William Usborne Moore.

The Commercial year book online

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8.40 8.46 2.29 2.39
9.14 9.19 3.00 3.11
9.49 9.54 8.33 3.46

10.26 10.31 4.06 4.26
11.09 11.14 4.41 5.14

11.59 5.24 6.06

12.05 12.54 6.12 7.10
\m 1.56 7.14 8.20

2.20 3.02 8.25 9.30
3.40 4.09 9.37 10.36
4.44 5.09 10.44 11.84

6.42 6.05 11.45

6.36 8.58 12.26 12.41
727 7.48 1.16 1.84
8.16 8.37 2.02 2.24
9.04 9.25 2.47 3.14

9.51 10.12 3.33 4.04
10.40 11.04 4.20 4.57
11.32 11.57 5.10 5.51

12.26 6.02 6.51

12.54 1.25 7.00 7.53

1.58 2.26 8.08 8.56
3.00 8.24 9.06 9.54
4.11 4.18 10.05 10.46





1899.


- — Duy of—


Mo


W'k.


1..


Sun. .


2..


Mon..


3.


Tues.


4..


Wed.


5..


Thur.


6..


Fri...


7..


Sat...


8..


Sun. .


9..


Mon..


10..


Tues.


11..


Wed.


12..


Thur.


13..


Fri...


14..


Sat...


15..


Sun. .


16..


Mon..


17..


Tues.


18..


Wed.


19..


Thur.


20..


Fri...


21..


Sat...


22..


Sun..


23..


Mon..


24..


Tues.


25..


Wed .


26..


ahur.


27..


Fri...


28..


Sat...


29..


Sun. .


30.


Mon .


31..


Tues.



October.
•-Hig-h-^ , — Low-n
a.m. p.m. a.m. p.m.
5.06 5.18 11.14 12.31

5.46 5.58 11.54

6.23 6.38 12.09 12.32
7.00 7.14 12.43 1.09
7.a5 7.51 1.16 1.46
8.12 8.29 1.52 2.26
8.52 9.11 2.29 8.09
9.36 9.56 3.06 3.54
10.22 10.46 3.50 4.44
11.15 11.46 4.41 5.40

12.15 5.42 6.40

12.51 1.18 6.51 7.48
2.00 2.24 8.04 8.47
3.05 3.29 9.14 9.46
4.05 4.29 10.19 10.42
5.00 5.23 11.15 11.34

5.50 6.15 12.07

6.39 7.04 12.22 12.58
7.25 7.52 1.09 L46
8.11 8.40 1.55 2.34
8.56 9.25 2.40 3.20
9.48 10.14 3.24 4.06
10.31 11.05 4.11 4.55
11.20 11.59 5.01 5.46

12.10 5.54 6.38

12.56 1.05 6.56 7.31
1.54 2.00 7.58 8.25
2.48 2.56 8.66 9.16
3.38 3.47 9.49 10.00
4.23 4.35 10.35 10.44
5.05 5.19 11.19 11.24



- — Day of —


Mo.


W'k.


1..


Fri....


2..


8at....


3..


Sun. . .


4..


Mon . .


5..


Tues..


6..


Wed..


« . .


Thur..


8..


Fri....


9..


Sat....


10..


Sun...


11..


Mon ..


12..


Tues. .


13..


Wed..


14..


Thur..


15..


Fri....


16..


8at....


17..


*»un, ..


18..


Mon...


19..


Tues..


20..


Wed..


21..


Thur..


22..


Fri....


28..


Sat....


24..


Sun. . .


25..


Mon...


26..


Tues..


27..


Wed...


28..


Thur..


29..


Fri....


30..


Sat....


31..


Sun...



December.
^-Higb- — Low->
a.m. p.m. a.m. p.m.
5.64 6.19 J2.16

6.39 7.09 12.10 1.02
7.26 7.56 12.57 1.50
8.14 8.46 1.46 2.39
9.04 9.36 2.36 3.29
9.54 10.31 3.30 4.19

10.47 11.26 4.27 5.11

11.42 5.25 6.04

12.23 12.40 6.29 6.59
1.21 1.41 7.34 7.56
2.19 2.41 8.38 8.52
3.16 3.41 9.40 9.48

4.11 4.40 10.38 10.42
5.04 5.33 11.31 11.34

5.64 6.24 12.21

6.42 7.14 12.24 1.09
7.29 8.00 1.11 1.55

8.12 8.44 1.56 2.36
8.64 9.28 2.40 3.16

9.35 10.10 3.21 3.66
10.13 10.50 4.00 4.34
10.49 11.30 4.38 5.11

11.26 5.16 5.48

12.12 12.04 6.00 6.29
12.59 12.49 6.54 7.12

1.49 1.41 7.50 8.02

2.40 2.45 8.54 8.56

3.36 3.54 9.58 9.56
4.31 4.56 10.56 10.52
5.25 5.54 11.54 11 .48
6.18 6.49 12.44



Digitized by LjOOQ IC



342



THE COMMERCIAL VEAR BOOK.



TIME OP HIGH WATER AT POINTS ON THE ATLANTIC

COAST.



The Eastern Standard Time of High Water (except for the Florida stations, which are in Cen-
tral Standard time) at the following stations may be found approximately for each day by adding to
or subtracting from the time of high water at Sandy Hook (The Horseshoe) the hours and minutes
annexed.

(Specially prepared by U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.)



Albany.N. Y 8ub.

Annapolis, Md Sub.

Atlantic City, N.J Add

Baltimore, Md Sub.

Bar Harbor, Mt. Desert Island, Me. Add

Beaufort, S. C Add

Block Island, H.I Sub.

Boston, Mass Add

Bridgeport, Conn Add

Bristol, R. I Add

Brooklyn Navy Yard, N. Y Add

Cape May,N. J Add

Cape Poge, Maps Add

Charleston, S. C Add

Coney Island. N. Y Add

Cottage City, Mass Add

Dobbs Ferry, N. Y : Add

Eastport, Me Add

Edgartown, Mass Add

Fernandina, Fla Sub.

Fort Sumter, 8. C Add

Gloucester, Mass Add

Great Point, Nantucket I., Mass. . . Add

Hartford, Conn Sub.

Hell Gate Ferry, N. Y Add

Isleof Shoals, N . H Add

Jacksonville, Fla Add

Kennebec River entrance, Me Add

Key West, Fla Add

League Island, Pa Sub.

Lynn, Mass Add

Marblehead, Mass Add

Nahant. Mass Add

Nantucket, Mass Add

Newark, N. J Add

New Bedford, Mass Add

Newburyport, Mass Add

New Haven, Conn Add

New London, Conn Add

Newport, R. I Add



H.M.
2 18



2


41





19





S3


3


00


1


08





07


3


45


3


30





21


1


14





50


4


09





15





06


4


06


1


48


3


10


4


32





14





04


3


19


4


23


4


45


2


30


3


35





45


3


36


1


00


6


32


3


38


3


26


3


27


4


42


1


32





15



3 40

3 34

1 48

07



Newport News, Va Add

New York (Governor's Island),N. Y. Add

Norfolk Navy Yard, Va Add

Norwich. Conn Add

Old Point Comfort, Va. Add

Philadelphia (Walnut St.), Pa Sub.

Plymouth, Mass Add

Point Judith Light, R. I Sub.

Point Lookout, Md Add

Pollock Rip, Mass Add

Portland, Me Add

Port Royal, S. C Add

Portsmouth, N. H Add

Poughkeepsie, N. Y Add

Providence, R. I Add

Suick's Hole, Mass Sub.

ace Point, Mats Add

Richmond, Va Sub.

Rockaway Inlet, N. Y Add

Rockland, Me Add

Rockport, Mass Add

St. Augustine, Fla Add

St. John's River entrance, Fla Sub.

Salem, Mass. Add

Savannah, Ga Add

Savannah River entrance, Ga Add

Saybronk, Conn Add

Southport, or Smith ville, N. C Add

Stonington, Conn Add

1 ennant Hart or. Me Add

Throg's Neck, N. Y Add

Trenton, N.J Sub.

Vineyard Haven. Mass Add

Washington Navy Yard, D. C Add

Watch Hill, R.I Add

West Point Light, N. Y Add

Wilmington, N . C Add

Willets Point, N. Y Add

Wood's Hole. Mass Add

Yorktown, Va Add



H.


M.


1


as





34


1


44


2





1


23


6


04


8


36





OR


5


85


4


08


3


21





55


3


40


4


28





3?





05


3


%


f


46





12


3


18


3


13





21





23


3


34


1


15





08


2


52





16


1


31


3


04


3


38


3


us


3


50





24


1


10


3


34


2


30


3


36





53



1 50



Example.— To And the approximate time of high tide at Atlantic City, N. J., on any day, find
first the time of high water at Sandy Hook under the desired date, and then add 19 minutes, as in the
above table ; the result is the time of high water required.



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WEATHER SIGNALS.



343



WEATHER SIGNALS.



No. L



Explanation of Flag Signals.
No. 2. No. 3. No. 4.





No. 5.



- ►




White and Black Triangu- White Flag with Black

Blue Flag. larFlag. Square in Centre.

Local Rains. Temperature Signal. Cold Wave.



Number 1, white flag, six feet square, indicates clear or fair weather. Number 8, blue flag, six
feet square, indicates rain or snow. Number 3, white and blue flag (parallel bars of white and blue),
six feet square, indicates that local rains or showers will occur, and that the rainfall will not be
general. Number 4, black triangular flag, four feet at the base and six feet in length, always refers
to temperature ; when placed above numbers 1, 2, or 3 it indicates warmer weather ; when placed below
numbers 1, 2, or 3 it indicates colder weather ; when not displayed, the indications are that the tem-
perature will remain stationary, or that there will be no decided change. Number 5, white flag, six
feet square, with black square in center, indicates the approach of a sudden and decided fall in tem-
perature, and is usually ordered at least twenty- four hours in advance of the cold wave. When num-
ber 5 Is displayed, number 4 is always omitted.

A special storm flag, red with black square in center (not shown above), is prescribed for use in
North and South Dakota, Minnesota (except at Lake stations), Iowa, Nebraska, and Wyoming, to indi-
cate high winds, accompanied by snow, with temperature below freezing.

When displayed on poles, the signals should be arranged to read downward ; when displayed
from horizontal supports, a small streamer should be attached to indicate the point from which the
signals are to.be read.

Interpretation of Displays.



No. 1, alone, indicates fair weather, stationary
temperature.

No. 2. alone, indicates rain or snow, stationary
temperature.

No. 3, alone, indicates local rain, stationary
temperature.

No. 1. with No. 4 above it, Indicates fair weather.



No. 1, with No. 4 below it, indicates fair weather,

rider.

No. 2, with No. 4 above it, indicates warmer



weather, rain or snow.

No. 2. with No. 4 below it, indicates colder
weather, rain or snow.

No. 3, with No. 4 above It, indicates warmer
weather with local rains.

No. 3, with No. 4 below it, indicates colder
weather with local rains.

No. 1, with No. 5, indicates fair weather, cold
wave.

No. 2, with No. 5, indicates wet weather, oold
wave.



Explanation of Whistle Signals.



?he warning signal, to attract attention, will be
a long blast of from fifteen to twenty seconds' du-
After this warning signal has been
, long blasts (of from four to six seconds'
dnration) refer to weather, and short blasts (of
from one to three seconds' duration) refer to tem-
perature ; those for weather to be sounded first.

Blasts. Indicate.

One long Fair weather.

Two long • Rai nor snow.

Three long Local rains.

One short. Lower temperature.

Two short Higher temperature.

Three short Cold wave.



INTERPRETATION OP COMBINATION BLASTS.

One long, alone Fair weather, stationary

temperature.

Two long, alone Rain or snow, stationary

temperature.
One long and short Fair weather, lower tem-
perature.
Two long and two short.. Rain or snow, higher

temperature.
One long and three short.. Fair weather, cold wave.
Three long and two short. Local rains, higher tem-
perature.
By repeating each combination a few times,
with an interval of ten seconds between, possibil-
ities of error in reading the forecasts will be
avoided, such as may arise from variable winds,
or failure to hear the warning signal.



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344



THE COMMERCIAL YEAU BOOK.



Marine Storm Signals.

STORM SIGNALS.







Northeasterly Winds. Southeasterly Winds. Northwesterly Wind?. Southwesterly Winds,

Explanation of Flags.
Red, Black Center. White Pennant. Red Pennant. Red Pennant.



P



Storm.






Westerly Winds. Easterly Winds.

When Displayed in Con nee- When Displayed in Connec-
tion with Storm Signal. tion with Storm Signal.



Information Signal.

When Displayed

Alone.



A Storm Signal.— A red flag (eight feet square) with black center (three feet square) indicate
that the storm is expected to be of marked violence.

A Red Pennant (five feet hoist and twelve feet fly) displayed with the flags indicates easterly
winds— that is, from northeast to south, inclusive, and that the storm center is approaching.

A White Pennant (five feet hoist and twelve feet fly) displayed with the flags indicates westerly-
winds -that is, from north to southwest, inclusive, and that the storm center has passed.

When the Red Pennant is hoisted abate the storm signal, winds are expected from the northeast
quadrant ; when below, f rom the southeast quadrant.

When the White Pennant is hoisted above the storm signal, winds are expected from the north-
west quadrant ; when below, from the southwest quadrant.

Night Signals.— By night a red light will indicate easterly winds ; a white light above a red ii&ht
will indicate westerly winds.

The Hurricane Signal consists of two red flags with black centers, displayed one above the other,
and will be used to announce the expected approach of tropical hurricanes, and also of those extremely
severe and dangerous storms which occasionally move across the Lakes and the northern Atlantic
coast.

The Information Signal consists of a red or white pennant, displayed alone. When displayed at
stations on the Great Lakes, indicates that winds are exacted which, in the opinion of the forecast
official, may prove dangerous to smaller classes of vessels and tows, without reference to any stated
velocity, when displayed at stations on the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts, indicates that the local
observer has received information from the central ofllce of a storm covering a limited area, danger-
ous only for vessels about to sail to certain points. The signal serves as a notification to shipmasters
that information will be given them uponjipplication to the local observer.



WIND-BAROMETER TABLE.

(From the Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.)

The following table presents, in form for ready reference, atmospheric signs which have been
found to presage certain weather changes and conditions over the middle and upper Mississippi and
lower Missouri valleys, the Great Lakes, the Ohio Valley, and the Middle Atlantic and New England
States:

Barometer (Reduced to Wind Direc-

Sea Level). tkn. Character of Weather Indicated.

30.00 to 30.20, and steady westerly Fair, with slight changes in temperature, for one

to two days.
30.00 to 30.20, and rising rapidly westerly Fair, followed within two days by warmer and

rain.

80.00 to 80.20, and falling rapidly s. to e Warmer, and rain within 24 hours.

30.20, or above, and falling rapidly . . .s. to e Warmer, and rain within 86 hours.

80.20, or above, and falling rapidly w. to n Cold and clear, quickly followed by warmer and

rain.

80.20, or above, and steady variable No early change.

80.00, or below, and falling slowly s. to e Kain within 18 hours that will continue a day or

two.
80.00, or below, and falling rapidly «e. to ne Rain, with high wind, followed within two days

by clearing, colder.

80.00, or below, and rising s. to w Clearing; and colder within 12 hours.

20.80, or below, and falling rapidly. . . .se. to ne Severe storm of wind and rain imminent. In win-
ter, snow and cold wave within 24 hours,
29.80, or below, and falling rapidly e. to n Severe northeast gales and heavy rain or snow,

followed, in winter, by cold wave.

29.80. or below, and rising rapidly Going to w. . .Clearing and colder.

The character of the precipitation, whether rain or snow, is governed by the temperature.



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STANDARD TIME.



345



DUBAXXDIf OF DUTMRBHT KllfDS OF WbATHBB
IS TOT SBVBBAL STORMS— VlCIlCITT OF N«W
TORK.

Clear. Cloudy. Raio. Clear'*.

Critical Wind*. Hours. Hours. Hours. Hours.

South to Southwest. 9 8 8.8 14

South to Southeast.. 14 18.4 16.6 16.4

Esst to Northeast. . . 20 17.6 81 20.6

BULBS fob converting.

Centigrade degrees to Fahrenheit— Multiply by
9, divide by 5 and add 32. Fahrenheit degrees to
Centigrade— Subtract 82, multiply by 5 and di-
vide by 9. Centigrade degrees to Reaumur— Mul-
tiply by 4 and divide by 5. Reaumur degrees to
Centigrade— Multiply by 5 and divide by 4. Reau-
mur degrees to Fahrenheit— Multiply by 9, divide
by 4 and add 32. Fahrenheit degrees to Reaumur
-Subtract 32, multiply by 4 and divide by 9.



Comparative Tbmprraturm


of Dimnmrr




SOALBS,






F*beit. Cgrade.
212° 100


R'mur.
80*


F*heit. Cgrade.


R'mur.
10.2°


200 98.8


74.6


60


10.


8.


190 87.7


70.2


46


7.2


5.7


180 82.2


66.7


40


4.4


3.5


170 76.6


61.3


86


1.6


1.8


160 71.26


67.


32


0.


0.


160 66.6


62.4


80


-1.1


-0.8


140 60.


48.


26


-8.8


—3.1


180 64.4


48.5


20


-6.6


- 5.8


120 48.8


39.1


15


-9.4


—7.5


110 43.3


34.6


10


-12.2


—9.7


100 37.7


30.2


5


-15.


—12.


96 36.


28.





-17.7


-14.2


90 82.2


25.7


-5


-20.5


—16.4


86 29.4


23.5


-10


-23.3


—18.6


80 26.6


21.3


-15


-26.1


-20.8


75 28.8


19.1


-20


-28.8


-23.1


70 21.1


16.8


-26


-31.6


-25.3


65 18.3


14.6


-30


-34.4


-27.5


60 15.5


12.4









TIME.



STANDARD TIME.

On November 18th, i883, all the principal railroads of the United States adopted a standard of
time. The United States was divided into four sections, each of 16 degrees longitude, equivalent
to one hour of time. The first, or eastern section, uses the 75th meridian, and includes all territory
lying between the Atlantic Coast and an irregular line drawn from Detroit to Charleston, S. C, its
most southern point. The second, or central section, uses the 90th meridian, and includes the territory
between the last-mentioned line and an irregular line from Bismarck, N. D., to the mouth of the Rio
Grande. The third, or mountain section, uses the 106th meridian, and includes the territory between
the last-mentioned line and nearly the western borders of Idaho, Utah and Arizona. The fourth, or
Pacific section, uses the 130th meridian, and covers the rest of the territory to the Paoifio Coast.
Standard time within each of these sections is uniform, and the time in each section differs from that
of the next by exactly one hour.

TO OBTAIN CORRECT LOCAL TIME.

Apply to standard time by adding or subtracting the correction in minutes given in the table.



Albany,N.Y Eastern.

Austin, Tex Central.

Baltimore, Md Eastern.

Baton Rouge, La Central.

Btomarck, Dak Central.

Boston, Mass Eastern.

Buffalo, N.Y Eastern.

Burlington, la < entraL

OairoTIll Central.

Charlestons. C Eastern.

Chicago, III Central.

Cincinnati, O Central.

Cleveland, O Central.

Columbia, S.C Eastern.

OolnmbumO Central.

Dayton, O 9 entraL ,

Denver, Col Mountain.

Des Moines, la Central.

Detroit, Mich S 60 * 1,11 !-

Dubuque. la Central.

DuluttLMinn Central.

Brie. Pa Central.

Bvaneville, Ind Central.

Ft. Gibson, Cherokee Nation.. Central.

fort Smith, Ark V£ n V B V

Fort Wayne, Ind Central.

Galena, Hi Central.

Galveston, Tex Central.

Grand Haven, Mich Sao** 1 -

Harrisburg.Pa 5*i^ ern -

Houston. Tex 5»J^

Huntsvu\e,Als SSff*

Indianapolis, I ud Central.



Add 5
Bub. 31
Sub. 6
Sub. 4
Sub. 43
Add 16
Sub. 16
Sub. 6
Sub. 3
Sub. 20
Add 10
Add 22
Add 33
Sub. 21
Add 28
Add 23
8ub.
Sub. 14
Add 28
Sub. 3
Sub. 9
Add 40
Add 10
Sub. 21
Sub. 11
Add 19
Sub. 2
Sub. 19
Add 15
Sub. 7
Sub. 21
Add 12
Add 16



Jackson, Miss Central. Sub. 1

Jacksonville, Fla Central. Add 83

Janesville, Wis Central. Add 4

Jefferson City, Mo Central. 8ub. 9

Kansas City, Mo Central. Sub. 18

Keokuk. la Central. Sub. 6

Knox ville, Tenn Central. Add 24

La Crosse, Wis. Central. Sub. 6

Lawrence, Kan Central. Sub. 21

Lexington. Ky Central. Add 23

Little Rock, Ark Central. 8ub. 9

Louisville, Ky Central. Add 18

Lynchburg, va Eastern. Sub. 17

Memphis, Tenn Central. Add

Milwaukee, Wis. Central. Add 8

Mobile, Ala Central. Add 8

Montgomery, Ala Central. Add 15

Nashville. Tenn Central. Add 13

New Haven, Conn Eastern. Add 8

New Orleans, La. Central. Sub.

NewYork.N.Y Eastern. Add 4

Norfolk, Va. Eastern. Sub. 5

Ogdensbura. N. Y Eastern. Sub. 2

Omaha City. Neb Central. Sub. 24

Pensacola, Fla. Central. Add 11

Philadelphia, Pa Eastern. Sub. 1

Pittsburg.Pa Eastern. 8ub.20

Portland, Me Eastern. Add 19

Providence, R. I Eastern. Add 14

Quincy, 111 Central. Sub. 6

Raleigh, N. C Eastern. Sub. 16

Richmond, Va Kni»r**rn. Sub, 10

Rochester, N. Y E **u*rn. Sub. 11



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346



THE COMMERCIAL YEAR BOOK.



Rook Inland, 111.
Santa Fe, N. M..
Savannah, Ga. . .




Standard Ti

Central. Sub. 3

Mountain. Sub. 4

Central. Add 38

Central. Sub. 15


me. -Continued.

Syracuse, N. Y

Toledo, O

Trenton, N. J


Eastern.

Central

Eastern.


Sun. 6
Add 26
Add 1


Shreveport, La.


Utica, N. Y

Washington, D. C


Eastern.

Eastern.


Sub. 1


Springfield, 111..
St. Joseph, Mo..
8t. Louis, Mo...
St. Paul, Minn..




Central. Add 2

Central. Sub. 19

Central. Sub. 1

Central. 8ub. 12


Sub. &


Wheeling, W. Va

Wilmington, Del

Wilmington, N. C

Yankton. Dak


Eastern.

Eastern.

Eastern.

Central.

d Foreign CKiet

EARLIER THAB
YORK.

Havana


Sub. »
Sub. t
Sub. 11


Superior City, Wis.


Central. Sub. 8


Sab. ft


Time Difference Between the City of New York and the Principi


k

r www

H.M.
. OSftM


Antwerp

Berlin


H. M.

513.5
5 49.5
5 31.0

5 13.4
1 2.4

1149.2

6 61.9


H M

Dublin 4*30.6

Edinburgh 4 43.2

Geneva 6 20.5


H. M.

Paris 5 6.2

Rio de Janeiro... 2 3.2

Rome 6 45.8

St. Petersburg.. 6 67.1

Valparaiso 9.8

Vienna 6 1.2


Bremen


Hong Kong

Melbourne.

Mexioo, City of.

Panama

Yokohama.


. 11 27.4


Brussels

Buenos Ay res...
Calcutta.


Hamburg 5 35.8

Liverpool 4 43.6

London 4 55.9


. 9MJ»

. ltt.*
. 0**J


Constantinople. .


Madrid 4 41.1


Halifax 41.6


. 94L*



Divitiont of Time.



THUS TUflL



There are two kinds of time -Clock or mean-
time, and apparent or sun-time. Clock-time is
always right, while sun-time varies everyday, the
sun very seldom being on the meridian at 12
o'clock. A Solar day differs in length owing to
the eliipticity of the earth's orbit, etc.; but a
mean Solar day, as recorded by clock-time, is
twenty-four hours long.

An Astronomical day begins at noon and is
counted from the first to the twenty-fourth
hour.

A Civil day commenoes at midnight and is
counted from the first to the twelfth hour.

A Nautical day is counted as a Civil day, but
commences like an Astronomical day, at noon.

A Calendar month varies from twenty-eight to
thirty-one days.

A mean Lunar month is twenty-nine days,
twelve hours, forty-four minutes, two seconds
and a small fraction.

A Solar year, • r the transition from one vernal
equinox to another, consists of 865.24244 Solar days,
or 365 days, five hours, forty-eight minutes and
49.586 seconds.

A Julian year is 866 days : a Gregorian year is
885.2425 days. Every fourth year, or leap year,
has 386 days.



TWILIGHT.

Twilight is the faint light which I
rise and follows sunset for some hours before
the actual appearance and disappearance of the
sun. It is caused by the reflection of the sun's
rays from the upper strata of the atmosphere,
and disappears when the sun is about 18° below
the horizon. From this circumstance, and from
a knowledge of the diameter of the earth, the
height of the atmosphere can be computed, and
has been thus found to be between 46 and 0D
miles. It is probable, however, that it extei
much farther, but if so. It must be of such <
treme tenuity that it is incapable of " ^
the sun's rays.

LBNGTH OF BBABOHS.

Spring lasts from March 21 to June 21, or U8 days;
summer from June 21 to September 21. or 98 days:
autumn from September 21 to December 21, or 91
days, and winter from December 21 to March 21, or
90 days, or 91 days in the case of leap year, that Is,
the interval from the autumnal to the vernal equi-
nox is about three days shorter (neglecting the
odd hours and minutes) than the Interval from the
vernal to the autumnal equinox. This discrep-
ancy is due to the form of the earth's orbit, tne
earth describing during the autumn and winter
months that portion of its orbit nearest the son,
and therefore with the greatest velocity. We are
nearest to the sun about the 1st of January and
farthest about the 1st of July,



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GOVERNMENT OP THE UNITED STATES.



347



GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES.



Executive Department.

Pbbsidbnt— William MoKlnley, of Ohio Salary, $60,000

ViOB-PRBSiDBNT-Garret A. Hobart. of New Jersey " 8,000

Secretary or Statb— John Hay, of District of Columbia , •* 8,000

Secretary of thb TBBABtraY— Lyman J. Gage, of Illinois " 8,000

Sbobbtary of War— Bussel A. Alger, of Michigan " 8,000

Sborbtary of thb Navy— John D. Long, of Massachusetts " 8,000

Postmaster-General— Charles Emory Smith, of Pennsylvania " 8,000

Sborbtary of thb Interior— Ethan A. Hitohcock, of Missouri u 8,000

Attorney-General— John W. Griggs, of New Jersey " 8,000

8BCRBTARY of AOBiouLTURB— James WUson, of Iowa " 8,000

Commissioner of General Lard Offiob— Binger Hermann " 4,500

Commissioner OF Patents— Charles H. Duell, of New York. " 4,500

Commissioner of Pensions— H. Clay Evans, of Tennessee " 5,000



United States Supreme Court.

Chief Justiob— Melville W. Fuller, of Illinois. Appointed 1888. Salary, 110,500.

There are eight Associate Justices, who each receive $10,000 a year salary. Their names, with
date of appointment, follow : John M. Harlan, Kentucky, 1877 ; Horace Gray, Massachusetts, 1881 ; D.



Online LibraryWilliam Usborne MooreThe Commercial year book → online text (page 61 of 125)