William Usborne Moore.

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Great Britain, March SI, 1890,
23. Chungking 1890 300,000 No report



Regulations Appended to SikHem-Thibet Convention
of 1890 with Great Britain, December 5, 1898.

24. Yatung 1894 Unknown. Noreport.

Convention with Great Britain, March 1, 189k.

25. Manwyne (*) Unknown

Treaty with Japan, Shimoneseki, AprU 17, 1895.

26. Shashita 1896 73,000 Noreport

Chungking (see under No. 23).

27. Suchow 1896 500,000

28. Hangchow 1896 700,000

Gerard Supplementary Convention with France, June
90, 1895.

29. Szemao 1896 15,000 185,974 $137,435

Under Special Article of Treaty with Great Britain,
February U, 1897 (both on West River).t



$0. Samshui

81. Wuchow


1897
1897

(*)
(*)
(*)

(*)


4,000
50,000

Unknown.
Unknown.
Unknown.

Unknown.


38,307
1,767,812


84,309

1,806,044


Opened by an Imperial Decree of March SI, 1898.
38. Yoohow


33. Santuao. . . . , ............. , , T T .,,., T ,, T ...... .






94. Chinwangtao






Opened by Imperial Decree, April 7, 1898.
35. Woosung.....







COMMKRCI WITH THE UNITED STATES.

The imports into the United States and exports from the United States were as follows :

1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897. 1898.

Imports into U. S $20,488,291 $20,686,535 $17,135,028 $20,545,829 $22,028,004 $20,408,862 $20,826,388

Exports from U. S 5,663,497 8,900,457 6,862,426 8,6u8,840 6,921,933 11,924,433 9,90&894

The principal exports to the United States for the year ending June 30, 1896, were : Chemicals,
drugs, dyes, etc., $814,555, of which opium, for smoking, was $729,126 ; hats, bonnets, hoods, materials
for. $917,843; hides and skins, other than furs, $580,030; furs, and manufactures of, $514,146; matting,
$668,813; rice, rice meal, etc., $867,705: silk, unmanufactured, $6,678,726; silk, manufactures of , $289,-
855; sugars (above 16 D. 8.). $902,943: tea. $6,966,766; wool, unmanufactured, $1,600,842.

The principal imports from the United States were: Cotton cloths, $3,854,146; oils, mineral,
refined, $2,166,978; tobacco, manufactures of, $192,138. In 1897, cotton cloths, $7,438,203; oils, mineral,
refined, $3,371,937.



Shipping, Railroads. (See index.)



Honey.

The sole official coinage and the monetary unit of China is the copper cash, of which about
1.600-1,700 = I halkwan tael. and about 22= 1 penny. The silver sycee is the usual medium of ex-
change. Large payments are made by weight of silver bullion, t he standard being the liang, or tael,
which varies at different places. The haikwan (or customs) tael, being one tael weight of pure silver,
was equal in 1896 to 3s. 4.8d., or 5.95 haikwan taels to a pound sterling.

By an Imperial decree, issued during 1890, the silver dollar coined at the new Canton mint is
made current all over the Empire. It is of the same value as the Mexican and United States silver
dollars, and as the Japanese silver yen. Foreign coins are looked upon but as bullion, and usually
taken by weight, except at the treaty ports.

Note.— For further information on money and banking see •* Year Book," Volume I, pages 6T and
68 ; also the *' History of Banking in All Nations," Volume IV, page 547, issued by " The Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin."

* Not opened.

t Under the same article, the following ports on the West River were also made porta of call:
Kungmoon, Kumchuck, Shiuhing, Tanking.



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JAPAN.



81



JAPAN.



Area and Population.

The area and population of the six divisions, as returned January 1, 1805, were as follows :



Central Nippon.
Northern *
Western u .,



Pop.
Square Popu- per

Miles. latum. Sq. M.

38,600 16,206,470 443
80,204 6,880,267 211
20,681 9,442,437 456

Total Nippon.... 87,485 82,029,174 366



Square
Miles.

Shikoku 7,081

Kiushiu 16,840

HokkaidA 36,299



Pop.
Popu- per
lation. Sq. M.
2,913,279 416
6,445,449 883
422,800 11



Grand total.... 147,655 41,810,202 288

The number of foreigners in 1895 was 8,246, of whom 3,642 were Chinese, 1,878 English, 1,023
Americans, 493 Germans. 891 French, 127 Portuguese, 80 Dutch, 222 Russians, and 891 others. In 1888
the population numbered 39,607,234.



Fiscal Affairs.



The following are the Imperial revenues and expenditures, the amounts for the years 1892-93 to
1894-96 being present accounts, 1895-96 and 1896-97 revised estimates, and 1807-98 budget estimates :





1892-93.


1893-94.


1894-95.


1895-96.


1896-97.


1897-98.




Yen.


Yen.


Yen.


Yen.


Yen.


Yen.


Revenue


81,786,314


89,042,210


92,899,683


98,201,815


179,720,380


239,750,581


Expenditure....


. 76,734,740


84,569,700


78,120,589


85,241,483


193,425,717


249,574,286



The national debt at the end of 1896 stood as follows : Consolidated bonds, 172,061,700 yen ; war
bonds, 121,421,985 yen ; 5 per cent, pension bonds, 30,036,120 yen ; currency redemption bonds, 22,000,000
yen ; naval bonds, 16,950,000 yen ; railway bonds, 6,000,000 yen ; old public schools (no interest), 5,486,162
yen; insurrection expenses bonds, 4.000,000 yen; foreign debt, 233,753 yen ; total, 877,189,870 yen. Loans
to be raised in 1897 : Public undertakings loan, 59,280,600 yen ; consolidated bonds, 2,602,260 yen ; rail-
way bonds, 5,827,850 yen. There is also Government paper to be taken into account, amounting to
9,480,000 yen, making the total of Japan's national debt in round numbers 454,000,000 yen.



Agriculture.

The land is cultivated chiefly by peasant proprietors. The land was officially in 1894 thus : Pub-
lic land, used for Government purposes, 9,675 acres; forests, 2,885.776; open field, 1,412,179 acres; mis-
cellaneous (1893-94), 17,420 acres: total, 4,325,050 acres. Private land: Under cultivation, 1,236,917;
homesteads, 93.365; forests, 1,789,438; open fields, 262,774; miscellaneous, 6,718; total, 3,388,212 acres.
The public lands include only those surveyed, and the private only those taxed. The following are
some agricultural statistics :



Rice, acres

Rice, bushels

Wheat, acres

Wheat, bushels.

Barley, acres

Barley, bushels

Kye, acres

Rye, bushels

Tea (in kwan ♦)

Sugar (in kwan *)

Silk, cocoons (in kokut)..
Silk, raw (in kwan ♦)



1802.

6,766,904
189,203,366

1,043,718
17,577,282

1,590.559
40,273,730

1,565,378
31.870,166

7,211,865
10,721.172

1,480,705

1,618,632



1893.


1894.


1895.


6,762.756


8,692,971


7,015,712


205,359,621


207,776,256


198,127,878


1,064,192


1,081,914


1,093,008


15,256,163


19,689,080


19,719,457


1,601.165


1,588,011


1,600,808


33,793,999


42,325.636


42,367,136


1,592,811


1,621,282


1,646.256


30,060,404


36,300,159


34,818,262


7,640,368


7,883,232


8,698,781


12,635,293




14,402,588


1,686,894


1.800,596


2,258,173


1,774,821




1,887,584



1896.

6,830,075
179,655,843

1,082,425
17,632,137

1,594,189
38,955,217

1,648,113
29,396,483

8,600,745
11,822,807

1,836,672

2,299,688



* 1 kwan = 8.28 lbs. avoirdupois.



tl koku = 5.13 bushels.



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82



THE COMMERCIAL YEAR BOOK.



Industries.

Mineral and Metal Production.



1898-94.



1893.



1894-95.



1894.



1805-96.



1895.



Official


Private


Official


Private


Official


Private


Mines.


Mines.


Mines.


Mines.


Mines.


Mines.


81,492


118,469


90,298


121,2*0


90,909


150,047


2,774,696


15,668,925


2,666,919


16.693,617


24364.178


17,000,900


39,575


4,7584234


73,869


6,234,971


86,566


5,0H^W


315,600


4,219,706


322,068


4,860,395


316,442


6,562,864


43,245


250,44 «


13,321


376,622


5,926


513,207


19.929


3,297,175

439,030

6,370,302


284289


4,238,929

418,968

5,001,147







Gold, momme*

Silver "

Couper, kwant

Iron **

Lead **

Coal, tons

Antimony, kwant

Sulphur **

The production of petroleum is steadily increasing. In 1894, the total production equaled 6.193.-
200 gallons; in 1895, 6,669,600 gallons ; in 1896, 9.528,000 gallons; and it is estimated for 1897 as 14,292,000.

The total production of coal in 1896 was 5,249,919 tons, of which 2,194,412 tons were exported,
valued at 8^79,265 yen.

Cotton Spinning.

The following table shows the amount (in pounds) of cotton yarn and thread imported, the
home production, total amount consumed and per capita consumption, and the number of spindles,
from 1888 to 1894:

1888. 1889. 1890. 1891. 1892. 1893. 1804.

Amount imported 63,094.792 56,934,513 42.436,042 23,059,008 32,330,293 25.808,852 21,208,930

Home production 7,371,443 27,848,821 43,241,293 60,257,530 85,206,350 84,630,693 122,730,788



Total 70,466,162 84,787,334 85,679,334 83,316,528 $107,696,936 $109,998,327 $135,466,829



Amount consumed

Am't consumed per capita.
Spindles, perpendicular.. . .

oblique

total



141,921
111.545
253,466



213,729
103,366
317,095



106,511,139
2.5

239,014

99,294

338,308



112,783,405
2.7



135.454,859
3.2
269,669 409,404

70,588 66,588

340,255 475,983



According to the examination made in December, 1895, the number of spindles is over 632,180s,
and the spindles under construction or planned, over 352,427, which, when added together, make a
sum of 964,557.

In 1896, the total number of weaving establishments was 660,408 ; looms, 949,123; weavers, 1,042,-
866, of whom 57,850 were men and 985,016 women. The values of the products were as follows: Silk
textiles, 46,471,401 yen; silk and cotton mixtures, 10,281,272 yen ; cotton fabrics, 37,083,757 yen; hemp
manufactures, 2,021,467 yen ; others, 329,338 yen ; total. 96,187\2.i5 yen.

The state of the cotton spinning industry in December, 1897, stood as follows: Total number of
spinning mills existing, 65: number of spindles, 773,738; weight of yarn spun, 17,466,274 pounds:
weight of cotton consumed, 20,471,141 pounds; weight of waste cotton, 2,770,280 pounds; weight of
coal consumed, 43,886,091 pounds; aggregate horse-power, 21,610; number of male operatives employed,
12,672, and female, 42,636; number of working days. 26; average daily working hours, 12}£; average
daily wages of males, 23.37 sen (11.6 cte.) ; females, 14.57 sen (7.2 cts.) ; cost ot 1 bale of yarn, 85.45 yen
<$42.72H).

The quantity and declared value of raw cotton imported into Japan from the United States,
China, and British India were as follows :



1893.
1894.
1895.



United States «

Pounds. Value.

8,213,786 $636,711

16,065,754 1,340,336

14,994,820 1,169,089



Pounds.

66.901,854

74,994,730

109,562,168



-8 China-



Value.

$3,903,000

4,060, 3)9

6,893,051



, British India >

Pounds. Value.

48,789,874 $8,026,084
56.472,328 3,923,295

62,245,182 3,846,612



Sugar Industry.



The sugar industry has made considerable progress. In 1888, there were produced 72,268.226

f>ounds of refined sugar, valued at $3,331,856, and brown sugar, 73,157,369 pounds, valued at $1,828,742.
n 1897, 196,321,595 pounds of refined, valued at $7,494,818; and brown, 124,262,630 pounds, valued at
$2,404,727.

A tabular statement of the commercial and industrial development since the last war will be
found on page 89, volume III, 4 * Commercial Year Boon."



Foreign Commerce.

The imports and exports of merchandise are shown as follows, in thousands of yen :

1890.

Imports 81,h;17

Exports 56.687



1892.


1893.


1894.


1895.


1896.


1897.


76,952


89.3VS


121.677


138,675


171,674


219,301


91,179


90,420


113,309


136,186


117,843


163,135



♦120 momme = 1 lb. avoirdupois. tl kwan = 8.28 lbs. $ Amount of export subtracted.

Sin addition, there were imported on the seeds in 1893, 28,203.265 lbs., valued at $406,167; in 1804,
13,808,577 lbs., valued at $220,759; in 1895, 11,462,849 lbs., valued at #187,100.



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JAPAX.



83



In 1895, the Imports subject to duty were of the value of 118,680,124 yen, and duty-free 19,994,718
yen. Exports subject to duty, 72,003,837 yen ; duty-free exports, 64,182,491 yen.

The trade with the principal countries was as follows, in thousands of yen :

, Exports to » / Imports from >

1891. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1891. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896.

United States 29,796 27,739 43,324 54,029 31,532 6,840 6,090 10,983 9,276 16,373

Great Britain 5,633 4,996 5,950 7,883 9.012 19,996 27,930 42,190 45,172 59,252

India 988 3,691 4,359 . 4,538 5,614 11,179 12,002 22,517

Hong Kong 12,579 15,689 16,199 18,363 19,966 5,090 8,268 9.000 8,078 9,134

France 15,120 19,532 19,499 22,006 19.027 2,834 3,305 4,348 5,180 7,682

Germany 1,457 1,380 1,518 3,340 2,972 5,127 7,318 7,910 12,233 17,184

Italy 755 1,632 2,900 3,551 2,669 112 87 170 148 183

China 5,828 7,714 8,814 9,135 13,823 8,798 17,098 17,51« 22,985 21,345

Corea 1,466 1,303 2,365 3,831 3,368 4,033 1,999 2,183 2,925 5,119

Other countries, etc. .. . 3,907 10,435 9,048 9,515 10,934 4,463 17,262 16,202 11,262 12,875

Total 79,527 90,420 113,309 136,112 117,843 62,907 89,355 121,677 129,261 171,674



The principal imports and exports were as follows (calendar years), in thousands of yen :



Exports. 1895. 1896.

Rice 7,207 7,957

Mushrooms 523 677

Green tea 8,452 6,004

Seaweed 630 4x7

Vegetable gum 449 596

Cuttlefish 99ti 1,151

Shellfish 397 408

Camphor 1,527 1,119

Fish oil 523 336

Silk, raw. waste, etc 50J29 81,595

Silk goods 16,232 12,599

Carpets, hemp, etc 1,636 1,152

Umbrellas 735 774

Fans, and round fans 430 734

Copper, ingot 1,341 2,423

manufactured 2,124 2.44JI

Matches 4,673 4,986

Coals 5,409 8,879

Lacquered ware 1,083 949

Porcelain and earthenware 1,955 1.975

Floor mats 3,461 3,057

All other articles. 25,674 27,523

™~ ~™ 117,843



Imports. 1895.

I Rice 4,a57

Pulse 2,555

Sugar 11,720

Chlorate of potash 419

Raw cotton 24.822

Cotton yarn 7,083

Cotton goods 4,249

Woolen yarn 951

Flannels 961

Woolen muslin 3,633

Italian cloths 922

Blankets, etc 4,520

Iron and steel rails 926

Iron, bar, etc 2,086

I ron wave and nails 1,732

Watche* 923

Kerosene oil 4,3o4

Oil cake 946

Spinning machinery 1,896

Steam vessels 4,701

All other articles 55,638



Total 136,186



Total 138,675



1896.
5,662
3,475

13,712
429

32.573

11,372
7,862
1,115
1,997
6,498
2,813
5,340
2,595
2,360
2,067
1,897
6,331
3,221
2,992
1,724

54.638



171,674



The increase and decrease of staple imports and exports are shown as follows :



Increase of Staple Exports.

Per Ct.
of
Articles. 1897. 1896. Inc'se.

Raw silk $27,816,000 $14,415,000 93



Cotton yarn 6,746,900

Habutai 4,766,000



2,014,700 235
3,026,000 33



Prepared tea 3,431.000 8,136,000 23



Straw braid 1,592.000

Matches 2,82J,000



1,117,000 43
2,493,000 13



Decrease of Staple Exports.

Per Ct.
of
Articles. 1897. 1896. Dec'se.

Rice $3,073,000 $3,978,600 23

Silk handkerchiefs 1,696,000 2,308.800 26

Mats. 487,000 576,000 15

Lacquer ware 384,000 474.000 11

Porcelain & earth'ware 910,000 987,000 07.7



Decrease



Articles.

Mousseline de laine

Cotton yarn

Cotton piece goods

Woolen cloths

Italian cloths

Flannels

Increase



of Imports.

Per Ct.
of
1897. 18P6. Dec'se.

$1,918,000 $3,249,000 40.9



4.813,000


5,686,000


15


2,914,000


8,776.000


22.8


972,000


1,203,000


19


908,000


1,406,000


85


594,000


998,000


88.6


of Imports.






1897 —


> 1896.



Articles.

Rice

Raw cotton

Sugar

Machinery

Cars

Beans and peas

Kerosene

Bar and rod iron...

Roofing iron

Railway materials..



U.S. U.S.
Currency. Currency.

28 $10,765,000 $2,831,000

14 21,811,000 16,286,000

00 10,002,000 6,926,000

37 6,146,000 3,103,000

60 2,571,000 991,000

16 2,945,000 1,737,000

50 3,834,000 3,1W,000

31 1,524,000 1,179,000

04 1,668,000 1,297,000

18 1,002,000 640,000



Commerce with the United States.



1893. 1894.

Exports from Japan $27,454,220 $19,426,522

Imports into Japan 3,195,494 3,986,815



1895.
$23,695,957
4,634,717



$25,537,038
7,689,685



1897.

$24,009,750

13,255,340



1898.

$25,224,102

20,508,186



The values of the principal exports to the United States for the year ending June 30, 1896, are
as follows : Camphor, exude, $87,975 ; sulphur, crude, $95,244 : hats, bonnets, etc., materials for, $110,001 ;
earthen, stonejind china ware, $387.591 : flax, hemp, jute, manufactures of, $484,936; paper and manu-
factures of, $192,414; rioe and rice meal, $377,678 ; silk, unmanufactured, $12,987,796; silk, manufactured,
12.804,906 ; tea, $4,911,448 ; gold, $4.915 ; silver. $13. Imports from the United States were : Breadstuff 8,
$288,111: cotton, unmanufactured, $1,481,056; iron and steel, and manufactures of. $9u6,713; leather
sole, $474,692; oils, mineral, refined, $3,149,527; gold. $4,630; silver, $3,382,732.



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84 THE COMMERCIAL YEAR BOOK.



Imports and Expokts of Gold and Silver Coin and Bullion.



Gold s , Silver-



Year. Imports. Exports. Imports. Exports.

1892 $329,214 $8,479,022 $18,818,262 $1,179,514

1893 315,424 1,462,200 6,787,996 6,841,434

1894 555,966 3,547,188 36,227,687 80,831,973

1895 1,029,912 2,791,962 4,844.252 24,609,747

1896 1,996,575 10,217,468 9,602,307 28,924,760



Exports.

$6,479,022
1,462,200
3,547,188
2,791,962

10,217,468


* c

Imports.
$18,818,262
6,787,996
36,227,687
4,844.252
9.602,307



Shipping, Railroads, Telegraphs, and Post-Office. (See index.;



Money and Banking.

The following table shows the amount of coinage Issued In the fiscal years stated (ending
March 31) :

1890-91. 1891-92. 1892-93. 1893-94. 1894-96. 1895-96. 1896-97.

Yen, Yen. Yen. Yen. Yen. Yen. Yen.

Gold coins 886,000 1,124,835 1,351,267 1,364,612 1,638,088 1,423,750 962,433

Silver " 8,448,617 8,815,781 12,141,928 13,177,375 28,539.446 20,007,377 12,927,084

Nickel 44 1,667,226 600,125 500,000 726,000 350,000 51,600 660,000

Copper*'

Total lToO~1^843 10,440,741 18,993,196 16,261,987 30,472,533 21,482,627 14,529,467

The total coinage issued from the mint from its foundation in 1870 up to 1897, exclusive of
re-coinage, amounted to 284,782,821 yen.

The paper money in circulation consists of Treasury notes, Kokuritsu Ginko notes, or notes of
the national banks, and Nippon Ginko (or Bank of Japan) notes, exchangeable for silver on presenta-
tion. The note circulation on April 1, 1897, was 203,768.367 yen

In 1895, the Nippon Ginko. or Bank of Japan, had a paid-up capital of 22,500,000 yen : notes in
circulation, 180,336,815 yen ; loans, 328,525,696 yen ; deposits, 540,665,431 yen. The Kokuritsu Ginko (133
head offices having 180 branches), paid-up capital, 48,951,100 yen ; notes in circulation, 20,728,708 yen ;
loans, 518,363,525 yen ; deposits, 1,099,963,525 yen. The Shokin Ginko, or Specie Bank, paid-up capital,
4,500,000 yen ; loans, 47,421,012 yeu ; deposits, 322,413,441 yen.

At the end of 1895 there were 792 private banks, with paid-upcapital of 49,967,260 yen ; loans, 380,-
898,956 yen; deposits, 842.575,973 yen. In 1895-96, 1,605,855 persons deposited 46,397,978 yen, and with-
drew 17,918,294 yen from the post-offices, which act as savings-banks.

For further information relating to Money and Banking* see "A History of Banking in All Na-
tionsi" Volume IV % pages 1*09 to 5UU : published by the" Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin."

The New Currency Law.

The following is a translation of the new currency law, submitted by the Government to the
Diet, taken from the London ** Economist " :

Art. 1. The power of minting and issuing coins belongs to the Government.

Art. 2. A weight of 2 fun (11.674 grains T.) of pure gold shall be the unit of coinage, which shall
be called a yen.

Art. 3. The varieties of coin shall be as follows :

Gold Coins— Pieces of 20 yen, 10 yen, and 5 yen. Silver CoiNS-Pieces of 60 sen, 20 sen, and
10 sen. Nickel Coins— Pieces of 5 sen. Copper Coins— Pieces of 1 sen and 6 rin.

Art. 4. The decimal system shall be adopted for purposes of currency calculation. The hun-
dredth part of a yen shall be called a sen, and the tenth part of a sen shall be called a rin.

Art. 5. The composition of the coins shall be as follows :

Gold Coins— 900 parts of pure gold to 100 parts of copper. Silver Coins— £00 parts of pure
silver to 200 parts of copper. Nickel Coins— 250 parts of nickel to 760 parts of copper. Copper
Coins— 950 parts of copper, 40 parts of tin, and 10 parts of zinc.

Art. 6. The weights of the coins shall be as follows :

The 20-yen gold piece = 4.444 momme (16.6665 grammes). The 10-yen gold piece = 2.222 mom me
(8.8383 srrammes). The 5-yen gold piece = 1.111 momme (4.1666 grammes). The 60-sen silver piece =
8.5942 momme (13.4783 grammes). The 20-sen silver piece = 1.4377 momme (5.3914 grammes). The 10-sen
silver piece = 0.7188 momme (2.6955 grammes). The 5-sen nickel piece = 1.244 momme (4.6654 grammes).
The 1-sen copper piece = 1.9008 momme (7.1280 grammes). The 6-rin copper piece = 0.9504 momme
(3.6640 grammesi.

Art. 7. Gold coins shall be legal tender to any amount. Silver coins shall be legal tender to the
amount of ten yen. Nickel and copper coins shall be legal tender to the amount of one yen.

Art. 8. The dimensions of the coins shall be fixed by Imperial ordinance.

Art. 9. The legal remedy of fineness shall be 1-lOOOths in the case of gold coins, and 3-lOOOths in
the case of silver coins.

Art. 10. The legal remedy of weight shall be as follows :

20-yen gold coin. 0.00864 momm6 (0.0324 gramme), or 0.83 momme (3.1125 grammes) in 1.000 pieces.
10-yen gold coin, 0.00605 momme (0.02369 gramme), or 0.62 momme (2.32> grammes) in 1,000 pieces.
5-yen gold coin, 0.00432 momme (0.0162 gramme), or 0.41 momme (4.5375 grammes) in 1,000 pieces. In
the case of the silver coins, legal remedy of weight shall be 0.02592 momme (0.0972 gramme) for each
piece, or 1.24 momme (4.65 grammes) in each 1,000 pieces of 50 sen ; 0.83 momme (3.1 12a grammes) in each
1,000 pieces of 20 sen ; and 0.41 momme (1.5375 grammes) in each 1,000 pieces of 10 sen.

Art. 11. The minimum circulating weights of the gold coins shall be as follows :

20-yen gold coin 4.42 momm6 (16.575 grammes) ; 10-yen gold coin, 2.21 momme (8.2875 grammes) ;
5-yen gold coin, 1.105 momme (4.1438 grammes).

Art. 12. If in consequence of friction from circulation, any of the gold coins fall below the min-
imum circulating weight, or if any of the silver, nickel, and copper coins become visibly reduced



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PERSIA.



85



owing to the same cause, or if any coins become inconvenient for purposes of circulation, the Gov-
ernment shall exchange such coins for others of the same face value, without making any charge.

Art. 18. If the design upon a coin becomes difficult to distinguish, or if it has been privately re-
Btamped, or otherwise defaced, it shall be regarded as unfit for circulation.

Art. 14. Should any person import gold bullion, and apply to have it minted into gold coin, the
Government shall grant tne application. ,.,,,,„

Art. 15. The gold coins already issued shall circulate on an equality with the gold coins issued
under the provisions of this law. , m m ...

Art. 16. The silver 1-yeu coins already issued shall be gradually extended for gold coins, accord-
ing to the convenience of the Government, at the rate of one gold yen for one silver yen. Pending
the completion of the exchange referred to in the last paragraph, silver 1-yen coins shall be legal to
an unlimited extent, at the rate of one silver yen for one gold yen ; and the suspension of their circu-
lation shall be notified six months in advance by Imperial ordinance. Any or these coins not pre-
sented for exchange within a period of five full years, reckoned from the day on which their circula-
tion is suspended, shall be regarded thenceforth as bullion.

Art. 17. The 5-sen silver coins and the copper coins already issued shall continue in circulation
as before.

Art. 18. From the day of the promulgation of this law, the coinage of 1-yen silver pieces shall
cease; but this restriction shall not apply to silver bullion entrusted to the Government for coinage
prior to that date. ... .

Art. 19. All previous laws or ordinances conflicting with the provisions of this law are hereby
rMcindfid

*■* Art." 20. With the exception of Art. 18, this law shall go into operation from the 1st day of the
10th month of the 30th year of Muji (October 1, 1897).



PERSIA.



The estimated area of Persia is 028,000 square miles. Its population, though variously estimated,
is reported by the Government as having been, in 1881, 7,658,000, divided as follows :



Online LibraryWilliam Usborne MooreThe Commercial year book → online text (page 14 of 125)