William Tooke.

A new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 8) online

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Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 8) → online text (page 1 of 54)
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3 3433 08252874













)") OF THE

Moft Eminent Perfons


From the Earlieft Accounts of Time to the prefent Period.


Their remark&Bte ACTIONS ; apjd; .SUFFERINGS,


', ' ' * ; * ' j ' ' ,


, .*; ,7 ,.';-,*






Printed for G. G. and J: ROBINSON, J. JOHNSON, J. NICHOLS, J. SF.WII. L,






CADELL, jun. and W. DA VIE 5, R.EDWARDS,



and HURST, and J. WHITF.


' I


. .

, . . . , , ,

.. . ,
. .





HEATH (BENJAMIN), a lawyer of eminence, and town-
clerk of Exeter, was a celebrated fchoiar and an author.
He wrote, I. " An EiTay towards a demonftrative Proof of thd
Divine Exiftence, Unity ^aAdiAttribitfds^ \p t which is premifed,
a fhort Defence of fe; .Argument commonly called, a priori,
1740." This pamphlet >;.^as ^edicat^d to Dr. Oliver of Bath,
and is to be ranked amongffe tM'^bleii 'defences of Dr. Clarke's,
or rather Mr. Howe's, , hypothecs 5. for, Jt appears to be taken
from Howe's " Living Tetr-ifde;'"'. r 2.','" The Cafe of the
County of Devon with feTpecT to the Consequences of the new
Excife Duty on Cyder and Perry. Published by the direction
of the Committee appointed at a General Meeting of that
County to fuperintend the Application for the Repeal of that
Duty, 1763," 4to. To this reprefentation of the Circum-
itances peculiar to Devonfhire, the repeal of the acl: is greatly
to be afcribed. The piece indeed was confidered as fo well-
timed a fervice to the public, that Mr. Heath received fome
honourable notice on account of it at a general meeting of the
county. 3. " Notas five Lecliones ad Tragicorum Grascorum
^ veterum, ^Efchyli, &c. 1752," 4to; a work which places the
author's learning and critical (kill in a very confpicuous light :
a principal, objecl: of which was to reftore the metre of the
^-Grecian tragic poets. It is highly valued fby all found critics
of pur own and foreign countries. The fame fo'lidity of judge-
ment apparent in the preceding, diflinguimed the author's laft
production ; 4. " A Revifal of Shakfpeare's Text, wherein the
alterations introduced into it by the more modern editors and
critics are particularly confidered, 1765," 8vo. It appears from
the lift of Oxford graduates, that Mr. Benjamin Heath was
created D-. C. L, by diploma, March 31, 1762.- The brother of
VOL, VJIL B this


this author, Mr. Thomas Heath, an alderman of Exeter, pub-
lifted " An EiTay towards a new Verfion of Job," &c. in 1755.

HEBENSTREIT (JoHN ERNEST), a celebrated phyfician
and philologerof Leipfic, was born at Neuenhoff in the diocefe
of Neuftadt, in the year 1702. In 1719, he went to the uni-
verfity of Jena, but, not finding a fubfiftence there, removed
to Leipfic. He paffed the greater part of his life in the latter
univerfity, and finally died there in 1756. Befides his acade-
Qiical and phyfiological traclb, he published, in 1739, I. " Car-
men de ufu partium," or Phyfiologia metrica, in Svo. 2. " De
homine fano et aegroto Carmen, fiftens Phyfiologiam, Patholo-
giam, Hygienen, Therapiam, materiam medicam, cum prsefa-
tione de antiqua mcdicina." Leipfic, 1753, 8vo. 3. " Ora-
tio de Antiquitatibus Romanis per Africam repertis," 1733, 4to.
4. " Mufeum Richterianum," &c. Leipf. 1743. And, 5. A
pofthumous work, entitled, " Palxologia therapiae," Halae, Svo,
1779. This author had alfo an elder brother, John Chriftian
Hebenftreit, who Was a celebrated divine, and profoundly verfed
in the Hebrew language. Ernefti has publilhed an eulogium of
each, in his Opufcula Oratoria.

HECHT (CHRiS^f IAN-J^ a na{iv r 'of Hall, and minifter of
EfTen in Eaft Frie2el$Ypi > , P diecl inVV^Sj: Blithe age of 52. His


principal works are, !....". Cprjanjentaiio philogico-critico-exe-
getica," &c. 2. " Anji^oitas/H^rftfofum inter Judasos in Po-
lonia," &c. Befides .t he (e*, *h*e >yrote Teveral fmaller works in
German. He had a fyfort-fje//, Gdcfee^ Hecht, who was the au-
thor of feveral very Ua'rriefl'diflertatiohS'.*

HECQUET (PHILIP), a French phyfician of fingular merit
and ikill, but a ftrong parti zan of the ufe of warm water and
of bleeding ; for which reafon he was ridiculed by Le Sage in his
Gil Bias, under the name of Dr. Sangrado. He was born ai
Abbeville, in 1661, and pracVifed firlt in that city, then at Port-
royal, and lailly, at Paris. He was not \>wpo.T\y Jan grado, for
he took the degree of doctor in 1697 ; and in 1698 had more
bufmefs than he could attend. Though attached to the molt
fimple mode of life, he was obliged to keep his carriage, ia
which he ftudied with as much attention as in his clofet. In
1712, he was appointed dean of the faculty of medicine, and
fiiperjntended the publication of a fort of difpenfary, called,
"' The New Code of Pharmacy," which was publimed fomc
tiirie afterwards. Hecquet was no lefs zealous in religious mat-

\ ^

ters than ftudious in his own profeilion, and is faid never to have
prefcribed in doubtful cafes, without having a previous recourfc
to prayer. He lived in the moft abstemious manner, and in
1727 retired to a convent of Carmelites in Paris, where he
continued acceffible only to the poor, to whom he was a friend,
a comforter, and a father. He died ia 1737, at the age of 76.



This able phyfician publifhed feveral works, none of them de-
void of merit. They are thus enumerated, i. " On the in-
decency of men-midwives, and the obligation of women to
nurfe their own children," i2mo, 1728. The reafons he ad-
duces on thefe fubjecls are both moral and phylical. 2. " A
Treatifeon thedifpenfations allowed in Lent," 2vols. I2mo. 1705
and 1715. His own abftemious fyftem inclined him very little
to allow the neceflity of any indulgence. 3. " On Digeftion,
and the Diibrders of the Stomach," 2 vols. i2mo. 4. " Trea-
tife on the Plague," I2mo. 5. " Novus Medici nas confpeclus,"
two vols. I2mo. 6. *' Theological Medicine," two vols. I2mo,
7. '* Natural Medicine," ditto. 8. " De purganda Medicina
a curarum fordibus," I2mo. 9. " Obfervations on Bleeding in
the Foot," i2mo. 10. " The Virtues of common Water,'*
two vols. I2mo. This is the work in which he chiefly fupports
the doclrines ridiculed by Le Sage. u. " The abufe of Purga-
tives," I2mo. 12. " The roguery of Medicine," in three parts,
I2mo. 13. " The Medicine, Surgery, and Pharmacy of the
Poor," 3 vols. i2mo ; the bell edition is in 174.2. 14. " The
Natural Hiitory of the Convulfions," in which he very faga-
cioufly referred the origin of thofe diforders to roguery in fome,
a depraved imagination in others, or the confequence of fome
fecret malady. The life of this illuftrious phyfictan has been
written at large by M. le Fevre de St. Marc, and is no lefs edi-
fying to Chriftians than inftru&ivt to medical (Indents.

HEDELIN (FRANCIS), at fir ft an advocate, afterwards an
eccleiiaitic, and abbe of Aubignac and Meimac ; was born
at Paris in 1604. Cardinal Richelieu, whofe nephew he
educated, gave him his two abbeys, and the protection of that
minifter gave him confequence both as a man of the world and
as an author. He figured by turns as a grammarian, a clailical
fcholar, a poet, an antiquary, a preacher, and a writer of ro-
mances; but he was moil known by his book entitled, " Pra-
tique du Theatre," and by the quarrels in which his haughty
and prefumptuous temper engaged him, with fome of the mod
eminent authors of his time. The great Corneille was one of
thefe, whofe difguft firlt arofe from the entire omiflion of his
name in the celebrated book above-mentioned. He was alfo
embroiled, on different accounts, with madame Seuderi, Menace,
and Richelet. The warmth of his temper exceeded that of his
imagination, which was confiderable ; and yet he lived at court
a good deal in the ftyle of a philof' pher, riling early to his
imdies, folliciting no favours, and ailbciaring chiefly with a few
friends, as unambitious as himfelf. He defcribes nimfelf as of
a (lender conftitution, not capable of taking much exercife, or
even of applying very intenfely to frudy, without fuffeiihg from
it in his health j yet not attached to any kind ut play. " It is,"

B 2 f a y S


fays he,-" too fatiguing for the fecblenefs of my body, or too
indolent for the activity of my mind." The abbe d'Aubignac
lived to the age of 72, and died at Nemours in 1676. His
works are, T. " Pratique du Theatre," Amfterdam, 1717, two
vols. 8vo ; alfo in a 410 edition publifhed at Paris ; a book of
considerable learning, but little calculated to infpire or form a
genius. 2. " Zenobie," a tragedy, in profe, compofed accord-
ing to the rules laid down in his i( Pratique," and a complete
proof of the total inefficacy of rules to produce an interesting
drama, being the mod dull and fatiguing performance that was
ever reprefented. The prince of Conde faid, on the fubject of
this tragedy, " We give great credit to the abbe d'Aubignac for
having fo exactly followed the rules of Ariftotle, but owe no
thanks to the rules of Ariftotle for having made the abbe produce
fo vile a tragedy." He wrote a few other tragedies alfo, which
are worfe, if pofiible, than Zenobia. 3.. " Macaride; or the
Queen of the Fortunate Iflands," a novel. Paris, 1666, 2 vols.
8vo. 4. " Confeils d'Arifte a Celimene," I2mo. 5. " Hif-
toire du terns, on Relation du Royaume de Coqueterie," I2mo.
6. " Terence juftifie," inferred in fome editions of his " Pra-
tique." 7. " Apologie de Spectacles," a work of no value.
A curious book on fatyrs, brutes, and monfters, has been attri-
buted to him ; but though the author's name was Hedelin, he
does not appear to have been the fame.

GrofTen-hayn ? in Mifnia, was born in 1675. His firft publi-
cation was an edition of Empedocles de Sphasra, with his own
notes, and the Latin verfion of Septimius Florens, in 1711,
Drefden, 4to. He then publilhed, a 4< Notitia Auclorum,"
jn 8vo, 1714. His celebrated manual lexicon was publifhed,
firft at Leiplic, in 8vo, 1/22, and has been republifhed here
with many additions, by Young and Patrick ; but it has fince
been much* more improved by Ernefti, and republifhed at Leipfic,
in 1767. Hederich publiflied other lexicons on different fubjecls,
and died in 1748. Ernefli fays of him, that he was a good
man, and very laborious, but not a profound fcholar in Greek,
nor well qualified for compiling a lexicon for the illuflration of
Greek authors.


HEIDEGGER JOHN HENRY), a proteftant divine of Swit-
zerland, born at Urfevellon, a village near Zurich, in 1633.
He was firft a teacher of Hebrew and philofophy at Heidelberg,
then of divinity and ccclefiaflical hiftory at Steinfurt ; and laftly,
of morality and divinity at Zurich, where he died in 1698.
He publifhed, I. " Exercitationes feleclia? de Hiftoria facra Pa-
triarcharum," in two volumes, 4to, the firft of which appeared
at Amfterdam, in 1667, the latter in 1671. 2. " De ratione



ftudiorum opufcula aurea," &c. I2mo, Zurich, 1670. 3. " Tu-
mulus Tridentini Concilii," Zurich, 1690,410. 4. " Hifioria
Papatus," Amu:. 1698, 4to. There is alfo afcribed to him,
5. A tract, " De peregrinationibus religions," in 8vo, 1670.
And, 6. " A Syftem of "Divinity," folio, 1700.

HEIDEGGER (JOHN JAMES), was the fon of a clergyman,
and a native of Zurich in Switzerland, where he married, but
left his country in confequence of an intrigue. Having had an
opportunity of vifiting the principal cities of Europe, he ac-
quired a tafte for elegant and refined pleafures, which, united
to a ftrong inclination for voluptuoufnefs, by degrees qualified
him for the management of public amufements. In 1708, when
he was near 50 years old, he came to England on a negotiation
from the Swifs at Zurich ; but, failing in his embaffy, he en-
tered as a private foldier in the guards for protection. By his
fprightly, engaging converfation, and infinuating addrefs, he
foon worked himfelf into the good graces of our young people
of fafhion ; from whom he obtained the appellation of " the
Swifs count [A]." He had the addrefs to procure a fubfcription,
with which in 1709 he was enabled to furniih out the opera of
Thomyris [B]," which was written in Englifh, and performed at
the queen's theatre in the Haymarket. The mufic, however,
was Italian ; that is to fay, airs felected from feveral operas by
Bononcini, Scarlatti, StefFanv Gafparini, and Albinoni. Moft
of the fongs in " Thomyris" were excellent, thofe by Bonon-
cini efpecially: Valentini, Margarita, and Mrs. Tofts fung in
it ; and Heidegger by this performance alone was a gainer of
500 guineas [c]. The judicious remarks he made on feveral
defects in the conduct of our operas in general, and the hints
he threw out for improving the entertainments of the royal
theatre, foon eftablimed his character as a good critic. Appeals
were made to his judgement ; and fome very magnificent and
elegant decorations, introduced upon the ftage in confequence of
his advice, gave fuch fatisfaction to George II. who was fond
of operas, that, upon being informed to whofe genius he was
indebted for thefe improvements, his majefty was pleafed from
that time to countenance him, and he foon obtained the chief
management of the Opera-houfe in the Haymarket. He then
undertook to improve another fpecies of iliverfion, not lefs
agreeable to the king, which was the mafquerades, and over
thefe he always preiided at the king's theatre. He was like-

[ A] He is twice noticed under this title Count."

In the" Tatler," Nos. 12, and 185 and [sj There was another opera of the

in Mr. Duncombe's u Collection of Let- fame name, by Peter Motteux, in 1719.
ters of feveral eminent Pei Cons deceafed," [c] " Thomyris" and "Camilla,"

is a humorous dedication of Mr, Hughes's were both revived in 17265 but neither

M Villon of Chaucer," to <* th, Sw>fs then Succeeded ,


6 H X E I D E G G E R.

wife appointed matter of the revels. The nobility now carefted
him fo much, and had fuch an opinion of his tafte, that all
fplendid and elegant entertainments given by them upon parti-
cular occafions, and all private aifemblies by fubfcription, were
fubmitted to his direction [D].

From the emoluments of thefe feveral employments, he gained
a regular andconfiderable income ; amounting, it is faid, in fome
years, to 5000!. which he fpent with much liberality ; particu-
larly in the maintenance of perhaps fome what too luxurious a
table ; fo that it may be faid, he raifed an income, but never a for-
tune. His foibles, however, if they deferve fo harm a name,
were completely covered by his charity, which was boundlefs.
After a fuccefsful mafquerade, he has been known to give away
feveral hundred pounds at a time. " You know poor objects
of diftrefs better than I do," he would frequently fay to the
father of the gentleman who furnifhed this anecdote, " Be fo
Jcind as to give away this money for me." This well-known
liberality, perhaps, contributed much to his carrying on that
diverfion with fo little oppofition as he met with.

That he was a good judge of muiic, appears from his opera :
but this is all that is known of his mental abilities [E] ; unlefs
we add, what we have good authority for faying in honour to
his memory^ that he walked from Charing-crofs to Temple-bar,
and back again ; and when he came home, wrote down every
fign on each fide the Strand.

As to his perfon, though he was tall and well made, it was
not very pleafing, from an untifual hardnefs of features [F]. But
he was the firft to joke, upon his own uglinefs ; and he once laid
a wager with the earl of Chefierfield, that, within a certain given
time, his lordfhip would not be able to produce fo hideous a face
in all London. After ftricl: fearch, a woman was found, whofe
features were at firft fight thought ilronger than Heidegger's ;
but, upon clapping her head-drefs upon himfelf, he was univer-
fally allowed to have won the wager. Jolly, a well-known
taylor, carrying his bill to a noble duke; his grace, for evafion,

[D] The wr'-ter of this note has been And explains Heidegger to mean "a ftrange
favoured with the fight of an amethyft bird from Switzerland, and not (as fome
inuff box fet in gold, prefented to Het- have fuppofed) the name of an eminent
ciegger in 173 1, by the duke of Lorrain, perfon > who was a man of parts, and, as
afterwards emperor of Germany, which was faid of Petronius, Arbiter Elegan-
Heidegger very highly valued, and be- tiarum."

queathed to his executor Lewis Way, efq; [r] There is a metzotinto of Heideg-

of Richmond, and which is now (July ger by J. Faber, 1742, (other copies dated

1784) in the poileffion of his fon Benja- 1749) from a painting by Vanloo, a ftrik-

min Way, efq; ing likenefs, now (1784) in the poflelfion

[E] Pope (Dunciad, I. 289.) calls the of Ptter Crawford, efq.' His face is alfo
bird which attended on the goddefs, introduced in more than one of Hogarth's

** a monfter of a fowl, prints.

Something betwixt a Heicegger and owl."




Damn your ugly face, I never will pay you till you bring
me an uglier fellow than yourfelf '!" Jolly bowed and retired,
wrote a letter, and fent it by a ferva-nt to Heidegger ; faying,
" his grace wifhed to fee him the next morning on particular
bufmefs." Heidegger attended, and Jolly was there to meet
him; and in confequence, as foon as Heidegger's vifit was over,
Jolly received the cam.

The late facetious duke of Montagu (the memorable con-

triver of the bottle conjurer at the theatre in the Haymarket)

gave an entertainment at the Devil-tavern, Temple-bar, to fe-

veral of the nobility and gentry, fele&ing the molt convivial,

and a few hard drinkers, who were all in the plot. Heidegger

was invited, and a few hours after dinner, was made fo dead

drunk that he was carried out of the room, and laid infenfible

upon a bed. A profound fleep enfued; when the late Mrs.

Salmon's daughter was introduced, who took a mould from his

face in plafter of Paris. From this a maik was made, and a

few days before the next mafqueradc (at which the king promifed

to be prefent, with the countefs of Yarmouth) the duke made

application to Heidegger's valet de chambre, to know what fuit

of clothes he was likely to wear; and then procuring a fimilar

drefs, and a perfon of the fame (laiure, he gave him his in-

ftrutions. On the evening of the mafqueradr, as foon as ht$

majefty was feated (who was always known by the conductor of

the entertainment and the officers of the court, though concealed

by his drefs from the company) Heidegger, as ufual, ordered the

mufic to play " God fave the King ;" but his back was no

fooner turned, than the falfe Heidegger ordered them to ftrike

up " Charly over the Water." The whole co ipany were in-

ftantly thunderftruck, and all the courtiers, not in the plot,

were thrown into a iiupid confternation. Heidegger Hew to the

mufic-gallery, fwore, itamped, and raved, accufed the muficians

of drunkennefs, or of being fet on by fome fecret en my to

ruin him. The king and the countefs laughed fo im moderately,

that they hazarded a difcovery. While Heidegger tbyed \\\ ne

gallery, " God fave the King" was the tune ; bur when, after

fetting matters to rights, he retired to one of the dancing-rooms,

t9 obferve if decorum was kept by the company, the counterfeit

ileppi-ng forward, and placing himfelf upon the floor of the

theatre, juft in front of the mufic gallery, called out in a :u - (t

audible voice, imitating Heidegger, damned them for bkvk-

fceads, had he not juft told them to play " Charly over the

Water r" A paufe enfued ; the muficia .is, who knew his cha-

racter, in their turn thought him either drunk or mad; but, as

he continued his vociferation, " Charly" was played again.

At this repetition of the fuppofed affront, fome of the officers of

guards, who always attended upon thefe occafions, were for

B 4 amending


afcending the gallery, and kicking the muficians out; but the
late duke of Cumberland,^ who could hardly contain himfelf,
interpofed. The company were thrown into great confufion.
" Shame! Shame!" refounded from all parts, and Heidegger
once more flew in a violent rage to that part of the theatre facing
the gallery. Here the duke of Montagu, artfully addre fling
himfelf to him, told him, " the king was in a violent paflion ;
that his befl way was to go inftantly and make an apology, for
certainly the muficians were mad, and afterwards to difcharge
them." Almoft at the fame inftant, he ordered the falfe Hei-
degger to do the fame. The fcene now became truly comic in
the circle before the king. Heidegger had no fooner made a
jr. iteel apology for the infolence of his muficians, but the falfe
Heidegger advanced, and, in a plaintive tone, cried out, " In-
^leed, She, it was not my fault, but that devil's in my likenefs."
poor Heidegger turned round, ftared, daggered, grew pale, and
could not utter a word. The duke then humanely whifpered
in his ear the fum of his plot, and the counterfeit was oidered
to take off his -mafic. Here ended the frolic ; but Heidegger
fwore he would never attend any public amufement, if that witch
the wax-work woman did not break the mould, and melt down
the mafk before his face [oj.

Being once -it fupper with a large company, when a queftion
was, debated, which nation of Europe had the greateft ingenuity;
to the furprife of all prefent, he claimed that character for the
Swifs, and appealed to himfelf for the truth of it. " I was
born a Swifs," faid he, " and came to England without a far-
thing, where I have found means to gain 5000!. a year, and to
fpend it. Now I defy the moft able EngHihman to go to Swit-
zerland, and either to gain that income, or to fpend it there."
He died S pt. 4, 1749, at the advanced age of go years, at his
h -ufe at Richmond in Surrey, where he was buried. He left
behind him one natural daughter, mifs Pappet, who was mar-
ried Sept. 2, 1750, to captain (afterwards Tir Peter) Denis [H].

G] To this occurrence the following Of two hogfheads of Burgundy, Satan

imperfect ftanzas, tranfcribed fiom the drank both.

hand-Writing of t'ope, are fuppofed to re- Then all like a the Devil appear'd,

late. They were found on the back of a And ftrait the whole tables of difhes he

page containing fome part of his tranfla- clear'd :

lion, either of the " Iliad," or " Odyffsy/" Then a friar, then a nun,

in, the Britiih Mufeum. And then he put on

A face all the company took for his own.

XIIT. Even thine, O falfe Heidegger! who wert

Then he went to the fide-board, and call'd fo wicked

for much liquor, To let in the Devil

And glafs after glafs he drank quicker and [H] Who died June 12,1778, being

quicker; then v ; ce- admiral of the red. See me-

So that Heidegger quoth, moirs of him in Gent. Mag. 1780, p,

y f j faith on his oath, 268.




Part of this lady's fortune was a houfe at the north-weft corner
of Queen-fqoare, Ormond-ftreet, which iir Peter afterwards
fold to the late Dr. Campbell, and purchafed a feat in Kent, plea-
fantly fituated near Weftram, then called Valence, but now (by
its prefent proprietor, the earl of Hillflborcugh) Hill Park.
. HEINECCIUS (JoHN-GoTLiBB), a German lawyer, was
born at Eifemberg in 1681, and trained in the ftudy of philo-
fophy and law. He became profeiTor of phiiofophy at Hall, in
1710, and of law in 1721, with the title of counfellor. In
1724, he was invited to Franeker; and, three years after, the
king of PrufTia influenced him to accept the law-profefibrmip at
Francfort upon the Oder. Here he continued till 1733, when
the fame prince aim oft forced him to re fume the chair at Hal],

Online LibraryWilliam TookeA new and general biographical dictionary; containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts of time to the present period .. (Volume 8) → online text (page 1 of 54)