William Usborne Moore.

The Commercial year book online

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FRANCE.



15



Annual Production or Wine.

Cider

Hectares Wine. Produced,

under Thousands of Wine Import. Wine Export. Thousands or

Year. Vines. Hectolitres. Hectolitres. Hectolitres. Hectolitres.

1876 2,246,963 82,727 272,730 3,717,690

1885 1,990,686 28,536 8,183,666 2,602,773 13,437,000

1887 1,944,160 24,333 12,282,286 2,401,918

1688 1,843,580 30,102 12,064,000 2,118,000 9,767,000-

J889 1,817,787 23,224 10,470,000 2,166,000 3,701,000

1890 1,816,544 27,416 10,830,462 2,162,129 11,095,000*

1891 1,763,374 30,140 12,278,376 2,049,000 9,280,000

1892. 1,782,588 29,082 9,400,000 1,845.000 15,141,000

1893. 1,793,299 50,700 5,895,000 1,569,000 31,609,000

1894 1,766,841 39,063 4,492.000 1,724,000 15,541,000

1895. 1,747,002 28,688 6,356,000 1,696,000 25,687,000

1896. 1,728,433 44,656 8.818,000 1,783,000 8,074,000

1897 1,708,800 28,000 6,051,260 1,288,000 6,789,000

The imports and exports and cider production are for the ten first months.

Silk culture is carried on in 27 departments of France— most extensively in Drome, Gard,
Ardeoae. and Vaucluse. In 1896, 146,310 persons were employed in this industry; the production of
cocoons was 9,318,765 kilogrammes ; 815,300 kilogrammes of cocoons were exported, valued at 2,932.290
francs, and 2.807,500 kilogrammes of raw silk, valued at 62,667,260 francs. (1 kilogramme = 2.2046.
pounds avdps.)



Coal, Iron, and Steel Production.



Coal and Lignite.

Year. Tons.

1890 25,591,546

1891 25,501,595

1892... 25,697,233

1893 25,172,792

1894 27,417,000

1895 28,019,893

1896 29,310,832

1897 30,735,353









Steef


Iron Ore.
Tons.


Pig Iron.
Tons.


Finished Iron.
Tons.


Ingots.
Tons.


3,471.718


1,982,200


823.369


682,0(0


5,579,286


1,897,400


838,409


638,530


3,706.748


2,067,390


828,519


682,527


3.517,488


2,003,096


808,171


664,032


3,772,000


2,077,647


786,000


663,264


3,680,000


2,003,868


766,793


875,974


4,069,390


2,333,702


823,768


1,128,769




2,472,143


828,273


1,281,595



Textile Industries.

At the date of the latest official data (1893), the productive equipment of France, so far as
respects her textile industries, was as follows :

Number of

Establishments. Steam-Engines.

Cotton, dressing, spinning, weaving 751 1,066

WooLditto 809 975

Silk,ditto 837 733

Flax, ditto , 343 510

Hemp, jute, ditto 75 103

Manufacture of mixed tissues 115 149 6^819

Manufacture of cloth 183 218 6,660

Bleach and dye works 1,766 1,630 20,926

The following statement of the imports and exports of cotton yarn and cloth, and woolens and
silks, affords some indication of the status of these industries, expressed in millions of francs :



Horse-Power.

84,812

35,834

7,923



Year.

1892...
1883...
1804...
1896...
1896...
1897...



4 — Imports — >
Yarn. Cloth.



-Cottons-



/ — Exports * 4 Imports »



-Woolens-



22.5
18.0
16.7
15.4
14.4
12.8



89.1
32.7
32.9
34.3
87.9
86.3



Yarn,



3.1
2.6



Cloth.
96.5
100.5
113.1
118.3
131.4
119.8



Yarn.
12.1
12.6
9.8
13.6
15.4



Cloth.
55.9
50.2
43.6
41.9
45.1
40.0



-Exports *

Cloth.

328.5

278.9

242.3

323.1

294.1

265.5



Imp'ts.

Tissues.
62.2
51.0
41.9
50.2
60.3
62.0



-Silks-



Exp'ts.

Tissues.
249.3
224.5
223.5
270.8
247.0
270.9



Foreign Commerce,



In the following statistics of imports and exports of merchandise " General Trade " includes



all goods entering or leaving the country, while " Special Trade '
ana exports of French origin, expressed in francs :



includes only imports for home use



Year. Imports.

1885 4,930,000,000

1890 5,452,400,000

1891 6,938,300,000

1890 5,135,900,000

1898 4,951,500,000

1894. 4,794,900,000

1896 .' 4,919.600,000

1866 4,928,800,000

1897 6,137,600,000



-General Trade-



Exports.

3,955,800,000
4,840,200,000
4,730,500,000
4.551,300,000
4,326.400,000
4,124.600,000
4,589.300,000
4,593,600,000
4,803,100,000



Special Trade
Im ports.^ Exports.



4,088,400,000
4,436,900,000
4,767,800,000
4,188,000,000
3,853,700,000
8,850,400,000
3,719,900,000
3,798,600,000
3,956,000,000



Digitized by



8,088,100,000
3,753,400,000
8,589,700,000
3,460,700,000
3,236,400.000
8,078,100,000
3,373,800,000
3,400,900,000
8,598,000,000



Google



16



THE COMMERCIAL YEAR BOOK.



The chief divisions of " general " and " special " trades were, in millions of francs :

Imports > ,

" General Trade." 1800. 1808. 1894. 1805. 1898. 1807. 1800.

Food products 1,468 1,480 1,455 1,803 1,458 ....

Raw products 8,480 2,280 2,273 2,337 2,484 ....

Manufactured g'ds 1,060 1,035 1,101 1,100 1,105 ....

Total .. 4,051 4,705 4,019 4,920 5,137 "~

" Special Trade."

Food products 1,445 1,061 1,198 1,035 1.007 1,020 855

Raw products 2,383 2,220 2,104 2,101 2,174 2.310 800

Manufactured g'ds. 600 564 548 584 818 608 1,000

Total 4,437 3,854 3,850 3,720 3,700 3,036 3,753 3^38 3,078 3,374 3^400 3,508



Exports —

1883. 1804. 1805.

1,063 1,002 067

081 937 1,060

2,283 2,185 2,562



1896. 1897.

1,030 1,100

1,021 1,133

2,542 2,570



4,326 4,124 4,580 4,503 4,803



711 666 691

784 755 874

1,742 1,657 1,909



652 721

836 944

1,912 1,938



The chief articles of import and export in the " Special Trade," expressed in millions of francs "
were as follows :



Imports-
Raw wool

Wines

Raw silk

Cereals

'Cotton wool

Coal and coke

Timber, common

-Oilseeds

Hides and furs, raw. . . .

•Coffee

•Copper

Machinery

Minerals

Silk textures

Jjax

Cheese and butter

Cattle

Nitrate of soda

Woolen tissues

Horses

Cotton tissues

Lead

Fish, fresh, salt, etc.. . .

Table fruits

Oils, grass and fatty

(olive excluded)

Tobacco in leaf

Tools and metal goods..

Cocoa

Greases

Olive oil



1894. 1805. 1896. 1807.



317

145

183

364

169

172

147

199

116

147

34

67

53

42

52

33

132

38

44

25

33

26



17
27
24
25
26
21



307

212

226

163

167

167

180

157

134

177

44

50

49

50

60

37

112

43

42

38

34



26

17
32
24
23
24
15



865
294
180
123
167
174
150
148
111
175



51
50
62
40
58
45
45
35
38
29
34
25

19
22
26
23
26
12



844

280

266

247

206

189

155

136

116

105

72

68

63

52

51

42

41

40

40

40

36



Tot'KaU other incPd). 3,850 3,720 3,799 3,956



Exports-
Silk textures

Woolen textures

Wines

Wool, raw, combed,

dyed, and waste

Parisian articles

Cotton textures

Silks

Prepared skins

Clothes and linens

Raw sugar

Cheese and butter

Furs and skins, raw. . . .

Chemical products

Modes & artiflc'l flowers
Skin and leather goods.

Copper

Pottery, glass, & crystal.
Paper & its applicat'ns.
Brandy, spirits, lique'rs.

Timber, common

Sugar, refined

Machinery

Fixed oils other than

olive

Iron and steel, cast

Table fruits.

Fish

Drills

Cotton wool

Horses and mules

Worsted

Coal and coke



1894. 1895. 1896. 1897,



228 271
242 323



124
154
113
89
81
101
49



57
49
80
29
48
48
54
49
48
35



12
88
24
18
23
27
18
13



153

154

118

126

105

96

25

61

94

62

66

83

84

49

61

48

44

41

37

27
16
20
23
24
26
24
31
20



247
204
242

145
161
131



99
85



69
82
47
56
54
49
49
40
46

24

28
29
29
27
25
24
30
19



270



172

160

119

118

103

95

89

86

77

75

71



57
53
52
50
45
44

40
36
85
32

30

28

as

24

23



Tot'l (all other inc'd). 3,078 3,374 3,401 8,598



Chief imports for home use and exports of home goods, to and from the following countries, in
millions of francs :



Imports from—
united Kingdom. . . .

Belgium

Spain

united States

Germany

Italy

British India

Argentine Republic

Russia

Algeria



1892. 1808. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897.



530 492

887 393

278 210

634 317

337 323

132 151

201 217

177 167
166



481 496 511
372 288 282
176 213



314



284

310 310 308

122 115 127

212 163 168

168 180 213

282 195 181



485
288
247
437
309
132
122
211



195 142 208 245 197



1892.
Exports to-
United Kingdom. . . . 1,027

Belgium.,. 593

Germany 355

United States 240

Switzerland 228

Italy 133

Spain 135

Algeria 190

Brazil 70

Argen ti ne Republic . 63



1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 18972



961


9161,0001,0811,13


505


478 497


601


513


336


325 334


340


380


205


186 289


225


242


173


130 163


180


191


128


98 184


115


151


114


109 109


100


98


185


199 203


218


216


75


80 76


69


61


60


51 44


56


51



Commerce with the United States.



Year
ending
June 90.

1888


Imports

from U. S.

Merchandise.

$39,210,000


1889


46,120,000


1890


49,997,000


1891


60,693,000


1892


99,126,000



Exports
to U.S.
Merchandise.
$71,365,000
69,566,000
77,672,000
76.688,000
68,554,000



Year

ending
June 30.

1893....

1894....

1895....

1896....

1897...,



Imports

from U. S.

Merchandise.

$46,619,000

55,315,000

45,149,000

47,041,000

57,505,000



Exports
toTT. 8.
Merchandise.
$76,076,000
47,549,000
61,580,000
66,268,000
67,530,000



The principal articles of import from the United States for the year ending June 80, 1897, wore •
Agricultural implements, $623,956; breadstuffs— corn, $2,113,628; oats, $912,325 ; copper and manufac-



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FRANCE.



17



tures, $6,272,977; cotton, unmanufactured, 126,110,302; grease and soap stock, $1,045,027; iron and steel
and manufactures, $1,380,688 ; oils, mineral, crude, $4,584,562 ; refined, $982,988; oil, cottonseed, $2,601,-
526 ; provisions— tallow, $675,424 ; bog products, $1,203,487 ; other meat products, $579,061 ; tobacco,



Imports and Exports of Specie.'



Gold Coin and Bullion.

Year. Imports.

1885 $47,018,553

1887 17,982,216

1888 19,514,988

1889. 65,161.124

1890. 22,528,197

1891 69,462,638

1892 74,379.010

1893 58,890,873

1894 88,538,554

1895 48,872,298

1896 58,249,195

1897 58,143,000



s.

82


Silver Coin
Year.
1886


on.

Exports.
$26,581,148


21
02
51


18*7

1888

1889


26,738,827
21,021,915
19,818,847


15
20

82


1890

1891

1892


20,822,832
28,055,497
20,739,863


69
01
73
29
00


1893

1894

1895

1896

1897


24,561,540
21,201,688
17,163,361
18,771,282
88,388,000









Shipping, Railroads, Post-Office, and Telegraphs. (See index.)



Banking.



The Bank of France.

Though not a State institution, the Bank of France has the exclusive right to issue circulating
notes. The following statements, from " A History of Banking in All Nations," published recently
by The Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin, show the course of the Bank's circulation
and its stock of coin from 1810 to 1896 inclusive.

Statistics of coin on hand and the Bank's circulation, in millions and hundred thousands of
francs, 1810 to 1898:



Year
1810


Maximum
50.8


-Coin on Hand-
Minimum.
34.1

161.8

104.3

216.3

427.0

411.4

505.3
1,763.7
2,019.9
2,220.5
2,316.0
2,242.1
2,223.7
2,360.6
2,358.2
2,587.2
2,788.1
2,951.1
3,176.2
3,154.7


Average.

423

194.9

145.0

246.9

457.8

513.5

1,130.7

1,974.1

2,176.4

2,422.7

2,361.5

2,301.0

• 2,398.4

2,513.2

2,553.8

2,826.5

2,956.0

3,083.7

3,294.3

3,224.7


, Note Circulate

Maximum. Minimum.

104.1 92.2

171.9 122.2

238.6 201.5

255.3 203.8

515.5 436.3

805.8 703.6

1,814.4 1,359.0

2,481.3 2,206.8

3.063.9 2,719.4

2.973.7 2,658.1

2.929.8 2,551.4
2,891.3 2,516.8
3,123.1 2,616.8
3,259.8 2,893.4
3,288.8 2,922.9
3,335.7 3,037.0
3,589.7 3.255.9
3,675.1 3,314.7

3,682*15 3,458*6


>n *

Average.

1015


1820

1830


218.3

172.5


153.8
223.6


1840


261.2


223.4


1850.


482.1


485.6


1860.


573.0


749.6


1870


1,318.5


1,544.3


1880


2,103.6


2,305.4


1885

1886


2,281.5

2,525.8


2,846.0
2,789.2


1887

1888


2,401.8

2,347.1


2,719.3
2,676.4


1889


2,598.6


2,876.1


1890


2,592.8


3,060.4


1891


2,641.8


3,084.6


1892


2,983.5


3,151.3


1898


3,004.6


3,445.5
3,476.5


1894


3,304.6


1895


3,390.9




1898


3,334.9











* These statistics are carried back to the year 1815 in Volume I of this work, at pages 41 and 42.
They are converted from £'s sterling at a value of $5.00 to the £.



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18



THE COMMERCIAL YEAH BOOK.



Classification of the coin on hand in the Bank of France at the end of each year, in millions and
hundred thousands of francs, 1870 to 1897 :



Year.

1870

1880


Gold.
428.8
552.4
1,155.4
1,106.6
1,206.0
1,261.7
1,120.2


Silver.
68.4
1,221.8
1,083.6
1,190.0
1,228.0
1,242.0
1,240.8


Total.
497.2
1,774.2
2,238.8
2,295.6
2,234.0
2,503.9
2,361.0


Year.

1891

1892

1893


Gold.
1,336.8
1,704.9
1,702.5
2,060.8
1,950.3
1,912.0
. 1,945.5


Silver.
1,252.7
1,267.0


1885


1.261.3


1887

1888


1894

1895

1896

18*17


1,238.0
1,234.6


1889

1890


1,227.5
1,205.2



Totai.
2,589.5
2,971.9
2,963.8
3,298.6
3,184.9
3,139.5
8,150.7



The capital of the Bank of France is estimated at 182,500,000 francs. The commercial discounts
of the Bank of France,* in millions and hundred thousands of francs, from 1810 to 1894, were as fol-
lows:



Year.
1810


Single Pieces.


Amount.
792.9
803.7
617.5
1,105.8
1,171.1
4,964.8
6,627.4
8,696.9
9,250.1
8,802.9
8,268.7
8.586.4
9,180.4
9,634.6
9,968/8
8,415.8
8,837.0
8,725.0


/—

Maximum

187.6

67.6

196.1

211.1

149.6

582.6

1,380.7

1,018.2

1,116.4

1,125.6

792.2

816.7

1,076.7

984.6

1,437.0

870.7

802.4

1,030.7


Paper on Hand-
Minimum.
137.7

26.2
113.7
152.9

98.3
428.6
494.7
579.3
582.7
413.7
430.6
495.1
491.0
493.2
533.3
409.7
475.9
380.0


Average.
162.1


1820


114,977


38.9


1830


274,912


144.4


1840

1850


67«,676 •

816,657


174.7
114.3


1860


3,684,852


493.3


1870

1880


4,687,762

9,186,577


738.1
758.5


1885


11,660,589


784.3


1886


11,377,405


620.8


1887


11,579,661


577.9


1888


11,958.137


621.1


1889

1890

1891

1892

1893

1894


12,368,431

12,583,222

13.277,234

13,089,468

13,353,912

13,489,506


713.8
669.6
760.7
550.4
579.3
564.6



The condition of the Bank of France is shown below for the weeks ending September 1 and 8,
1893' and the corresponding period of 1897, in thousands of pounds sterling :



Assets.
Coin and bullion— gold-
Coin and bullion— silver
Government securities.
Discounts and advances



Sept. 8, Sept. 1, Sept. 9,



1898.
£75,164
49,791
14.104
39,151



1898.
£75,368
49,860
14,104
43,049



1B9<

£80,880
48.693
14,104
37,157



Sept. 8, Sept. 1, Sept. 9,
Liabilities. 1898. 1898. 1897.

Notes £140,709 £141,658 £144.124

Government deposits.. 10,634 12,860 7,918
Private deposits 18,694 18,907 19,737



The following statement, from ** A History of Banking in All Nations,*' Volume TIT, page 131,
shows the amount of paper discounted annually by all the banks of France from 1881 to 1894:



Year.

1881

1882

1883

1884

1885

1886

1887

1888

1889

1890

1891

1892

1893.

1894



Stamp Duty.
Francs.
15,104,600
15,050,400
15,182,400
14,397,900
13,585,800
13,220,800
13,220,000
13,445,800
13,58H,900
13,943,200
14.272,200
11,4X2,200
11,552,000
11,197,000



Gross Amount of Paper. Net Amount of Paper.
Francs. "



The transactions of the Paris Clearing House were as follows for recent years, expressed in mill-
iards of francs, 00,000's omitted :









Paper Not








Paper Not




Paper




Cleared but




Paper




Cleared but




Presented


Paper


Settled by




Presented


Paper


Settled by


Years.


for Clearing.


Cleured.


Orders.


Years. •


for Clearing.


Cleared.


Orders.


1889-90


5.140,9


4,136,2


1,004,7


1892-93


4,715,2


3,823,8


891,4


1890-91


6,0(H,9


4,721,8


1,282,0


1893-94


5,379,3


4,360,2


1,019,1


1891-92


4,868,8


3,889,6


979,2


1894-95


6,143.5


5,527,8


615,9



♦From "A History of Banklnsr in All Nations," Volume III, page 81;
Jou.mil of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.



published by Tht



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FRANCE.



19



National Savings-banks.



' Year Number

ending Post Cor-
Dee. 81. respondents.

1885 6,620

1800 8,817

1886 7,891

1896 7,889







Average


r Number


Amount Due


Credit to


Accounts


to Depositors.


Each De-


its. Open.


Francs.


positor.


692,582


154,155,572


222.59


1,504,688


418,439,048


274.76


2,488.075


758,458,528


802.82


2,682,908


784,950,207


292.57



Ratio of Ex-
pense of Ad-
ministration
to Amount
Due Depos-
itors.
Per Cent.
0.56
0.47
0.45
0.42



Honey.



The Monetary Union between France, Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy wa* formed in 1865, and
was joined by Greece in 1868. The convention was renewed in 1878, 1885, and 1890. These countries
have their gold and silver coins of the same weight and fineness, and the same system is followed in
Finland, Roumania, Servia, Spain, and, partially, in several of the South American republics.

[For gold and silver coins see Index.]

There is a double standard of value, gold and silver, the ratio being theoretically 1554 to 1. Of
silver coins, however, only 6-frano pieces are legal tender, and of these the free coinage has been sus-
pended since 1876.

Nora.— For further information see " Year Book," Volume I, pages 61 and 62, and subsequent
issues.

Coinage.



The amount of money coined in France during recent years has been as follows. Id francs :



1895.
1896.



Year.



Gold.
108,006,980
112,538,240



Silver.
♦8,000,000



Bronze.
110,000
829,423



Total.
116,116.980
113,387,733



* Token money.



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Google



20



THE COMMERCIAL YEAR BOOK.



GERMANY.



Area and Population.



The following statement shows the area and population of the twenty-flve States of Germany,
and of the Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine, as returned at the three census periods of 1885, 1890, and 1896 :

Area
English

States of the Empire. Sq. Miles.

Prussia 384,4(53

Bavaria 29,282

Wttrttemberg 7,528

Baden 5,821

8axony 5,787

Mecklenburg-Schwerin 5,135

Hesse 2,965

Oldenburg 2,479

Brunswick 1,424

Saxe- Weimar 1,388

Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1,131

Saxe-Meiningen 953

Anhalt 906

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 755

Saxe-Altenburg. ■. 511

Lippe 469

Wafdeck 433

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 363

Schwarzburg-Sonderehausen 333

Reuss-Schlefz 319

Schaumburg-Lippe 131

Reuss-Greiz 122

Hamburg 158

Lttbeck 115

Bremen 99

Alsace-Lorraine 5,600

Total 208,670



Population


Population


Population


per Square


t Dec. 1,1885.


Dec. 1, 1890.
29,957,367


June 14, 1895.


Mile, 1893.


28,318,470


81,855,123


288.9


5,420,199


5,594,982


6,818,544


198.7


1,995,185


2,086,522


2,081,151


276.4


1,601,255


1,657.867


1,725,464


296.4


3,182.008


3,502,684


8,787,688


654.5


575,152


578,342


507,436


116.2


956,611


992,883


1,039,020


350.3


341,525


354,968


373,739


150.7


372,452


403,773


434,213


304.9


313,946


326,091


389.217


244.2


98,371


97,978


101,540


89.7


214,884


223,832


234,005


245.5


248.166


271,963


298,298


323.5


198,829


206,613


216,603


286.9


161,460


170,864


180,313


352.2


123,212


128,495


134.854


286.6


56,575


67,281


57,766


188.4


83,836


85,863


88,685


244.0


73,606


75,510


78,074


234.9


110,598


119,811


132,130


414.2


37.204


39,163


41,224 *


314.7


55,904


62,754


67,454


552.0


514,620


622,530


681,632


4,314.1


67,658


76.485


88,324


724.5


165,628


180,443


196,404


1,983.8


1,564,355


1,608,506
49,428,470


1,640,986
52,279,901


293.0


46,855,704


250.5



Population According to Occupation, with Percentage, 1882 and 1895.

/ Number- » ^-Percentage—*

1882. 1895. 1882. 1895.

Agriculture, cattle rearing, etc 18,840,818 18,068,663 41.6 34.9

Forestry, hunting, fishing 384,637 432,644 0.8 0,8

Mining, metal works, ancf other industries 16,058,080 20,253,241 35.5 39.1

Commerce and trade 4,531,080 5,966,846 10.0 11.5

Domestic and other service 938,294 886,807 2.0 1.7

Professions 2,222,982 2,835.014 4.9 6.5

Without profession or occupation 2,246,222 3,327,069 5.0 6.4

Total 4^22018 61,770,284

Emigration from German States.



Years.

Average. Total.

1892 116,339

1893 87,677

1894 40,964

1895 37,498

J896 33,824



To




To Other








United


To


American


To


To


To


States.


Brazil.


Countries.


Africa.


Asia. Australia


111,806


796


2,765


476


120


376


78.249


1,173


7.262


586


146


261


a5,902


1,288


2,638


760


151


225


32,503


1,405


2.359


886


134


211


29,007


1,001


2,152


1,346


144


174








Digitized by


Gock


>Ie



GERMANY.



21



Fiscal Affairs.

The following statement shows the revenue and expenditure (in thousands of marks) for the
last six years, the figures for the last three years being taken from the budget estimates :



Years ending

March 3L

1892-93


Ordinary.
1,000 M.
1,068,699
1,117,570
1,185,643
1,229,860
1,219,714
1,271,638


Revenue

Extraordinary

(Loans, etc.)

1,000 M.

67,938

172,018

158,449

64,256

28,159

56,764


Total.
1,000 M.
1,136,637
1,289,588
1,344,092
1,294,116
1,247,873
1,328,302


Ordinary.
1,000 M.
1,088,671
1,079,544
1,190,787
1,232,677
1,227,169
1,270,698


—Expenditure —

Extraordinary

(Military, etc.)

1,000 M.

155,560

172,408

146,153

74,504

28,159

67,604


Total.
1,000 M.
1,244,281


1893-94


1,269,952


1894-96


1,336,940


1896-96


1,307,181


1896-97

1897-98


1,255,318
1,328,302



The amounts raised by customs and excise and stamps were as follows (in thousands of marks) :

Estimated.
1892-93. 1893-94. 1894-95. 1895-96. 1896-97. 1897-98.

Customs and excise 620,004 607,080 642,007 661,639 634,665 658,131

Stamps 31,303 31,203 48,994 64,747 61,000 61,873

Total 651,307 638,283 691,001 726,886 695,665 715,004

On October 31, 1896, the public debt amounted to 2,126,827,300 marks. Of this amount 450,000.000
bears interest at 4 per cent., 790,000,000 at 3V$ per cent., and 886,827.300 at 3 per cent. There also exists
an unfunded debt, represented by ** Reichs-Kassenscheine," or imperial treasure bills, outstanding
on March 31, 1895, to the amount of 120,000,000 marks. As a set-off against the debt there exists a
variety of invested funds. The fund for invalids consisted of 447,708,900 marks in 1895. The war
treasure fund of 120,000,000 marks is not invested, but preserved in gold at Spandau.



Agriculture.



The total yield of farm products in the years indicated, in metric tons of 2,200 lbs., or hectolitres
of 26.417 gallons, and in tons or hectolitres per hectare, was as follows :

, 1893-94 » . 1894-95 » , 1895-96 » , 1896-97 *

Per Per Per Per

Tons. Hect. Tons. Hect. Tons. Hect. Ton*. Hect.

Wheat 2,994,823 1.47 3,012,271 1.52 2,807,557 1.45 3,008,385 1.56

Rye 7,460,883 1.24 7,075,020 1.17 6,595,758 1.12 7,232,320 1.21

Barley 1,946,944 1.20 3,432,913 1.49 2,411,731 1.43 2,317,334 1.38

Oats 3^42,313 0.83 6,250,152 1.34 5,252,590 1.30 4,968,272 1.25

Buckwheat 93,825 0.55 93,556 0.58 103,924 0.67 95,205 0.63

Potatoes 32,277,851 10.63 29,049,238 9.60 31,786,621 10.42 29,278,132 9.00

Hay 11,490,787 1.94 18,970,259 3.21 21,001,621 4.27 19,943,995 3.37

Beet-root (sugar) 9,794,482 24.79 12,537,429 28.53 11,196,320 27.53 12,616,432 29.02

Beet-root (fodder) 8,086,699 18.37 10,088,216 22.58 9,265,607 20.21 10,526,403 22.83

Tobacco 32,082 2.11 38,317 2.18 48,546 2.30

Hops 10,640 0.25 33,109 0.76 30,181 0.72 25,325 0.62

Hectol'8. HectoPs. Hectors. Hectors.

Wine 3,820^12 33.0 2,824,422 24.2 2,011,637 17.3 5,050,808 43.4

1 hectare = 2.471 acres.

The number of live stock in the German Empire is shown as follows :

t Cattle >

Year. Horses. Mules. Asses. Cows. Others. Total. Sheep. Pigs. Goats.



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