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The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean online

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fCTHTOFHAai, «9)

The €(MM a^i gcifltfy, ki<k^^ aboat half a degree towards the
Afort^9 ckmng i%» whole course; aiid thoagfa there are two or
tiiree st»ali indentoresy there is no general curvature whatsoefer.
The mistake of Ptoieny (of far less magnitude than his error in
fegard to the peninstila of India) admits of a solution nearljr
self^eyident ; for the fleets from Egypt which sailed with the
RKxnsooD from the promontory Sy^gros in Arabia, if they erer
made the coast of Gadrdsia^ made it at this cape of Alambateir,
as a point of eminence, and left alh the coast from Cape Jask
on their left out of sight ; this naturally raised the idea of a.
curve inwards, because no land wa^ seen ; and if Ptolemy knew
any thing of Such vessels as sailed from the gulph of Persia, of
if any did in reality '•* sail, they also, from the moment they
doubled Cape Jask, took advantage of the monsoon^ and did
not creep along the shore like the fleet of Nearchus, but stood
off from one headland to another, and avoided the interruption
which the land winds o* the nature of the shore presented* It
is, therefore, the discovery of Hippalus, the knowledge of the
monsoons, which preceded the age of Ptdemy **^, that gave a
different idea of this coast to the mariners of his time, from
whose idformation he drew his plan of this great bay ; and it is
modem geography alone which has destroyed his curve, and
restored the right line of Nearchus. So consistent is truth, and
50 erroneous is conjecture.

*• They did sftil ra « iHcr tgc, «t»pp«iw 37S

|ft>m Cosmtt. His friend met theto at Ccy* 264

Ion, possibly from Keish* '

^ Ptolemy's JofJgitude of Karpefla, 94*, 114 differesee*

Bit. 22^ J</'; of Alabagiuiii) loiS ^^ Agatn^ Ptolemy has a degrees betwecir

ff^ (/« Karpdk and Kanthapts, which Marcian csti*

But 7^ at 69J miles \<J^^6\ miks | M 54 mates at f 000 stadia, by which it should s

ill ht. 25^, is 37S miles, wheieas the real dis* Marciaa reckoned 500 stadia to a degree
taace is only 264,

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IVe shall find, however, that the general arrangement af
names in both these authors corresponds; and though it is
highly extraordinary that no notice of Cape Guadel occurs in
Arrian, still as Ptolemy places Kuiza immediately to the west-
ward of Aldmbateir, and K6phas to the east, we must admit
that the Kuiza of Arrian, coming next in succession to Kdphas,
naturally concludes A14mbateir between the two, and reconciles
both *" authors happily to each other.




by Ptolemy,
by MacCluer,
add. from Ferro,


^ ^ ^ Latitiide
60 34

78 14
Ptolemy corrected by GosselUn, 72 0.

O /ft

25 7

17 40 n Robinson, 25 4

There is some great error '^ in the copies of Ptolemy here, for
Kyiza is placed 15' to the east of Alabagium, although it is to

'" Marcian, as the copyist of Ptolemy, is
always included in this estimate.

'^ Called Guader and Gauden by Purchase
and Mekran Masquerano, vol. i. 495.

"** The Western point of Guttar Bay is
called Bagia ; and the etymology of that
word would explain Ala-Bag ion, in which
the Arabic Al is visible. This is Ptolemy*t
own "word. AUmbateir is from Marcian» and
the Latin copies ; and A'mbateir is not without
a relation to Bagion, if it were discoverable.

Mr. Jones adds, I would venture to offer,
tin a better is foilnd, oirtfUJ! Al-pa-e-gah,
" The foot of land," otherwise, the low land.

Quere, whether Pa does not explain what
has been said.«bout Ba and Da ? the head of
ike promontory, in contradistinction to tfie
foot of the promontory ? At Ba-gasira Arrian
has a town named Pa-sira, supposed by d'An-
ville to be a corruption of Pa-gasira.

*«' This is capable of proof from Mardan^
who wriifes.

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the west of it ; and Bagfa Prom, in the same longitude with
Alabagium, though it is a whole degree to the west.

The head of Cape Guadel stretches out parallel with the coast
like the Pharos of Alexandria, and being joined to the main by
a neck of land not half a mile over, makes two bays, one to the
eastward and the other on the opposite side ; that on the west
is larger and more sheltered,, with twelve or thirteen fathoms at
the entrance, and shoaling to the mpper part; 'the town of
Guadel is situated close under the north side of the cape. The
bay on the east is small^ and not well sheltered, in which, how-
ever, we must suppose K6phas to lie, and possibly near the
point marked at its entrance from the east. Mr, Dalrymple
has enabled me to present the reader with a plan of this bay,
and the soundings will shew, that in whatever part of it we place
K6phas, there is a sufficient depth of water for Greek gaUies ;
possibly, at the favourable time of the year when Nearchus
sailed, such shelter as the shore itself afforded was ample se-
curity. Between this bay and the other on the western side
there is a neck which joins the peninsula to the main, and which
has been fortified by a wall '^ with towers. There are still the
remains ''' of a town built with stoncj but the present inhabitants
live in mat houses, and trade, which has been formerly con-
siderable, is now ruined by the miserable state of the country '•*.
Water is procured here by opening pits on the beach ; goats^
sheep, and fowls are likewise to be purchased. These circum-^

From Bagia to Kyiza, 350 itadia. '»' Poeaibly a work of the Portuguese, who

to. Alabagium, 400 had. a ecttlcmcnt here, if not of more ancient

. date.

^ 1 ^50 ''^ Lieutenant Portcr'a Memoir.. /

81 miles. '^ Hamilton mcntiona this decline in hit

The real distance is 70 miles., time.

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gtances, insignificant in themselves, are of some consequence i^
navigators; and induce a probability that conveniencies were
more attainable here in former ages than at present. Grood
water is a commodity specified in the journal, which adds, that
the place was inhabited by fishermen, who were possessed of
small and wretched boats, which they managed with a paddle
instead of an oar. The expression is characteiistic, for Arrian
says, it was like digging the water with a spade ; and whoever
has seen the New Zealand canoe, in Cook's first voyage, can
hardly conceive the idea represented with mor^ precision.

No where have I found more difficulty to render the narrative
consistent, thaii firom Mosama to this place. Mosama I have
fixed by the neighbourhood of Ashtola and Cape Posmee, and
K6phas is, I hope, established by means of Ptolemy, and the
position he gives to Aldmbateir ; the distances appear incapable
of correction ; on this head I have confessed my inaWlity to ob-
tain the truth, and must hope for indulgence where the means
of information are so deficient.

Two islands are noticed by Ptolemy and Marcian in this
•neighbourhood; one called Pola, Polla, or palla, at some dis-
tance from the coast, for which I can find nothing equivalent;
and another named Lib^, Liba, or Zibe, close to Aldmbateir ;
the latter I conclude to be nothing more than this very penin-
sula of Guadel before us, which may have been an island ••* till
connected with the main by the increase of the neck of land, or
might be considered as such, like the Pharos of Alexandria.

'»' Seen possibly as an island at sea^ from ** joins it to the continent is low, narrow, and

the lowness of the coast. ** composed of «aad. This observation Ib also

" The appearance of C. Guadel justifies " applicable to Cape Arubah/' Captain

** the idea that it may hate been an ishnd at Blair.
«< an early period ; for the neck of land which

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I C T H Y O P H A G I. ^^y

From K6phas, in the eastern bay of Guadel, the fleet sailed
early "^ in the evening, and, after a course of fifty miles, reached
Kuiza, which, by the distance specified, ought to be the Noa r-~-
Point of Lieutenant Porter, forming the entrance of Guttar Bay .^^c. 8.'
from the eastward : but if we are to suppose that the eityht hun^ "'dly? ^
dred stadia, mentioned for this day's work, exceed as much as Kyez!?
those of former days, we must place Kuiza '^^ on the coast some- TwlnT^*
what short of Noa Point ; and for this there is a suflScient reason ^^^ "tatioii.
from the next day's course of four hundred stadia, which would ^

be evidently too much for the termination we must allot, M ar-
cian (if his numbers are of any value) places Kuiza at fifty '*•
miles from A14mbateir, or Cape Guadel.

A plan of Guttar Bay is given in the general Chart, No. I.
and will, by the allowance here made, answer in position to the
transactions which are to take place on the following dav.

At Kuiza the men could not land, as it was an open shore
with a great surf "^ ; they therefore took their meal ** on
board at anchor, and then weighing, proceeded upwards of •
thirty miles to a small city placed on an eminence, at no great
distance from the shore.

This nameless city is not without features to distinguish it ; Sixtr-ninth
for Lieutenant Porter says, though the land round the bay is so Twcliy-


'••About the first watch; six o'clock, to Khudar; the Oriental orthography for * station.

This 18 the third inetance of weighing at Guttar according to Otter, vol. ii. p. 409. ■

nigbt. '•• At eight stadia to a mile» Marcian's

•s" See the Table, where it is assumed that numbers agree with Arrian's, Fifty miles.

Nearchus reckons, between Kuiza and Tahnc- 'w ^^;„^ if ^h^re was a surf, it is anad-

na, from the extreme points of each bay ; that ditional reason for placing KuCza prerious ta

is, from the eastern point of Guttar Bay to Noa Point.

the western point of Churbar, **• llnrKnrotioirro, is not precise enough to

Kuidsa, or Kuisda, as this word would be specify an evening meal, but is apparently so*

written in Greek letters^ approaches very near


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tow, that you can neither see the other side noF the bottom of
the bay, from Noa Point ; yet there is a hummock or two
visible which appear hke islands, and one of these hummocks
we may assume for the eminence ^' of Arrian upon which this
city was situated. " We found,'' says Lieutenant Porter, " a
" small town at the bottom of the bay, inhabited by fishermen/'
Is it not a whimsical coincidence, that at the distance of two
thousand years, an English navigator should find. a town with-
out a name, as well as Nearchus ? I do not build upon this ;
nor do I assert, that the town I am looking for stands where
the present town does ; this is doubtless Guttar ; but I can place
Nearchus's town any where in the bay that the position of a
hummock Avill justify, and I rather suppose on the western side,
as Lieutenant Porter appears to have viewed the hummocks as
he entered the bay from the east.

When the fleet reached this place, it was totally without
bread or grain of any kind ; and Nearchus, from the appearance
of stubble in the neighbourhood, conceived hopes of a supply if
he could find means of obtaining it ; but he perceived that he
could not take the place by assault ; and a siege, the situation
he was in, rendered impracticable. He concerted matters,
therefore, with A'rchias, and ordered him to make a feint of
preparing the fleet to sail, while he himself with a single vessel,
pretending to be left behind, approached the town in a friendly
manner, and was received hospitably by the inhabitants. They
came out to receive him upon his landing, and presented liim
with baked fish, (the first instance of cookery he had yet seen

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en the coast,) accompanied with cakes **** and dates *^'. These
he accepted with proper acknowledgments, and informed them
he wished for permission to se^ the town : this request was
granted without suspicion ; but no sooner had he entered, than
he ordered two of his archers to take post at the gate, and then
mounting the wall contiguous, with two more and his inter-
preter, he made the signal for A'rchias, who was now under
weigh, to advance. The natives instantly ran to their arms;
but Nearchus, having taken an advantageous position, made a
momentary defence till A'rchias was close at the gate ; when
ordering his interpreter to proclaim, that if they wished their
city to be preserved from pillage, they must deliver up their
corn, and all the provisions which the place afforded, he pre-
pared for the encounter. ITicse terms were not rejected, for the
gate was open, and A'rchias ready to enter ; he took charge of
this post immediately with the force which attended hijn, and
Nearchus sent proper officers to examine such stores as were in
the place, promising the inhabitants that, if they acted ingenu-
ously, they should suffer no other injury. Their stores were
immediately produced, consisting of a kind of meal ^ or paste
made of fish, in great plenty, with a small quantity of wheat
and barley* ^JThis, however insufficient for his wants, Nearchus

••* xiixfjuetra. ix(y». *"♦ This 18 not more extraordinary than that

*« These cakes arc, I conceive, the very sort cattle should eat fish, as mentioned ahove ; or

** of bread made use of to this day all along this than the Caviar of the Wolga. Lieutenant

** coast, and called Aps. They arc flat, and Porter reports, p.* 13, that at Mascat in Ara-

<< baked in a round earthen oven, by being bia they make a mixture of fish and dates with

'< stuck against the sides of it." Mr. H. a kind of earth and water, which the cattle

Jones. cat as their common food, and it is extremely

**^ This does not specify the season of the fattening,

ripe fruit. They might be dried. Sec infra.

LL 2

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station .


received, and, abstaining from farther oppression, returned on

board with his supply. The fleet hauled off to a caj)e in the

Bagia. neighbourhood called Bagta, and there anchored at no great
Twenty. 6fth distaucc, as I conclude *^S from the town.

TTie circumstance of a cape here determines, in my opinion,
the correspondence of all particulars relating to this place ; for
this cape must be the western point of Guttar Bay, and all the
circumstances unite in giving a position to this nameless town
on the western side of the bay, as I have done.

Lieutenant Porter writes, " The bay *** is large and deep, with
." shoal water, and in crossing right over from Noa Point,
" a lump is seen on the opposite shore, with an island nearly
" under it, and a little bay called Bucker Bundar '^, where the
" natives fish, and where the Sanganian pirates often lie in wait
" for the small vessels that trade along the coast.'' To this
lump I had looked for the eminence on which the town stood,
but it is inland, and stands on the high ground behind. I have
little doubt, however, that this lump directed Nearchus as the
first point seen across the bay, and led him to the town itself.
And if it is thought extraordinary that he does not mention a
bay here, it is not more so than his omission of Cape Guadel,
and it ought to be observed, that when he calls Bagla a cape,
a cape necessarily implies an indenture on one side or the

From these various deductions I consider this nameless town

*** No 'dtttance is mentioned, and it appears Mr. Jones adds, I should suspect Bockar

like immediate anchoring, after leaving the Bunder ought to be written Beker Bunder.

town. The word Beker has a variety of significations,

^ Memoir, p. 7. some of which arc probable to be given at

^ A Klation may be suspected between names to a Bay or Bunder.

Bucker and Bagta, Buckab.


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and Guttar Bay as identified ^ and I now return to attend the
fleet on its progress.

But before I enter upon the remainder of the course from
Bagta to Badis, it is necessary to take a general view of the
coast, in order to dispose of the intertnediate stations which
Nearchus, from the distress of the fleet, had Uttle opportunity
of describing; and on which, consequently, the scantiness of
the journal leaves great obscurity. K6phas, A14mbateir, Kuiza^
and Bagta, corresponding in the three authors, conduct us
safely to this point ; and thus far there can bp no error, unless I
have assumed Bagia for the western point of Guttar Bay in*
stead of the eastern : but the reasons already given are more
than sufficient for the occasion.

I am now to take the departure of the fleet from this station
of Bagta, and the first step to T41mena is the greatest difficulty ;
for the distance given by the journal between Bagia and T41-
mena is a thousand stadia, or sixty-three miles, an estimate
which carries Tdllnena beyond Churbar Bay, and which,^ if a
remedy is sought by commencing the course from Noa Pointy .
encroaches as much on the previous measures as the contrary
supposition does upon the subsequent part of the coast. I had, .
however, originally fixed Tdlmena at Churbar, Kanasida at the
Tanka, Kanatfe at Kalat, Troisi at a creek, and Dagasira at a
headland previous to Mucksa ** ; but by means of fresh inform^

**' There can be no poNibility of error, eastward of Noa Pobt. £?en upon this sup-

vnlest it should be thought worth while to pay position^ tfiere can be no greater enoor than •

attention to the stadia of Mardan. He reckons the breadth of the bay; and the numbers of

twenty -Eve miles from Alambateirto Kuiza» Marcian are too disputable to ground this

and sixteen from Kuiza to Kasia^ f . e, Bagia. alteration upon them.

This would make Bagia and Noa Point the ^ The Charts Now I« will give all theses

fni yp I a(id place the nameless town of Arrian positions..

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ation collected from Otter, I have been induced to alter this
arrangement, and abandon the measures of the journal. The
following discussion I submit, with some degree of hesitation,
to such as may be disposed to examine a question which,
though not important, has at least research and novelty to re-
commend it.

The three ^'^ following stations in Arrian are Tdlmena, Kana«
sida, and Kanatfe ; and in the series of Ptolemy there is a
Kandriakes, answering to Tdlmena; if, therefore, we assume
Kandriakes for Tajmena, we obtain three successive names, of
which Kan is the initial component part. Now it appears from
Otter, that the Oriental accounts which specify the rivers of the
Mekran, employ the adjunct Kienk or Kenk, as the Persians
useAb**' or Roud, to express a river; thus we have Kiour-
Jcienk, Nehenk, and Kiechenk*'*, all of which d'Anville has
adopted in his map **' of Mekran, and given them the course
assigned by Otter. But this term takes two different appear*
ances in its derivation from the original form, Dsjenk passing,
by one process, from Sj into Chienk, Kienk, Kenk, Ken,
Kende, and Kande ; and, by another, from D into Dienk,
Denk, and Danke. In its first form, it is connected possibly
with Tchen, Chcu ; with the Ganga, tlie Ganges, the Kishen-
donga, and the Sevi-Gonga of India: in its second, Denk
furnishes the Samy-Dak6 of Ptolemy, which is the Danke or
Tanka*"* river of the modern charts on this coast. This term, in

aio There arc four in reality, for a namclew Jirbc, the skin for water used in caravans, and

one is placed between Kanasida and Kanate^ Chienk, Jicnk, into Dienk, Denk^ by the

which is possibly the modem Godeim. same analogy as Jumna into Diamuna.

"* Ab-Schirin, Ab-Argoun, Roud-chioar. "^ Asie premiere partie.

»" Chienk, Chcnk, pass into Kienk, Kenk, "* Written Tanqua by Ressendc. Pbrtug*

iby an Dnental Tariationi at Kirbe, Girbc, and Tanqua Banqua, the white riven

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I C T H Y P H A G r. 2^5*

one or other of these shapes, appears the most ancient express
sioii for a river of any that occurs ; and it may be easily shewn
that Ptolemy knew of its various orthography and its meaning ;
for he writes both Samy-Dak6 and Samy-Kad6, and he inter - *
prets Kand-ridkes by Hudr-idkes *'*, evidently from '^T^ojp, the
Greek term for water. Upon consulting Otter, I find a
stream in this neighbourhood called Kie-Chek "^ which may be
interpreted the river of Ki6 or Guie, an inland town at some
distance"^ from the coast, and I cannot help thinking that
Ptolemy's Kandriakes is a transposition of the same Avord
Kande-Kie, or Kandre-Kie,. for Kie-Kande. Otter says, this
river falls into the sea between Khudar and Pichin. Pichin*'* is
not discoverable, but Khudar is Guttar Bay, which the fleet
has noAv just left, and if Pichin is to the westward, we liave the
mouth of this river falling into the sea betvveen Guttar and
Churbar, corresponding with the Kandridkes of Ptolemy. If it
were now possible to identify the Tdlmena of Arrian with this
Kandridkes, the journal would be clear ; but Talmena lias no
allusion to a river ; it sigTkifies a mined *"• fort, and that is an

*** It is cxtraordmary that the wild gco- it, in Hebrevr,- a ruiooua heap ; and from

graphy of Ammianus Marcellinus mentions an hence, perhaps, Arabic or Persic. That such

Hydriakus in Karmania, Lib. xxiii. p. 462. ruins were as common on the coast former!/

*'• It is true that Otter considers Kic- as at present, there can be little doubt ; for the

Chck as a fort } and yet he writes, Lt Kiour^ Bclootchcs from the eastward, and the native

Kienk recoii dusit feau de Kic-CheL Chek is Gadr68ian8 are both tribes of plunderers* The

Chcnk, or Kienk. very next station at Kanasida is noted by the

*" Five days or a week's distance : one hun- journal as a ruined city. Thus has rapine

dted or one hundred and twenty miles. joined with avidity to desolate this coast in aU

**• D'Anville gives Pichen a situation such ages. See Pafkhurst in voce H /D* Talah ;

as is required ; but I apprehend has only Ot- and JJ7J3) Massam, an- inhabited place ; but

ter's authority ; for I do not Hnd Fichin in At the last is dubious.
Edrissi- A deity of the Britons, derived, according

"• Mina, Minau, at the Anamis, and Mi- to Maurice, from the Bramins, is called Tol-

naviy^at Basra, arc expressive of a fort, Tal men, signifying in the Cornish language a halt

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object which might occur in one part of the coast as well as
another. What remains, then, but to consider the series of
both authors, and examine how far they correspond ?

Ptolemy. Arrian.

Bagta, Bagia,

Kandridkes, Tdlmena,

Tysa, Kana-sjda, or Kana-disa,

Samy-Kad6. Kan-at6.

This is their order, and if the first agrees with the first, and
the two last can be discovered to correspond mutually, the se-
cond may be considered as the unknown quantity we are
searching fon Permit me, then, to read Kana-Disa **** for
Kana-Sida; and I find Kienk-Disa, the river of Dis, Tiz, or
Tidsj. This is the Tysa of Ptolemy, the Tesa or Teisa of Mar-
cian, the Teiz of Dalrymple, and the Tearsa of Porter. All
these different modes of writing are expressive of a town situated
in the bay of Churbar, celebrated by Al Edrissi **' for its com-
merce with Keish, an island in the Gulph, and Oman in Arabia,
both sufficiently noticed by Cheref-eddin and other Oriental
geographers. Otter brings the Kiour-Kienk, or salt river "%
into this bay ; and unless Sida shall be found to express salt,
there can be little doubt but that it is a transposition from Disa

df stone. It cootists of a large orbicular 8tone> city. Est urbs panrai Celebris tamen et popu%

supported by two others, betwixt which there losa.

is a passage. Maurice Ind. Antiq. vol. vi. *" Roud-Chiour the salt river, near Kunk

p, 140. The connection is very dubious. in LarisUn ; and Kunk itself is related to

aao 'x*i|^ licence requested for these trans- Kienk. In those countries where the soil is

positions is sUted fully hereafter at Agris. salt or nitrous, there arc salt rivers every where.

^ JP« 58. Taiz ; a small but populous Sec Marco Polo in Ramusio, torn. ii. p. &

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or Diz. By a similar process the modem Tanka may be found
in the Kanatfe of Anian, and the Samy-Kadfe of Ptolemy ; for
Kanat and Kad^ come by one process from Kienk ; and Samy-
Dak6, Danke and Tanka by another : if, therefore, upon these
grounds Kana-Sida corresponds with Tiz or Churbar, and
Kanat^ with Samy-Kad6 or Tanka, Tiilmena consequently an-
swers to the Kandrlakes of Ptolemy, and the series in both

Online LibraryWilliam VincentThe commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean → online text (page 23 of 49)