William Usborne Moore.

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New Mexico.

February 14, 1899, Mardi Oras -Alabama and Louisiana.

March 2, Anniversary of Texan Independence— In Texas.

March 4, Firemen's Anniversary- In New Orleans, La.

March 4 (in every fourth year), Inauguration Day— In Washington, D. C.

April, first Wednesday in. State Election Day— In Rhode Island.

March 81, 1899, Good Friday— In Alabama, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and
Tennessee.

April 15, Arbor Day-In Utah.

April 19, Patriots' Day— In Massachusetts.

April 21, Anniversary of the Battle of San Jacinto— In Texas.

April 28. Memorial Day— In Alabama, Florida, and Georgia.

May 10, Memorial Day— In North Carolina and South Carolina.

May 20, Anniversary of the Signing of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence— In North
Carolina.

May 80, Decoration Day-In Arizona, California, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia,
Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota,
Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio,
Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Wisconsin, Washington,
and Wyoming.

June 3, Jefferson Davis's Birthday -In Florida.

July 4, Independence Day— In all the States except Colorado.

July 24, Pioneers' Day— In Utah.

August 16, Bennington Battle Day— In Vermont.

September, first Monday in. Labor Day— In Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Dela-
ware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massa-
chusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina. South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas,
Utah, Virginia, and Washington. In Wisconsin the Governor is authorized to set apart a day each
year to be observed as Labor Day.

September 9, Admission Day— In California.

October 31, Admission in the Union Day— In Nevada.

General Election Day— In Arizona, California, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Min-
nesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Okla -
noma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, 8outh Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Wash-
ington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

November 25, Labor Day— In Louisiana.

November, last Thursday in. Thanksgiving Day— Is observed in all the States, though in some
it Is not a statutory holiday.

December 25, Christmas Day— In all the States except Colorado.

Sundays and Fast Days, whenever appointed, are legal holidays in nearly all the States.

Arbor Day is a legal holiday in Kansas, North Dakota, Rhode Island, and Wyoming, the day
being set by the Governor. In Nebraska, April 22; California, September 9; Colorado, on the third
Friday in April, and Idaho, Friday after May 1.

In New Mexico there are no legal holidays established by statute, and in Delaware no State
holidays.

Every Saturday after 12 o'clock noon is a legal holiday in Connecticut, Florida, Maine, New York,
and New Jersey, the District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vir-
ginia, Washington, Annapolis. Md.; Charleston County, S. C; Wilmington, Del., and the county of
Newcastle, except St. George's Hundred ; every city in Missouri with 100,000 inhabitants, and every city
or municipality in Ohio having 50,000 or more inhabitants. City of New Orleans, Pennsylvania, and
Maryland, June 1 to September 30. Saturday afternoon is a holiday during June. July, and August
in every city of Colorado having a population of 100,000 or over. The afternoon of November 23 is a
half-holiday in Frederick County, Md. Congress has at various times appoint***! special holidays, and
has recognized the existence of certain days as holidays for commercial purposes, in such legislation
as the Bankruptcy Act, but there is no general statute on the suhject. The proclamation of the
President designating a day of thanksgiving make* it a holiday only in those States which provide
by law for it.



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WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 279



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



THE METRIC SYSTEM.

The metric system was first adopted by France in 1840. Since then it has been obligatory by law
In the following countries : Argentine Republic, Austria, Austro-Hungary, Brazil, British India, Congo
Free State, Chili, Costa Rica, Dutch Colonic*, Bait Indies, Ecuador, Ejypt, Germany, Greece, Guate-
mala, Hayti, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, New Grenada, Mauritius, Mexico, Portugal, Sweden, Switz-
erland, Spain, Turkey, United States of Colombia, Rramanla, Uruguay and Venezuela.

The population of these countries is about 659,003,000.

The system is partly in use in Denmark and its colonies.

It is lawful in Great Britain an I Inr colonic, in B3l?ium, Bavaria and in this country, but is not
compulsory. It is, however, obligatory in tm Marine Hospital service of this country.

Russia is the only country in which the metric system is not allowed. The population or tne
Russian Empire is 126,000,000.

Primary Unit

The unit of the metric system i3 the metre, which is the 1-10,000,000 part of the quadrant of the
meridian, or the distance from th > equator to the pole.

The metre is the unit of linear measure.

The are, 10 metres squarea, is the unit of land measure.

The store, or cubic metre, is the unit for large bulks of dry substances.

The litre, or the cube on one-tenth metre, is unit for liquid and dry measure.

The gram is the unit of measures of weight and is the weight of 1 cubic-centimetre (1-1,000 part
of a litre) of pure water at « degrees centigrade.

The following prefixes to the units are used :

Myria, meaning 10,0001 Deci, meaning 1-10

KUo, " l,000|Centi, " 1100

Hekto, " 1001 Mill!, " 1-1,000

Deka, " 10 1

The metric system was legalized in the United States on July 28, 1866. Congress enacted as follows:
44 The tables in the schedule he»*eto annexed shall be recognized in the construction of contracts,
and in all legal proceedings, a* establishing, in terms of the weights and measures now in me in the
United States, the equivalents of the weights and measures expressed therein in terms of the metric
system, and the tables may lawfully be used for computing, determining and expressing in customary
weights and measures the weights and measures of the metric system."
The following are the tables annexed to the above :

Measures of Length.

, METRIC DENOMINATIONS AND VALUES * / EQUIVALENTS IN DENOMINATIONS IN USB »

Myriametre 10,000 metres. 6.2137 miles.

Kilometre. 1,000 metres. 0.68137 mile, or 3,280 feet 10 inches.

Hectometre 100 metres. 328 feet 1 inch.

Deckametre 10 metres. 303.7 inches.

Metre 1 metre. 39.37 inches.

Decimetre 1-10 of a metre. 3.937 inches.

Centimetre 1-100 of a metre. 0.3087 inch.

Millimetre. 1-1000 of a metre. 0.0894 inch.

Measures of Surface.

4 METRIC DENOMINATIONS AND VALUES » / EQUIVALENTS IN DENOMINATIONS IN USE *

Hectare 10,000 square metres. 2.471 acres.

Are. 100 square metres. 119.6 square yards.

Centare 1 square metre. 1,550 square inches.

Measures of Capacity.

#— METRIC DENOMINATIONS AND VALUES » , EQUIVALENTS IN DENOMINATIONS IN USE -»

No. of Cubic Dry Liquid or Wine

Names. Litres. Measure. Measure. Measure.

Kilolitre or stere. 1-000 1 cubic metre 1.308 cubic yards. 284.17 gallons.

Hectolitre 100 1-10 or a cubic metre 2 bush, and 3.85 pecks 28.417 gallons.

Deckalitre 10 10 cubic decimetres 9.08 quarts 2.6417 frallons.

Litre 1 1 cubic decimetre 0.908 quart 1.0567 quarts.

Decilitre ... • • • • 1-1° 1-10 of a cubic decimetre. 6.1022 cubic inches 0.845 frill.

Centilitre 1-100 10 cubic centimetres 0.6102 cubic inch 0.338 fluid ounce.

MflHlitre. 1-1000 1 cubic centimetre 0.061 cubic inch 0.27 fluid dram.



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280



THE COMMERCIAL YEAR BOOK.



Weights.



Names.



-METRIC DENOMINATIONS AND VALUES-



No.of
Grams.

Miller or tonneau 1,000,000

Quintal. 100,000



Myriagram...
Kilogram or kilo..

Hectogram

Dekagram

Gram

Decigram

« entrigram

Milligram



10,000

1,000

100

10

1

1-10

1-100

1-1000



Weight of what Quantity of
Water at Maximum Density.

1 cubic metre

1 hectolitre

10 litres.

1 litre

1 decilitre

10 cubic centimetres

1 cubic centimetre

1-10 of a cubic centimetre.

10 cubic millimetres

1 cubic millimetre



i EQUIVALENTS IN

DENOMINATIONS IK USE.

Avoirdupois Weight.
2804.6 pounds.
220.46 pounds.
22.046 pounds.
2J9046 pounds.
3.5274 ounces.
0.3527 ounce.
16.432 grains.
1.5432 grains.
0.1543 grain.
0.0154 grain.



METRIC EQUIVALENTS IN



UNITED STATES MEASURES AND VICE VERSA.
Measures of Length.



Metres-
Inches.
1-39.87
2- 78.74
3-118.11
4-157.48
4-196.85
6-236.22
7-275.59
8-314.96
9-354.33



Inches-
Metres.
1-0.02530
2-0.06078
3-0.07617
4-0.10156
5-0.12695
6-0.15234
7-0.17773
8-0.20312
9-0.22851



Metics—
Feat.

1- 3.28083

2- 6.56167

3- 9.84250
4-13.12333
5-16.40417
6-19.68500
7-22.96588
8-26.24667
9-29.52750



Feet-
Metres.
1-0.304801
2-0.609601
3-0.914402
4-1.219202
5-1.524003
6-1.828804
7-2.138604
8-2.438405
9-2.743205



Metres—
Yards.
1-1.093611
2-2.187222
3-3.280683
4-4.374444
5-5.468056
6-6.561667
7-7.655278
8-8.748889
9-9.842500



Yards-
Metr*a>
1-0.914402
2-1.828804
8-2.743206
4-3.657607
5-4.572009
6-5.486411
7-6.400813
8-7.315215
0-8.229616



KilonTtr's—
Miles.
1-0 62137
2-1.24274
3-1.86411
4-2.48548
5-3.10685
6—3.72822
7-4.34959
8-4.97096
0-u. 59233



Miles-
Kilomtrt.

l- l.aons

2-3.21881

3- 4.82804

4- 6.433

5- 8.04674

6- 9.63606
7-11.2650
8-12.87436
9-14.48412



Measures of Surface.



8q. Metres—
Sq. Feet.
1-10.764
2-21.528
8-82.292
4-43.065
5-53.819
6-64.563
7-75.847
8-86.111
9-96. P74



■*



Sq. Feet-
, Metres.
-0.09290
2-0.18581
3-0.27871
4-0.37161
5-0.46452
6-0.55742
7-0.65062
8-0.74323
9-0.83613



Sq. Metres—
8q. Yards.

1- 1.196

2- 2.392

3- 3 588

4- 4.784

5- 5.980

6- 7.176

7- 8.872
8-9.568
9-10.764



Sq. Yards-
bq. Metres.
1-0.886
2-1.672
3-2.508
4-3.844
5-4.181
6-5.017
7-5.853
8-<*.689
9-7.525



Sq. Centimetres— So. Inches—
Sq. Inches. Sq. Dentim't*re.



1-0.165
2-0.310
3-0.465
4-0.620
6-8.775
6-0.930
7-1.085
8-1.240
9-1.395



Measures of Volume.



Litres=

Quarts.

1=1.0667

2=2.1134

3=3 1700

4=4.2267

5=5.2834

6=6.3401

7=7.3968

8=8.4534

9=9.5101



LIQUID

Quarts=
Litres.
1=0.94636
2=1.89272
3=2.83908
4=3.78544
5=4.73180
6=5.67816
7=6.62452
8=7.57088
9=8.51724



MEASURE

Litres=

Gallons.

1=0.26417

2=0.52884

8=0 79251

4=1.0

5=1.8

6=1.58502

7=1.84919

8=2.11336

9=2.37753



Gallons=

Litres.
1= 3.78544
2= 7.57088
3=11.85632
4=15.14176
5=18.92720
6=22.71264
7=26.49808
8=30.28352
9=34.06896



. DRY MEASURE .

Hectolitres= Bushels =
Bushels. Hect'litrs.



1= 2.8375
2= 5 6750
3= 8.5125
4=11.8500
5=14.1875
6=17.0250
7=19.8625
8=22.7000
9=25.5375



1=0.35242
2=0.70485
3=1.05727
4=1.40069
5=1.76211
6=2.11454
7=2.46696
8=2.81988
9=3.17181



■ CUBIC

Cu. Metres:
Cu. Feet.
1= 35.314
2= 70.629
3=105.943
4=141.258
5=176.572
6=211.887
7=247.201
8=282.516
9=317.830



1- 6.<

2-12.906

3-19.355

4-25.807

5-32.256

6-38.710

7-45.161

8-51.613

9-66 065



MEASURE 1

= Cu. Feet=
Cu Metres.
1=0.0268
2=0.05663
8=0.08485
4=0 11827
5=0.14156
6=0.16900
7 =0.19622
8=0 22654
9=0.25486



Measures of Weight



Centigrams^
Grains.
1=0.1643
2=0.3086
8=0.46J0
4=0.6173
5=0.7716
6=0.9250
7=1.0803
8=1.2346
0=1.38*49



Grain s=
Centigrams.
1= 6.4799
2=12 9598
3=19.4397
4=25.9196
5=323995 .
6=38.8793
7=45.3592
8=51.8391
9=58.8190



Kilograms=
Ounces AvcTps.
1= 35.274
2= 70.548
8=106.822
4=141.006
5=176.370
0=211.644
7=246.918
8=282.192
9=317.466



Ounces Avd*ps=
Grams.
1= 28.3495
2= 56.6991
3= 86.0486
4=113.3961
5=141.7476
6=170.0972
7=198.4467
8=226.7962
9=255.1457



Kilograms= Pou nds A vd*p*=
Pounds Avd'ps. Kilograms.

1= 2 20462 1=0.46869

2= 4.40924 2=0.90719

3= 6.61386 3=1.86078

4= 8.81840 4=1.610T

5=11.02811 5=2.26796

6=13.24773 6=2.72166

7=15.43235 7=8.17515

8=17.63697 8=3.62874

9 =19. 841. -£ 9=4 06288



Exact Equivalents.



1 acre = nectar 4047

lbushel -.litres 35.24

1 centimetre =lncb 3937

1 cubic centimetre = cubic inch .. . . .0610

1 cubic foot =<ubic metre (683

1 cubic inch = cubic centimetre.. 16.39

1 cubic metre =cubic feet 35.31

1 cubic metre. . • = cubic yards 1.308

1 cubic yard -cubic metre 7645

1 foot = centimetres 30 48

1 gallon. =iitre- 3.785

1 grain =gram 0648

lgram = grains. 15.43

1 nectar =acres 2.471



1 mile = kilometres 1.609

1 millimetre =inch 0694

1 ounce (avd'ps) =grams 2S.35

1 ounce (Troy) =grams. 81. 10

1 peck = litres. 8.869

1 pint =litre 47B

1 pound = kilogram 4511

1 quart (dry) = litres, 1.101

1 quart (liquid) =lltre 9464

1 square centimetre . .= square inch. 150

1 square foot = square met» e. 099

1 square inch = qua re oentim'trs. 6.4S

1 square metre = square yards 1 .19*

1 square metre =squarefeet 10.76



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WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 281



Exact Equivalents-Continued.



1 inch =millimetres. 25.40

1 kilogram = pounds 2.305

1 kilometre =mile 6214

1 litre =quart (dry) 9081

1 litre. =quarts (liquid) 1.057

lmetit =feet 3.281



1 square yard =square metre. 8861

lton (2,000 Ibe.) = metric ton 9072

lton (2,240!bs.) =metricton 1.017

lton (metric) =ton (2,000 lbs.)... . 1.102

1 ton (metric) = ton (&240 lbs.) 9842

1 yard = metre 9144



Domestic Weights and Measures.

Apotb bc ariks 1 V. EIGHT.— 20 grains=l scruple ; 3 scruples=l dram ; 8 drams=l ounce ; 12 ounces
si pound.

Avoirdupois T/eisht (short ton).— 27 11-32 grains=l dram; 16 drams=l ounce; 16 ounces=l
pound ; 25 pounds= J quarter : 4 quarters=l cwt.; 20 cwt.=l ton.

Avoirdupois Weight (long ton).— 27 11-32 grains=l dram; 16 drams=l ounce; 16 ounces =1
pound: 112 pounds=l cwt.; 20 cwt.=l ton.

Trot Weight.— 24 grains=l pennyweight; 20 penny weigh ts=l ounce; 12ounces=l pound.

Circular Measure.— 60 seconds=l minute ; 60 minutes=l degree ; 30 degrees=l sign ; 12 signs =
1 circle.

Cubic Measure.— 1,728 cubic inches=l cubic foot; 27 cubic feet=l cubic yard.

Dry Measuke.— 2 pints=l quart; 8 quarts=l peck; 4 pecks=l bushel.

Liquid Measure.— 4 gills=l pint; 2 pints=l quart; 4 quarts=l gallon ; 31% gallons =1 barrel; 2
barrelfl=l hogshead.

I»no Measure.— 12 inches=l foot ; 3 feet=l yard ; 5}£ yards=l rod or pole ; 40 rods=l furlong , 8
t urlongs=l statute mile ; 8 mi lee =1 league.

Mariners' Measure.— 6 feet=l fathom : 120 fathoms=l cable length ; 7}$ cable lengths=l mile ;
5yB80 feet=l statute mile; 6.085 feet=l nautical mile.

Squane Measure.— 144 square inchcs=l square foot; 9 square feet=l square yard; 30% square
yards=l square rod or perch; 40 square rods=l rood; 4 roods =1 acre ; 640 acres=l square mile ; 36
square miles (6 miles square)=l township.

Tims Measure.— 60 seconds=l minute ; 60 minutes=l hour ; 24 hours=l day ; 7 days=l week 365
days=l year; 366 days 1 leap j ear.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

The following is a summary of weights and measures in use among the principal nations of the
globe* with their equivalents in the standards of the United States:

jLrabia (Mocha).— Length: the guz=25 inches ; the covid=19 inches; the kassaba=4.1 yards.
liquids : 128 vakias=8 nusnas=l gudda=2 gallons. Weights: 40 vakias=l maund=3 pounds avoirdu-
pois ; and 150 maunds=15 f razlls=l bahar=450 pounds. The weights of Egypt are used in some parts.

Argentine Republic (See Spain).— Metric system legal and used in customs. Obligatory.

JL uUria.— Length : 1.728 punkte=144 linien=12 zoll=l fuss=1.0871 feet; 61uss=l kJafter; and 4,000
klaf ter=l meile=4.7142 miles. Surface : 1,600 square klaf ter=l J och =1.4223 acre. Liquid : 80 kanncn=
iOmasse=4 vierte)=l eimer= 14.95 gallons: and32eimer=l fuder. Dry: 16 muhlmaassel=8achtel=4
viertel=l metze=1.745 bushels; and 80metzen=l muth. Weight: 1 lotn =270.2 grains; and 32 loth=16
unzen=4 vierding=2 mark=l pf und =1.2352 pound. The measures differ in some parts; the French
measures, under different names, were made legal in 1876. Obligator v.

Baden.— The fuss is 0.9842 feet; the sttttze, &963 gallons; the maiter, 4.257 bushels =15 deckalitres;
the pf und, 1.1029 pound avoirdupois. Metric system since 1872.

Bavaria.— The fuss is 0.9517 feet: the eimer, 16.944 gallons; the scheffel, 6.31 bushels; the pfund,
UKM6 pound. Metric system since 1872.

Belgium.— Since 1820, the French weights and measures, but retaining mainly the Dutch names;
as, aune or elle for metre ; litron or kan for litre ; livre or pond for kilogram. In weight, the denom-
inations, ascending by tens, are the korre), wigtje, lood, ons, and the pond=2J304£6 pounds. Surface:
100 square elles=l are=119.6033 square yards. The cubic elle=l stere=1.308 cubic yard.

Bohemia.— The Prague foot=11.8» inches. The measures are generally those of Austria.

Brazil— In general, those of Portugal. But of Brazil pounds, 99=100 pounds avoirdupois; 5 vara s



=6 rarda. The medida=3-5 gallon ; the alquelre=1.135 bushel ; the mark=7.3781 ounces troy. Metric
system now legal and obligatory.

Bremen.— The fuss is 11.386 Inches ; the morgen, 0.6343 acre ; the viertel, 1.915 gallon ; the scheffel,
2J.QB bushels ; the pfund=2 mark =16 unzen=82 loth=1.0986 pounds avoirdupois. (See Germany.)

Canada and other British Possessions in North America.— The weights and measures are those of
Great Britain. Metric system legal, but not obligatory.

Cape of Good Hope.— The Dutch standards were formerly in use, but are now mainly superseded

Chili,— In general, those of Spain. Metric system legal and obligatory.

China.— Length : 100 fans =10 tsuns=l chik or covid=13.125 inches ; and 100 chiks=10 cbeungs or
fatboms=l yan =109.4 feet. Liquid : 100 kops=10 shings=12 cat ties =1 tau=1.318 gallons; and 10 taus=l
btrub =18.18 gallons. Weight : 16 taels=l catty or pound=l}£ pound avoirdupois : 100 catties=l peoul
or ttun=183Hi pounds.

Cuba.— Generally, thee of Spain. In trade are also used 100 libras=4 arrobas=l quintal =101.75
nounds avoirdupois ; the vara=33.338 inches; the fanega=2.9 bushels ; the arrobafor wine, 3.42 gal Ions.
^^ Denmark.— Length: 144 linies=12 tommes=l fod= 1.0298 feet; and 24,000 fods=12.00ualens=l mill
=4.68 miles. Liquid: 8 potts=4 kandes=2.041 gallons. Dry: 36_potts=2 skjeppens=l fjerding=0.990
bushels; and 88 fjerdings=22 t#ndes=l last =86. 84 bushek Weight: 82 orts=l unze= 1.1029 ounces
avoirdupois; and 16 unzes=2 marks=l pund=1.1029 pounds ; 16 punds=l lisp und ; 20 lispunds=l skip-
paod=3SB.O pounds.

Bast Indie* (Bengal, Calcutta).— Length : 86 Jows=12 ungleez=3 moots or hands=l span =9 inches ;
and 8 spans=4 cubits=2 guz or yards =1 fathom : 1,000 fathoms=l coss=l 3-22 miles. Weight (bazaar) :
80 sfocas=16 chittasks=l seer=&0633 pounds • and 40 seers=l maund. In Madras, the marcal is 3.25 gal-
lons; the vis, 8,125 pounds. In Bombay, the hath is 18 inches; the parah, 8.33 bushels; the seer. 0.7 pound.
Many other variations, of course, exist in the different districts and islands. The metric system is now
teffaUaed, but the kilogramme is called ser. Special weights and measures may be authorized by the
governor-general, but must be a multiple or aubmultiple of the above.

Egypt.— The common cubit =28.667 inches; that for Indian goods, 25 inches ; for European cloths,
28l5 inches. Dry : 2i rubahs=6 weybehs=l ardeb=5.00 bushels. Weight : 144 dirrhems=12 ukkiyehs=l
pound or rutl=15.75 ounces avoirdupois; and 100 rutls=l cantar. The weights and measures vary,
however, in different parts.

France.— Length : 1,000 mflllmetres=100 oentimetres=10 decimetres=l metre=39.37079 inches : and
KUDO metres= 1,000 decametres=100 bectometresclO kllometres=l myriametre=6Jgl382 miles. Surface :



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282 THE COMMERCIAL YEAR BOOK.



1.068 ounces avoirdupois; and 16 unzen=2 mark=l pfund=1.068 pounds. (See Germany.)

Hanover— Length : 144 Hnien or 96 aohtel=12 zoll=l f uss=0.9542feet ; and 16 fuss=8ellen=l ruthe;
26,400 f uss=l ineile=4.5901 miles. Liquid : the denominations have the same scale and names as In Ham-
burg, except that the (Jssel Is called ntfssel, the viertel being 2.072 gallons; the eimer is 16.576 gallons.
Dry : 24 vierfass or 18 drittel=6 himt=l malter=5.3056 bushels ; and 16 malter=2 wispel=l last, weight :
scale and names as in Hamburg, except the use of tirtchen for spinte, the pf und being 1.0731 pounds
avoirdupois. (See Germany.)

Itcuy.— The metric system is noir legal throughout the Kingdom. For the former local weights
and measures see names of States.

Japan.— Length : the unit is the shaku=11.948 inches ; 1 shaku=10 sun=100 boo ; 6 shaku=l ken ;
60 ken=l cho; 39 cho-1 ri =2.444 miles. Surface : 6 shaku square =1 tsubo ; 300 tsubo=10 se=l tau ; 10
tau=l cho=2.458 acres. Capacity, dry and liquid : 100 sho=10 to=l koku=5.169 bushels ; 10 go=l abo=
0.481 gallon. Weight: 1 momme=57.97 grains ; 1,000 momme=l kuamme ; 160 momme=l kin, also called
catty .==1.325 pounds avoirdupois.

Lubeck.— The fuss is0.&>42 feet; the viertel, 1.979 gallons; the scheffel, 1.01 bushel; the pfund,
1.0686 pounds avoirdupois. (See Germany.)

Me klenlturq.—lhe weights and measures are the same, throughout this State, as those of Ham-
burg, except that the measures of capacity are those of Lubeck. (See Germany.)

Mexico.— The weightsand measures are those of Spain, but with many local variations. The vara
Is 33.97 inches; the fanoga, 1.55 bushels; the libra, 1.0142 pounds avoirdupois.

M itrocco.— The cubit or canna is 21 Inches ; the pic, 26 inches ; the commercial pound is 1.19 pounds,
and the market pound, 1.785 pounds avoirdupois.

Naples.— The palmo is 0.8652 feet, and the migllo, 1.147 miles; the moggio, 0.87 acre; the berile
(wine, &c.), 11.57 gallons, and the stajo (oil), 2.616 gallons ; the tomolo, 1.450 bushels ; the lib bra, 0.8594
pounds troy. (See Italy.)

Netherlands. —The French metrical system has b*>en in use since 1817, but with the Dutch names.
Length: the denominations from the millimetre to the kilometre inclusive take the names strcep,
duim, palm, ello, roede, mijle; the elle=l metre. Liquid : from the centilitre to the hectolitre inclu-
sive, the names are vingerhoed, maatje, kan, vat ; the kan=l litre. Dry : from the decilitre to the
hectolitre the names are maatje. kop. schepel, mudde or zak; the kop=l litre; 80 mudde=l last.
Weight: from the decigramme to the kilogramme the names are korrel, wigtje, lood, oris, pond ; tbe
wigtje=l gramme.

, Norwau-— (See Sweden.) Metric standards now legal.

Persia.— The royal guertze is 37# Inches ; the common, 25 inches ; the artaba, 1.851 bushels; the
rattel, 1.0568 pounds avoirdupois.

Poland.— The lokiec is 22.68 inches; themorg, L384 acre; the garnieo, 1.057 gallons; the funt,
0.894 pound avoirdupois.

Portynal.— Length : 12 pontos=l linha ; 96 linhas=8 pollegadas=l palmo or span =0.7214 feet ; anO
10 palmos=2 varas=ibraca or fathom ; the milha= 1.2786 miles. The geira is 1.4453 acre. Liquid : 24
quartilbos=6 canadas=l pote, cantaro. or alqueire=at Lisbon 2.185 gal Ions, at Oporto 3.313 gallons: and
2 potes=l almude. Dry : 32 outavas=4 alquieres=l fanga=at Lisbon 1.535, and at Oporto 1.937 bushels;
and 15fangas=l moio. Weight: 72graos=3 scropulos=l outava; 128 outavas=16 oncas=l arratel=»
1.01186 pounds avoirdupois; and 128 arratels=4 arrobas=l quintal=129.518 pounds avoirdupois.

* Prussia.— Length: 1.728 scrupel=144 linien=12 zoll=l fus«=i.0298 feet; and 12fuss=lrutbe; 8,000
ruthen=l nostraeile. The morgen is 0.631 acre. Liquid : 120 o*ssel=60 quartier=2nnker=l eimer =18.146

Sallow; and 12 eiraer=6 ohm=l fuder. Dry: 64 mftsschen=16 metzen=4 viertel=l scheffel =1.580
ush^U; an1 72 *oheffel=6 maltor=l last. Weight: 128 quentchen— 32 loth= 16 unzen=2mark (Cologne*
=1 pfund =1.0311 pounds avoirdupois. Metric system now legal and obligatory. (See Germany.) %

Rome.— L^nirth (commercial) : the pie in 0.966 feet ; the palmo, 0.733 foot; the braoclo, 2.581 feet;
Lthe palmo for c) »ili is £.347 inches. Length (in architect me, &cj : 120 decimi=12 onoe=l palmo =0.71»



Digitized by LjOOQ LC



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



283



foo.. ; aaU 10 palmi =1 canna, the catena being 1 57W palmi ; and the pie =16 once=0.9767 feet. Liquid : 16



Online LibraryWilliam Usborne MooreThe Commercial year book → online text (page 51 of 125)