William Usborne Moore.

The Commercial year book online

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Other Statistics.
Precious Mbtals,

Postal Service,
Consular Service,

will be found under appropriate headings in other parts of this volume.

t Exclusive of Alaska.

Digitized by




(Revised by the Secretary of the Civil Service Commission.)

The Civil Service Act "To Regulate and Improve the Civil Service of the United States** was
passed on January 16. 1888. It provides for the appointment of three Commissioners, a Chief Exam-
iner, a Secretary, and other employes, and makes it the duty of the Commission to aid the President,
as he may request, in preparing suitable rules for carrying the Act into effect, to make regulations
to govern all examinations held under the provisions of the Act, and to control such examinations.
The main purpose of the Act is to establish a system of examinations for ascertaining the fitness of
applicants for performance of the public work. In place of the machinery of patronage, largely
based on official favor and social and political influence, it substitutes a merit system of competitive
examinations for appointment and promotion in the Civil Service, open to all citizens alike, and for-
bids discrimination for political or religious reasons. Among others, the Act contains provisions
forbidding any person in the service of the United States from levying upon or collecting from
persons in the Executive Civil Service contributions to be devoted to political objects; the collection
of such contributions in any public building of the United States; or discrimination against
persons who do not make such contributions or render political service.

The number of persons regularly employed in the Executive Civil Service of the United States
is about 179,000, of whom 80,834 are classified subject to competitive examination or registration under
the Civil Service Act and rules. The total number of persons in the Classified Civil Service (by which
is meant all that part of the Executive Civil Service embraced within the provisions of the Civil
8ervice Act and rules) is 83,817. Of this number, 78.728 are classified by reason of designation, duties
performed, or compensation, and of these 3,483 are required merely to pass a non-competitive exami-
nation, or are excepted from examination (2,240 of the latter class being Indians) ; 5,063 are classified
under regulations of the Navy Department approved by the Commission and sanctioned by the
President: and 26 are classified whose appointments are made by the President solely. The classified
Civil Service does not include persons whose appointments are subject to confirmation by the Senate,
or.mere laborers or workmen.

The Classified Civil Service is arranged in the following branches : The Departmental Service
(including therein it he Navy- Yard Service), with 46,998 positions, of which 3,368 are excepted from
examination (2,240 of these being filled by Indians) ; the Post-Offlce Service, with 28^16 positions, of
which 502 are excepted from examination : the Government Printing Service, with 2,816 positions ;
the Custom-House Service, with 4,545 positions, of which 816 are subject to non-competitive ex-
amination ; and the Internal Revenue Service, with 8,168 positions, of which 217 are subject to non-
competitive examination.

The examinations cover a wide range of subjects, and are practical in character, adapted to
the duties of the places to be filled. Examinations are held twice a year in every State and Terri-
tory at fixed times and places. In some of the principal examinations for positions requiring tech-
nical, professional, or scientific knowledge, an investigation is made into the business experience, as
well as the educational qualifications, of competitors. In other examinations, for certain trades and
other positions, no scholastic tests are given, relative fitness being determined by consideration of
the experience and physical ability of applicants. Persons desiring information respecting the
Postal. Customs, Internal Revenue, Light-House. Life-Saving, Navy- Yard, or Marine Hospital Service,
or positions in the Engineer Department at Large or Ordnance Department at Large, should make
application to the local board of examiners at the classified office at which service is sought. For
other branches of the service, application should be made to the Civil Service Commission at

Few women are appointed to clerical positions in the departments at Washington. A few re-
ceive appointments as stenographers and typewriters. Women have the best chance for appoint-
ment as assistant microscopists in the branch offices of the Bureau of Animal Industry at the various
stock-yards throughout the country, and as teachers, matrons, seamstresses, etc., in the Indian Ser-
vice, the salaries of which are from $400 to $720 a year. Men have the best chance for appointment
as stenographers and typewriters, draftsmen, meat inspectors, patent examiners, flsh-culturists. civil
engineers, and other positions requiring technical qualifications.

No applicant is admitted to an examination in any one of the recognized trades, such as that of
compositor or bookbinder in the Government Printing Office, unless he has had five years' experi-
ence in his trade, one of which must have been as a journeyman. This information is obtained
by personal questions relating to the applicant's experience at his trade, and the certificates of per-
sons who have employed him. For ordinary clerical places the examination is confined to orthogra-
phy, penmanship, copying, letter- writing, and simple arithmetic. Patent examiners are examined in
physics, technics, mathematics, chemistry, and mechanical drawing. Meat inspectors are examined
in letter- writing, veterinary anatomy and physiology, veterinary pathology, and meat inspection.
One of the practical tests for post-office clerks and railway mail -*— •— r - ■ - •

„ ........ / mail clerks is an exercise in reading

manuscript addresses. Specimen sets of examination questions will be furnished by the Commission
upon request. The Consular Service is not within the Classified Civil Service. Examinations for
positions therein are non-competitive, and conducted by a board of the Department of State.

Persons who served in the military or naval service of the United States, and were discharged
by reason of disabilities resulting from wounds or sickness incurred in the line of duty, are given cer-
tain preferences in the Classified Civil Service. They are released from all maximum age limitations,
are eligible for appointment at a grade of 65, while others are obliged to obtain a grade of 70, and are
certified to appointing officers before all others. Subject, to the other conditions of the rules, any per-
son who served in the military or naval service of the United States in the war of the rebellion, and
was honorably discharged therefrom, or the widow of any such person, or any army nurse of said war,
may be reinstated without regard to the length of time he or she has been separated from the service.

Appointments in the departments at Washington and in the Government Printing Office are
required to be apportioned among the States and Territories upon the basis of population. Upon
the occurrence of a vacancy, the appointment to fill it, if not made by promotion, reduction, transfer,
or reinstatement, must be made by selection from the three ellgibles of highest grade on the appro-
priate register.

Provision is made in the rules for transfer from one department or office to another ; for rein-
statement to the service within a Deriod of one year from the date of separation, where there has
been no misconduct on the part of the person separated (no limitation as to time being recognized in
the cases of the soldiers, sailors, army nurses, and widows of the war of the rebellion), and for exami-
nations for promotion.

The following provisions have been adopted for theprotection of Government employes :

"Any person in the Executive Civil Service of the united States who shall willfully violate any
of the provisions of the Civil Service Act, or of these rules, shall be dismissed from office.*'

Digitized by



♦ ho w,.l^£ er ? < ? n * lD t h 2. Exec "i ive Civil Service shall use his official authority or official influence for
the purpose of interfering with an election or controlling the result thereof/ 1

offo m ^?°^^ nln JL he ^ e ? u H ve * CIvl ! Servlce shaU dismiss, or cause to be dismissed, or make any
a * te ™JP tto P r ^ ur e the dismissal ot^^^ tbe official rank or compensation of,

any other person therein, because of his political or religious opinions or affiliations." «*"«" «*.

, llfif "„®^^ 1 va L sha ^^ efrom « 1 a ^yppsition subject to competitive examination except for
£?} Zf^l a K n ?u Upon T^J*?. 11 ^^ 68 . *}?* ™ th the nead of the department or other appointing officer,
and of which the accused shall have f ull notice and an opportunity to make defense?*^

d.,tv n^ifoffl^^^TTSS^S?^^ ^ whe n rulesshall hayo been promulgated " it shall be the
S3SL° ♦?iA ffl 4 Cer9 ii 0f the United ? tate9 iB the departments and offices to which any such rules may
relate, to aid, in all proper ways, in carrying said rules, and any modification thereof, into effect."
-k^o J°I Inf ^ rm . at i£ n HSSt 1 ,? 8, to examinations for the service of the State of New York, application
^ , f^K m ?i et ?« the ,?^ 1 ^r v,TO g o mmission at Albany, N. Y., and for tbe service of SewYork
City, to the Municipal Supervisory Board at Cooper Union.


Owners of trade-marks used in commerce with foreign nations, or with the Indian tribes, pro-
vided such owners arc domiciled in the United States, or in any country granting similar privileges to
citizens of the United States, are entitled to have their trade-marks registered.

The application for registry must be sent to the Patent Office in Washington, accompanied by
a statement showing : 1. The name, domicile, location and citizenship of the applicant ; 2. The class of
merchandise and the particular description of goods to which the trade-mark has been appropriated ;
3. A description of the trade-mark itself, with fac-similes of it, and a statement of the way in which
it is to be affixed to the goods, and the length of time during which it has been used.

The application must be accompanied by a written declaration, verified by the person, or by a
member of a firm, or by an officer of a corporation applying, to the effect that such person, firm or
corporation has at the time a right to the use of the trade-mark, and that no other person, firm or
corporation has a right to such use, either in the identical form or in any such near resemblance
thereto as might be calculated to deceive; that the trade-mark is used in commerce with foreign
nations or Indian tribes, and that the description and fac-similes presented for registry truly repre-
sent the trade-mark.

The fee for registering a trade-mark is $25.

A trade-mark will not be admitted to registry if it is merely the name of the applicant ; or if it
is identical with a registered or known trade-mark owned by another and appropriate to the same
class of merchandise; or if it so nearly resembles some other person's lawful trade-mark as to be
likely to cause confusion or mistake in the mind of the public, or to deceive purchasers.

Copies of trade-marks and of statements and declarations filed therewith, and certificates of
registry may be used as evidence in any suit in which the trade-marks are brought in controversy ;
and the registry is prima facie evidence of ownership.

The certificate of registry remains in force for 90 years, except where the trade-mark is applied
to articles not manufactured in this country and receives protection under the laws of a foreign
country for a shorter period, in which case it ceases to have any force in this country at the time the
trade-mark ceases to be exclusive property elsewhere.

At any time during the six months prior to the expiration of the registry, the certificate may
be renewed on the same terms and for a like period.

Any one who counterfeits, copies or colorably imitates a registered trade-mark and affixes it to
merchandise of substantially the same kind as that described in the registration is liable to an action
for damages at the suit of the owner of the registered trade-mark, and he may also be enjoined from
continuing the wrongful use. One who procures the registry of a trade-mark by false or fraudulent
means is liable in damages to any person injured thereby.

No imported article which copies or imitates the name or trade-mark of any domestic manufac-
ture or manufacturer can be admitted to entry at a custom house. Any domestic manufacturer who
has a trade-mark may require his name and residence and a description of the trade-mark to be
recorded in books kept for that purpose in the Treasury Department, and may furnish to the Depart-
ment fac-similes of such trade-marks ; and then it is the duty of the Secretary of the Treasury to
send one or more copies of the same to each collector. This provision applies equally to unregistered
and to registered trade-marks.

Trade labels are entered and registered in conformity with the regulations provided by law as to
copyright of prints, except that the fee for recording the title of any print or label not a trade-mark

Digitized by




Unaer the International Copyright Act (approved' March 8, 1801 ; took effect July 1, 1801), any
United States citizen, or citizen or subject of foreign nations granting copyright to United States
citizens on substantially the same basis with their own citizens, or which become parties to an inter-
national agreement for reciprocity in copyright, who is " the author, inventor, designer or proprietor
of any book., map, chart, dramatic or musical composition, engraving, cut, print or photograph or
negative thereof, or of a painting, drawing, chromo, statue, statuary, and of models or designs
intended to be perfected as works of the fine arts, and the executors, administrators or assigns of any
such person " may secure for twenty-eight years the sole liberty or printing, reprinting, publishing,
completing, copying, executing, finishing and vending the same; and, in case of a dramatic composi-
tion, of publicly performing or representing it or causing it to be performed or represented by others.
The applicant, on or before the day of publication in this or any foreign country, must deliver
at the office of the Librarian of Congress, or deposit in the mail within the United States, addressed to
him at Washington, D. C, a printed copy of the title of the book, map, etc., or a description of the
painting, etc., or a description or title and a photograph of the model or design for a work of the fine
arts for which he desires a copyright. He must also, not later than the day of publication in this or
any foreign country, deliver at the Librarian's office, or deposit in the mall within the United States,
addressed to him at Washington, D. C, two copies of a book, photograph, chromo or lithograph
printed from the type set within the United States, or from plates made therefrom, or from nega-
tives or drawings on stone made within the United States, or from transfers made therefrom, or a
photograph of a painting, drawing, statue, model or design. The Librarian's fees are : 1. For record-
ing the title or description of any copyright book or other article, 60 cents. 2. For every copy under
seal of such record actually given to the person claiming the copyright, or his assigns, 60 cents. 8.
For recording and certifying any Instrument of writing for the assignment of a copyright, |L 4. For
every copy of an assignment, 91. The charge for recording the title or description of any article
entered for copyright, the production of a non-resident alien. Is 91. The Secretary of the Treasury
prints weekly catalogues of copyright publications for distribution at a charge of 95 the year.

Proprietors of copyrights must send to the Librarian a copy of all subsequent editions In which
substantial changes are made. Authors have exclusive right to dramatize or translate their works
copyrighted in the United States. An author, inventor or designer, or his widow or children, may
secure an extension of the copyright for H years by recording the title a second time within 6 months
before the expiration of the first period. (The title of a periodical should include the date and num-
ber ; and each number of a periodical requires a separate entry of copyright.)

No copyright is valid unless notice is given by inserting 3n every copy published ^on;: the; title
page or the page following, if St be a book ; or if a map, chart, musical composition, print, cut,
engraving, photograph, painting, drawing, chromo, statue, statuary, or model or design intended to
oe perfected as a work of the fine arts, by inscribing upon some portion thereof or on the substance
on which the same is mounted, the following words, viz.: " Entered according to act of Congress in the

year , by , in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington," or at the option of the

person entering the copyright, the words : ** Copyright, 15-, by ." The penalty for unauthorized

use of copyright notice is $100. Every person who shall, " without the consent of the proprietor of
the copyright first obtained in writing, signed in presence of two or more witnesses, print, publish,
dramatize, translate or import, or knowing the same to be so printed, published, dramatized, trans-
lated or imported, shall sell or expose to sale" any copy of a copyrighted book, must forfeit every
copy to the proprietor and is liable for damages in a civil action. In the case of paintings or statuary,
the infringer forfeit s $10 for every copy he sells, possesses or exposes for sale. With other copyrighted
articles, he forfeits the plates and $1 for every sheet he possesses or exposes for sale: Provided, how-
ever, that in case of infringement of the copyright of a photograph made from any object not a work
of the fine arts, the forfeiture shall not be less than $100, nor more than $6,000 ; and in case of infringe-
ment of the copyright of a painting, drawing, statue, engraving, etching, print, or model or design
for a work of the fine arts, or of a photograph of a work of the fine arts, the forfeiture shall not be
lees than $250 nor more than $10,000. Persons purchasing for use, and not for sale, may import, subject
to duty, not more than two foreign copies of a copyrighted book.

Switzerland France, Belgium, England, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Mexico,
and Chili have been admitted to the benefits of the new law. For an American citizen to secure
copyright in Great Britain, the title must be entered at Stationers* Hall, London, the fee for which
is five shillings sterling ; the work must be published in Great Britain simultaneously with Its pub-
lication in the United States, and five copies of the publication are required.

A foreigner may secure copyright in France by depositing two copies of the publication at the
Ministry of the Interior in Paris.

In Ger man y a foreigner must enter his work in the general registry book of copyrights at Leip-
zig and have it published by a firm having its place of business within the German Empire.

Copyright in Canada is to be registered with the Minister of Agriculture, fee $1 ; the work to be
published in Canada.

Digitized by




First Class.

Letters.— The rate of postage od letters (sealed or unsealed) sent by mall from one post office to
another within the United States, or posted at a city or town where letter carriers are employed,
addressed for local delivery in such city or town, is two cents an ounce or fraction thereof.

All packages sealed or closed against inspection (except proprietary articles, such as pills,
powders, etc, put up in original trade packages), all typewritten matter, all printed matter contain-
ing writing (except corrected proof sheets, books or other printed articles with written compliment-
ary dedications or inscriptions, and circulars with written dates, addresses and signatures), and all
written matter except manuscript accompanying proof sheets of the same, is subject to postage at
letter rates.

All letters (and all other articles subject to letter rates) must be prepaid to the amount of at
least two cents or they cannot be forwarded by mail.

Ordinary Postal Cards.— The postage of one cen'j each is paid by the stamp impressed on
these cards, and no further payment is required.

Double (or Reply) Postal Cards.— These consist of two attached cards- one for the original
message, the other to be detached and used for reply by the person originally addressed. The original
sender may write or print his name and address on the reply card, or write or print a message thereon
to be signed or filled up by the original addressee. The price of the double card is two cents.

Private Mailing Cards.- '• That from and after the first day of July, 1808, it shall be lawful
to transmit by mail, at the postage of a cent apiece, payable by stamps to be affixed by the sender
and under such regulations as the Postmaster-General may prescribe, written messages on private
mailing cards, such cards to be sent openly in the mails, to be no larger than the size fixed by the con-
vention of the Universal Postal Union, and to be approximately of the same form, quality, and weight
as the stamped postal card now in general use in the United States." ,

Users of mailing cards must conform to these rules :

1. Cards must not exceed the size of what is now known as the " H " postal card, which is 3J4
by 5H inches in dimensions ; nor must they be smaller than the " K " postal card, the size of which is
115-16 by 4 15-16 inches.

2. The quality of the cards must be substantially that of the Government postal cards, and
weigh about 6 lbs. 3 ounces to the thousand.

8. The color of the cards may be white, cream, light gray, or the shade of the Government card,
which is light buff.

4. The cards must bear these words, in print, on the address side : " Private Mailing Card-
Authorized by Act of Congress on May 19, 1898." When prepared by printers or stationers for sale, they
should also bear in the upper right-hand corner of the address side an oblong diagram with the
words, •* Place a one-cent stamp here " ; and in the lower left-hand corner the following words should
be printed : "This side is exclusively for the address."

6. The message on the cards may be either in writing or print ; and there may also appear on the
message side advertisements, illustrations, or other matter, printed either in black or in colors.

6. There must be attached to every card mailed a one-cent adhesive postage stamp.

7. The privilege given by the Act is not intended to work a discontinuance of the Government
postal cards. These will be issued and sold the same as heretofore.

8. Private mailing cards with written messages can be mailed to foreign countries on payment
of two cents postage.

Second Class.

Second-class matter embraces newspapers, magazines and other periodical publications issued at
regular intervals and not less frequently than four times a year, devoted to Information of a publio
character, or to literature, science, art, or some special industry, having a known office of publication
and a legitimate list of subscribers. Publications circulated free, or at merely nominal subscription
price, or primarily designed for advertising purposes, do not belong in the second class and cannot be
mailed in the manner nor at the rate provided for matter of that class.

The rate of postage on second-class matter sent by mail, when paid by the publisher or a news
agent, is one cent a pound, to be prepaid in currency. When sent by others, one cent for each four
ounces or fraction thereof.

The rate of postage on second-class matter posted in New York by others than the publishers
or news agents for delivery within the city is one gent tor bach four ounces or fraction thereof.

On newspapers (other than weeklies) and periodicals, when deposited by publisher or news agent
for general box delivery, one cent per pound.

On weekly newspapers deposited by publisher or news agent for general or box delivery, or

Online LibraryWilliam Usborne MooreThe Commercial year book → online text (page 49 of 125)