broken, and the above-mentioned, ring-
leaders capitally puniihed.

The empire being now in the full enjoyment of profound
peace and tranquillity, ]uftinian made the beft ufe of it, by
collccunp; the immenfe variety and number of the Roman
- s into one ixxly. To this end, he felecled ten of the is.
ab'e Ir.wyers in the en. r; \vho, reviling the Gregorian,
1'iiec;- . L, and Hermogenian codes, compiled one body,
c-rled " The Code,' 1 out of them, to which the emperor
gave his own name. This may be called the ftatute law, as
ConfiHing of the refcripts of the emperors ; but the reduction
of the other part was a much more ditncult taili. It -,v^s
rtiads up of the decifions of the judges and other magiftratc
together with the authoritative opinions of the inoft emi^ei-i

lawyer^ ;


lawyers ; all which lay fcattered, without any order, in no
lei's than 2000 volumes and upwards. Thefe were reduced to
the number of 50 ; but ten years were fpent in the reduction.
However, the delign was completed in 533, and the name of
Digefts or Pande6b given to it. Befides thele, for the ufe
chiefly of young ftucients in the law, Juflinian ordered four
books of inftitutes to be drawn up, containing an abftra6t or
abridgement pf the text of all the laws ; and, iaftly, the laws
of modern date, pofterior to that of the former, were thrown
into one volume in the year 541, called the " Novellas," or
" New Code."

Every one is fenfible of the prodigious advantage which
fuch a regulation of the law muft be to the public : we need
not obferve, that it is this moil important tranfaclion in the
ftate, which has rendered Ju'ftinian's name immortal. . His
conduct in ecciefiaftical affairs .was ram. and inconfiderate.
For inftance, Theodotns, king oi Italy, had obliged pope
Agapetus to go to Conftantinople, in order to fubmit and make
peace with the emperor. J ufiiman received him very graciouily ;
but, withal, injoined him to communicate W 7 ith Anthenius,
patriarch of Conftantinople. That patriarch being deemed
a heretic at Rome, the pont iff refuted to obey the command;
and, when the emperor threatened to puniili his difobedience
with baniihment, he anfwered, without any emotion, " 1
thought I was come before a chriftian prince, but I find a
Diocletian." The refult was, that the hardinefs and refolution
of the pope brought the emperor to a fubmiffion. Accordingly
Anthenius was deprived, and an orthodox prelate put into his

Afrer this, Juflinian, refolving to take cognizance of the
difference between the three chapters, published a refcript for
that purpofe, in form of a conftitution, which created great
diflurbances in the empire. He. alfo exerted his authority
againft the attempts of the popes Sylverius and Vigilius, both
before and after the celebration of the fifth general council held
in 553. Towards the latter end of his life, he fell into an
erroneous opinion concerning Chrifl's body ; which he main-
tained had never been corruptible, nor fubjecl: to the natural
infirmities of a human body. He carried it io far as to pre-
pare an edicl: againft thole who maintained the contrary opi-
nion, and intended to publiili it ; but was prevented by his
death, which happened fuddenly, in 565, at the age of 83,
and after a reign of 39 years. It w T as this emperor who
abolifhed the confulate. He buiit a great number of churches,
and particularly the famous Sandta Sophia, at Conltantinople,
piteemed a mailer-piece of architecture.


J U S T I N I A N I.

JUSTINIANI (St. LAWRENCE), the firft patriarch of
Venice, was defcended of a noble family, and born theie
1381. He took the monk's habit in the monaftery of St.
George, in Alga, before he was a deacon; and, in/fp..,.,
became general of that congregation, to whom he gave an ex-
cellent fet of rules, which were afterwards obferved, and made
liim efteemed as one of their founders. Pope Eugenuis IV.
gave him the bifhopric of Venice, of which he was the firil
patriarch, from the year 1451. This holy prelate died in 1455,
and was canonized in 1690 by Alexander VIII. He left feveral
works of piety, which were printed together at Lyons in
3 $68, and again at Venice 1755, folio ; to which is prefixed
his life, by his nephew.

JUSTINIANI (BERNARD), nephew of the above, was
born at Venice, 1407-8. He purfued his firft ftudies under
Guarini of Verona, and continued them at Padua, where he
took liis doctor's degree. Notwith (landing he put on the
ienator's robe at the age of 19, yet he itill profecuted his
ftudies under Francis JPhilelphi and George de Trebifondc,
whom he took into his houie, and retained there, till pope
Calixtus III. lent for him to Rome, and employed him in
feveral commiiTions. Upon his return to 'Venice, he was
fent ambaflador to Lewis XI. of France, who made him
a knight in 1641. He went afterwards feveral times ambaflador
to Rome from the republic ; and, in 1467, was made com-
mandant of Padua. He afterwards became a member of. the
council of ten, and bore the dignity of Sage Grand no lefs than
20 times. In 1474, he was elected procurator of St. Mark, a
poft next to that of doge. He died ia $489, leaving fcveral
works in latin ; the principal of which is " De Origine urbis
Venetiarurri," 1492, and 1534, fol-

JUSTINIANl (AucusTiN), " bifliop of Nebo, one of
the moil learned men of his time, was defcended from a
branch of the fame noble family with the former ; and born
at Genoa in 14/0. After having reiid d i'ome time at Va-
lencia in Spain, he entered into the order of St. Dominic at
Paris in 148x8; when he took the name of Auguftin, in the
room of Paritajeoh, which he received at his baprilm. Soon
after, he diflinguiihed himfelf by his learning, and knowledge
in the languages, which he acquired in a very fhort time;
fo that Leo X. named him to the bifhopric of Nebo, in the
iilahd of Gorfica ; in which capacity he aiTiiled in the fifth
council of Lateran, where he oppofed fome articles of the
concordat h:t\veen France and the court of Rome. The fmall
revenue ot his diocefe made him defire a better, and he
petitioned the pop^ tor that purpoie : but Francis 1. who was



patron of learned men, drew him to France, by making him
his almoner, with a good peniion ; and he was alfo regius
profeffor of Hebrew for five years at Paris. Returning to
Genoa in 1522, he found every thing in confufion, by the
fedition of the Adornes ; whereupon he went to vifit his
diocefe, and difcharged all the duties of a good prelate, till the
year 1531* In a voyage from Genoa to Nebo, he perifhed,
together with the veflel in which he was embarked, 1536.'
By his laft will, he left his library to the republic of Genoa.

He compofed fome pieces, the moil considerable of which
is, " Pfalterium Hebraeum, Graecum, Arabicum, & Chal-
daeum, cum tribus Latinis interpretationibus & glottis."
This was the firft pfalter of the kind which had appeared in
print, and it is commended by Huetius. There came out
alfo " Annales de republica Genoenfi," at Genoa, in 1537 ;
but this was poft humous, and Imperfect. There is like-
wife afcribed to him a tranflation of Maimonidis " Moreli

JUSTIANI (FABio), born at Genoa in 1568, was
bilhop of Ajaccio, where he died in 1627. -^ e publiftied two
works, " Index Univerfalis materiarum Biblicarum," and n
commentary on the book of Tobit.

JUVARA ^PHILIP), an eminent Sicilian architect, of
whofe fkill and tafte various fpecimens may be feen at Turin,
and its vicinity. Philip the Vth, of Spain, expreffed a defire
to have a magnificent palace conftrudled from a model by
juvara. The artift accordingly went to Madrid, and pro-
duced one for the infpe&ion of the king. The queen, who
had other purpofes for the royal treaiure, afTifted by her
favourite mmiiler Patino, objected to the model as inadequate
to the grandeur of a Spanilh monarch. Juvara accordingly was
ordered to contt,ru6t a fecond of greater fplendour. Upon this
he laboured three years, when a fecond objection was railed to
this from the fame quarter, that it exceeded the ability of the
royal treafury to accomplish. Juvara was then directed to
form a third model, not ib confined as the firit, nor fo mag-
nificent as the lail. The architect:, perceiving himfelf thus
trifled with, is faid to have died of vexation and difappoint-

JUVENAL (DEC i us JUNIUS}, the Roman fatirifr, was
born about the beginning of the emperor Claudius's reign, at
Aquinum, a town in Campania, imce made famous by the
birth of Thomas (thence ftyled) Aquinas, the much-famed
founder of the icholaftic philoiophy. His father was probably a
freed man, who, being rich, gave him a liberal education ; and,
agreeably to tne taite of the times, bred him up to eloquence,
In this he made a great progrefs, fir ft under Fronto the gram-



marian, and then, as is generally conjectured, under Qnin-
tiiian ; after which he attended the bar, where he made a dif-
tinguiihed figure for many years [F]. In this profeffion he
had improved his fortune and intereft at Rome, before he
turned his thoughts to poetry ; the very ftyle of which, in his
fatires, f peaks a long habit of declamation : " lubacbjm
redolent declamatorem," fay the critics. He is fuppofed to have
been above 40 years of age, when he recited his firft effay to a
fmail audience of his friends ; but, being encouraged by their
applaufe [c~l, he ventured a greater publication This reaching
the ears of Paris, Dotnitian's favourite at that time, though
but a pantomime player, whom our fatiritt had ftrictured, that
minion complained to the emperor, who fent the poetf into
baniihment; under pretence of giving him the command of
a cohort in the army, which was quartered at Pentapolis, a
city upon the frontiers of Egypt and Lybia. Juvenal was not
idle during his ftay there, but made fuch obfervations upon the
ridiculous fuper '. itions of that blinded people, as he afterwards
wrought up into a fatire [HJ. After DomitianV death, he
returned to Rome, fufficiently cautioned, not only againft
attacking the characters of thoie in power under arbitrary
princes, but againft all perfonal reflections upon the great men
then living; and therefore he thus wifely concludes the
debate, he is fuppofed to have maintained for a while, with
a friend, on this head, in the nrft fatire :

" Experiar quid concedatur in illos,

" Quorum Flaminia tegitur cini atque Latina."

His 1 3th fatire is addrefTed to Calvinus, who, he fays, had
then completed the Goth year of his age, and was born un-
der the coniulfhip of Fonteius Capito : that is, A. U. C.
Six, and the 6th of Nero. If fo, this fatire was written
anno U. C. 871, in the 3d year of Adrian, when Juvenal
was above 70 years old, fuppofing him born in the middle or
6th year of Claudius ; and hence, as it is agreed that he at-
tained to his Scth year, he muft have died about the nth
year of Adrian.

In his perfon he was of a large ilature, which made fome
think him of Gallic extraction. We meet with nothing

[F] Martial, with whom our faiirifl commended fome of his firft fatire?,

Contracted an early acquaintance, had though without naming him ; where he

addrelied three epigrams to him, viz. fays, Inftit. lib.x. c. i. fpeaking of the

Ep. 23, and gr, lib. 7, and Ep. 118, lib. Roman fatire, *' Sunt clan hodie quo-

Xi; in the fecond of which he give^ him que, & qui olim nominabuntur."

the title of eloquent, and fyeaks of him [HJ Viz. the iqth, in the order tat/

as attending the bar. are now published.

[c>] Quincilian is thought to have


J U V E N A L. 79

concerning Ills' morals and wav of life; but, by the whole
tenor of his writings, he fcen have been a true gene rev -
fpinted Roman, and a friend to liK'tv and vntue. A ilr< :
relievo has been given to his character, as a fatirift, by Mr.
Crufius, in his " Lives of the Roman Poets ;'* wherein,
comparing it with that of Horace and Perfius, he tells us,
that "the defign of the former was to be agreeable rath .
than bitter, to be familiar, infinuating, and inftruc~Hve ;
and that therefore he affixed a liyic that fhould be plain,
witty, and elegant. Periius, on the other hand, agreeably
to the dignity of the ftoic philofophy, which he profefled,
chofe to inftruct and reform, rather than pleafe, and wrote
in a higher ftyie ; but his feverity is too great, and his cha-
racter fo ferious, that \vit mifbecomes him whenever he ieems
to aim at it. Juvenal has undoubtedly improved on botli :
he is elegant and witty with Horace, great and fublime with
Periius, and to both their characters has added the pomp of
his own eloquence; which makes him the moft entertaining,
as well as the clofeft writer, of the three." He was the firft
fatirift who raifed the ilyle of that poem to the height oi
Uagedy. This he tells us himfelf ; yet, not out of vanity,
but led to it from the nature of the fubjecl. He even under-
values his poetry, when he iniinuates that the wickednefs of
the times would provoke a man to write fatires, though he
had no genius for poetry :

<s Si natura negat, facit indignatio verfiim

" Qualemcunque poteil, quales ego vel Cluvienus."

To balance. thefe perfections, be is charged with a licen-
tious boldnefs in his expreflioris ; with expoling men's per-
fons and names, and well as their vices : with running into
fubjecls not decent to be mentioned; and with calling things
too plainly by their ordinary names. As to the hrit part of
this Charge, Crufius obferves, that the names, for the moil
part, are of peifons fo loft to all honour and virtue, that it
was a piece of juftice to lay open their characters, thereby,
if pofiible, to deter others from imitating their abominable
vices ; and he was encouraged in it by the example of Luci-
lius, who, as he obferves, by thus cutting to the quick,
actually awakened the criminals. As to the latter part of
this charge, fome excufe might be offered, from the general
practice of the ancients, which was too licentious -in this
particular. He might be farther juOified by the authorityoffome
of the fathers of the chriilian church, who thought themfelves
obliged, in diredt terms, to expofe the obicene ceremonies and


So J U X O N.

lewd mythology of the heathens. But, after all, this licen~
tioufnefs is not juftifiable, even when placed in the befl light
poffible ; nor will any polite writer, to fay no more, attempt
to imitate it.

in 1679. He wrote and publifhed, at Paris, a volume on
the " Principles of Hiftory," as well as " EfTavs on the
Hilary of the Sciences," " Belles Lettres," and " The Arts,"
which was printed at Lyons, and paiTed through four editions.
This lad has been tranflated both into German and Englilh.
This writer died at Pezenas in 1760, leaving behind him an
excellent character for gentlenefs of manners, elegance of
mind, and integrity of life.

firft chriftian poet% and born of a nob!e family in Spain.
He wrote the life of Chrifl in Latin verfe, more remarkable
for the corre&nefs with which it follows the text of the
gofpel, than for its fpirit or elegance. It is to be found in
the " Corpus Poetarum," pubiiihed by Maittaire.

JUXON (WILLIAM), was a man of obfcure birth, but
of great integrity and excellent underftanding, and the mildeil
manners. Of his earlier life but little is known : he en-

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 9) → online text (page 9 of 48)