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The commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean online

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appears in the charts at the distance of two thousand years : but
if the approach to this station was difficult, the anchorage was
indifferent ; the fleet, however, wanted repair, the vessels wefe
coi^sequently drawn on shore, and the time employed in refit-
ting and careening was no less than one-and-twenty days ; dur-
ing which interval, they received a large supply of com, sent
down by the command of Alexander. From this circumstance
we may conclude, that the detachment under Heph^stion was
in the neighbourhood ; and, (as I collect from Alfragani ^\
Golius, d'Anville, and Otter"*,) at Giouar, or Firou^abad, an
inland city, the capital of the district Ardeshir, celebrated for
its gardens, vineyards, and roses, as pre-eminent in Persia as
those of l^^stum in Italy. I fix upon this place, because I
leara from Otter, that the river of Giouar receives a stream
called Sita Rhegian***, which may be interpreted the sandy

"• M'Clucr. city. Goor signiBet a 8q)ulchrc.

"' Pi^X*^ fhoah ; ^x^cm, broken water; "* Otter, vol. i. p. 191. I found thittc-

Tifoiytaf thoaU with ooze or mud. count by accident in Otter, strangely placed

*" GoL ad Alfragan, p. 1 14. Founded by in a route from Hamadan to Ispahan.
Ardexir, son of Babcc, son of Sasun. An El- >h Raiguian. Otter,
burx, or firc-tower of the Parsees, was in this



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P E R S I S- 387

Sita, and, with a final aspirate, becomes Sitahh, or the Sitahk
of Ncaipchus. The Eastern writers mention, that Alexander
took this city by inundating it with the waters of the river.
This could not happen, for Alexander himself was on the other
side of the mountains ; but his army under Heph^stion might
have taken it by this method ; and the permanence of the tra*
dition affords some sort of proof, that Heph^stion was at this
city, as I have stated. The roads which bi'anch out from this •
centre evidently mark it as a capital ; and when we reflect that
SirafF and Keish were formerly the Gomeroon and Ormus of
the gulph, we see the necessity of the communications extending
from this centre to the coast at Siraff, and inland to Shiraz ; to
Lar on the east, and to Reghian on the north-west ; in this latter
line it is evident that Heph^stion, with his division of the army,
was moving. We have before attended him across the mountains
from Giroft to Lar, and we have here a route from Lar through
Giouar"^ and Kazeron to Ragian on the river Tab or Endian,
which is the boundary between Persis and Susiana. In Susiana
Heph^stion rejoined the main army under Alexander, who
seems to have moved by the route of Velaz-Gherd, the western
Phoreg, Pasagardas and Persepolis, till he fell into the road
by which Timur came from Susiana to Shiraz, and trod this
ground in a contrary direction, till he reacl^^d Susa, the ancient
capital of the province. These marches of the two divisions will
be farther considered hereafter upon the arrival of the fleet at
Susa ; at present they are only noticed, in order to connect the
motions ot the fleet and army, upon occasion of the supply re-

"5 In the route of Al-Edrisi, from Shiraz Giouar, though Lar is on the left, and net
to Siraff, we discover the road from Lar to mentioned. See infra.

3d2



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5«8 GULPH OF PERSIA.

ceivcd At Sitakus. The time which the fieet contintied here i»
longer than ftny interval hitherto employed upon the refitting of
the vessels ; arid tre ought for this reason to suppose that they
Waited fbr the approach of the army, or the collection of the
supply. Tlie reason of this must evidently be, that the distance
from Giroft to Giouar is upwards of three hundred miles, a
march which, in this climate, could hardly require less than four
or Ave and twenty days, even if Hephdstion moved on the same
dAy with Nearchus ; eleven ** day» navigation, therefore, and
twenty-one days in port, give a period almost necessary for the
service required ; and this allowance combines the motion of the
fleet and army in a manner correspondent to reason, and not
contradictory to the history of the transactions.

Cape Verdistan •*% with its shoal tending out to Kenn, is one
of the most prominent features in the gulph ; English vessels^
lioWever, which are geneifally bound to Busheer, or Basra, hav-
ing no other business but to avoid *** it, we have no right to ex-
pect any immediate account of the coast itself at this point :
but the anchorage at Sitakus, d'Anville has elucidated **• with
particular attention ; Kaneh Sitan, he informs us, signifies the
habitation of Satan ; and the river Sita-Reghian '^ lias, evidently
an allusion to the same prince of darkness ; an extraordinary in-
stance of his early influence in this country, and the duration of
his empire. Whether Nearchus found the territory of Satan an
agreeable residence for one-and-twenty days, I pretend not to

»** Twelve days induBire. *** Lieutenant Cant gi^cs a bay here, and

^ Bardestan, Bardestrand, Van Keulen, HarYey» a river. Claud Russell^t chart calla

Babestan» D'Apres, i/45- Burdistan, Cap- the river Jareu.

per ; who calls it a mountain. '^'^ llie Sitiagogut of Pliny, p. 136. lib. vL

*^ See M'Guer, p. 24, 25. All hit direc* 22. deserves no notice ; he says it is navigable

tions are how to avoid it Mth safety. up to Pasagarda.



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P E R S I 3. 389

determine ; but, from the good-will I bear him, I regret to find
him in a place with a name of such ill omen. Reghian is not
quite perspicuous, as tliere is another Reghian on the Tab or
Endian, and a Bender-Regh, which is the Rh6gonis of Arrian.
It is probable that the etymology of the word, which signifies
sand, will explain all three ; but I have looked in vain for tootg
Reghians than one in the Nubian Geographer. The Giouar of
that author on this river *^" throws great light on tlie march of
Heph^stion, and the supply received by the fleet, because tlie
measures taken from Shiraz, Kazeron, Sirafl^, and Reghian on
the Tab, all correspond with some degree of correctness, and
the use Mr. d'Anville has made of these in his first map of Asia
bears the highest testimony to his judgment and penetration.
It is upon this occasion that he introduces his remarks upon the
rivers of Persis, demonstrating that none of them beyond the
mountains ever find their way to the sea; and shewing that
those which have occurred in Arrian bear the characteristic mark
of torrents, as he describes them, never rising beyond the great
range, and fed only by the rains which fell there too periodically
to support a perennial stream. When we see the face of nature
painted so justly, who shall assert that the journal before us is
the production of a Greek sophist in his closet ? One circum-
stance only surprises me in d'Anville, which is, that he should
mistake the Bagrada of Ptolemy ; for as he has himself placed
the Taok6 of that author, with great apparent propriety, at
Gennaba, and his Cherson^sus at Busheer, or Bender-Rischer,
his Bris6ana ought to be the river at Kierazin, to which it bears
a relation, however corrupted ; his Ausinza *** naturally becomes

^ Al Edrissi does sot me&tioa the river. *^* Written Staugiiida by Manciao^ p« m.



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390



GULPH OF PERSIA.



HlERATIS.

February i.
Day 32,
or I2J.



Ausizan, or Verdi-stan, and B^grada of course is the next
river*" at Cape Nabon. In tracing Ptolemy's catalogue thus
from Cape Jasques to the termination of Persis, I persuade my-
self that I not only add perspicuity to this immediate work, but
perform a service useful to geogi'aphy, and acceptable to every
lover of the science.

An interval of one-and-twenty days passed at SItakus, brings
our account to the first of Februarj^, and on this day I fix the
departure of the fleet for Ili6ratis. The course is nearly forty-
seven miles, which terminates at the Gilla or Halilah*^ of
M'Cluer, with xi suflScient degree of correctness, and where
d'Anville finds the Kierazin *'* of the Turkish Geographer. The
fleet anchored in the mouth of a canal called Hcratemis, cut
from a larger river at no great distance, which is doubtless the
stream tirat comes from Kazeron*^; and Kazeron as undoubt*
edly is the root of all the corruptions which appear under the
form of Kierazin, Hieratis, and the Zezarine of the English
charts. The stream **' itself, iu its source at least, is called
Sekan by Ebn Haukal; it was passed by Thevcnot*^, in the
neighbourhood of Karzerum*^ (as he writes it), in his route from



*** There 18 no other between Vcrdistan and
Nabon but the tcrreiit A'rcon, too minute for
all our charts and maps to notice.

'^ Hahlcg or Helilcg is tht Arabic name
of Myrobalans, a sort of plumb uaed by the
Orientals in medicine. Perhaps the plant
which produces this fruit is found here. See
Salm. i.pj.

'J* This i» the only mark I find in his chart.
Gilla is a town* Hahlah» or Halilat, a hill,
which serves as a direction for entering Busheer
harbour. It takes its name from the town
marked HaUla in Niebuhr.

'»* Stc Koushcr of Thevcnot, Niebuhr, &c.

4



'^^ Kazeron hat an additional title, the
country of Sapor; and is the head of that
division of Persis called Sabur^ or Sapor, by
d'Anville. Gol. ad Alfra^an, p. 11^. not.
It is not, however, the capital, for that he
calls Sabura, from Sapor or Shabor.

•^^ If Thevcnot obtained this name from his
muleteers, or from the pevsants of the coun*
try, they meant to tell him as the name of the
river, Aiib-c Gcnowce, that is to say, the
river of Genowee ; calling it go, from its falU
ing into the sea at that place. Mr. H. Jones.

'^ Thevcnot, part ii. p. 149. It flows
within a -mile and a half of the town, and



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P E R S I S* 391

Schiraz to Bender-Regh. The variations occurring in this name
flow two different ways from the same source, for Kaseroon ^,
first becomes Kazerene, Kezarene, Ze/arene, Brizoene *^' ; ^nd
secondly, Kerazene, Kierazin, Kierad-sin, Hierat-sin, Hierat-is,
and perhaps Herdten-is, or Herdtemis : but I do not maintain
that both are the same, for Kazeroon *^ is upwards of fifty *^
miles inland, and the Kierazin of the Turkish Geographer is on
the coast ; but I suppose both to be connected by means of the
district or the river. D'Anville has observed, tliat Kierazin on
the coast appears not in the modem maps, but that the name
exists in our English charts under the form of Zezarine, apphed
to an islet nearly fifty miles out at sea. This is true ; but at the
time he wrote, neither this isle, nor another called Kenn, were-
laid down with any degree of correctness. We have since ob-
tained their position, from an observation of Captain Moore -
Kenn ^ in latitude 27'' 54', and Zezarine in 28'' 8'. Kenn is a
round bank of sand scarcely half a mile in length, and Zeza-
rine*^* something larger, with a rock in the middle; both are

was apparently passed by a bridge about six Kiazirourr, as the strict OrientaT .orthography

miles lower. The town is large, but ill of Kazenin. This, at the fame time it proves

built . ^ the perpetual transposition of syllables (so often^

The present city of Kaseroon I do not think noticed), as of Kiaziran for d*Anville's Kic-

can boast of great antiquity i but to the south- razin, unites it with Kezareen and Zczareen

ward and westward there are the remain* of the most perfectly* The connexion, therefore, of

ancient and magnificent city of Sbahbour, with the town^with. the river and the shoal is esta-

sculptures in relievo on the mountains, similar blished.

to those of Perscpolis. Mr. H. Jones. *^ According to ray journal fTx>m Bushiiv.

May not this be the Taoke of the journal ? to Schcrauze, in the year 1786, I make Kaze*

•^ Written Kazarun by Al-Edrisi, p. 125. roon distant from Bushire 98 miles. I tra*^

**' This is, I conjecture, the relation which- veiled, however, the same road several times

Ptolemy's and Marcian's Brisoana has with afterwards, and I incline to think the distance

Kezarene ;^ but it is mere conjecture. not quite 90, Mr. H. Jones.

•^ After making this conjecture, I was ^ Dalrymple's Collection, p. 46.

gratified in finding a demonstration of it in *^^ Keyn and Zazareen, M*Cluer»
Otter, vol. i. p. 310. where he writes Kiaziran^



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391 GULPH OF. PERSIA.

sixteen or seventeen leagues from the coasts Kenn is likewise
called the Cock, or Persia, and Zezarine, Arabia, by the native
pilots. And here is a circumstance worthy of remark, which,
though it escaped the notice of d'Anville, speaks highly for the
penetration manifested in his reference ; for Zezarine, the isle,
is as certainly connected with a Zezarine on the main, as Kenn
is with his Kaneh-Sitan, the Kenn of our English charts. There
is another soUtary isle called May, upwards of sixty leagues
fi'om the coast, in latitude ^d"" 50', which I mention, in order
to shew the perpetual connexion of these little spots with the
main ; for Al-Edrissi fixes a Mai in the road from Shiraz to
Siraff, to which this islet is nearly opposite, and to which it is
probably related. I expected to find a Kierazin also in Al-
Edrissi, but his routes are always the journals of the caravans,
aud we seldom have any delineation of the coast.

Arrian has no particulars of Hieratis ; but that it was on an

island formed by a channel from a river in the neighbourhood,

and that an island of this sort, resembling the delta of a river,

should not appear in our English charts is not extraordinary,

because it would naturally be confounded with the coast ; but

Mr. d'Anville places an island here, which he writes Cousher,

and which is the Coucher of Thevenot. He did not land here ;

but he says it is a pretty large island, arid enables us to form a

conjecture of its distance from Busheer, by mentioning that he

passed that port between two or three o'clock in the morning,

and was off Coucher at half an hour after seven, I trace an ac-

count which corresponds with this in Niebuhr, who upon his

arrival at Kormudsch, in his route from Busheer to Schiraz,

mentions an arm that runs up from Busheer*^ into the interior

•^ Niebuhr^ vol. ii. p. 8i.



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PERSIA 393

of the country, then turns itself to the south, and falls again
into the gulph lower down towards the east. At the place
where this stream ought to fall in, his map presents us with
Kh6re-Esscri ^\ and as KhAre signifies a channel, or division, I
have little doubt but this is the Her^temis of Arrian, and that
Khor-esser*^ is the Koucher of Thevenot* It is true that Nie-
buhr is not accurate in 1ms account of the arm which comes *^
from Busheer, for there is no such arm, as Mr. Jones assures
me, who resided at Busheer many years ; and it is extraordinary
that Niebuhr should insert this arm in his own draft *% and yet
give us Captain Simmons's chart *^', in which no river larger than
a brook is to be found. As Niebuhr never saw this Kh6re-
Esseri, tlierefore all that w-e can collect is, that he gained intelli-
gence from inquiry among the natives, that the circumstance of
a river inclosing a delta between two of its mouths existed, and
that the eastern channel was caUed Kh6re-Esseri. This, for
want of furtlier information, he was obliged to lay down with
uncertainty ; but that some stream, attended with these cir-
cumstances, does fall into the gulph, witliin the distance of
from ten to twenty miles eastward of Busheer, I make little
doubt, and such a stream will answer to the Ilieratis and Herd-
temis of ArriarL Mr. Jones is acquainted with a shallow arm
of the sea running inland near Ilalila : and though he doubts
the ciromi&tances here attributed to it, it is not inii>ossible that
this ann should send off a channel to the eastward.
' From Hieratis the fleet proceeded the following morning to .

**^ Probably Kh6rc-EB8cri means Kborc-il- perly a large arm vrhich be makes fall into

Ziji^eer, Little Khore. Mr. H. Jones. Busbecr Bay. S^e his map.

»♦' Kb6re-E8seri is literally tbc channel of *** Vol. ii. p. 97, Amst. edit.

Esser, and Esser doubtless has a relative sense. •" Vol. ii. p. 75.

'^ I use his own term, but it is more pro-

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3^



GULP» QF F5RSIA.



ME8AMBX.IA

Town.
Padargus.
Padagrus

River.
February 2.

I>ay 33'
or i24«



Mw^roJpfiaj^ aad 2»neboce4 at thi^ mot^th of tfce torrefit oiJlod
P^s^rgqsk. The wb^le place^ &9.y9 Aman, ia «^ pef^titfi^ula, wkich
points oijt Bttaheer w Abn-Scheer most coifrectljf; and h«^
ther^ is no dietaneo g^vea^ a ciTcumstarice *^* recurring cx>nsta»tljr
whenever the fleet passes a cape, and anchws. immediately un-*
cler the ijlielter it afFords. I slwuld conclude, therefore, if
d'Anville does not stand in my way> that Hi^atig Avas at no
great distance from the back oC this cape to the eastward ; thai*
they had anchored there only because they could not djouble the
cape the preceding eveeing, ai^i had sailed into port as sooa as
they had day-light. Tliese circumstances do not greatly dis*
agree with the situatioo Thevenot gives to Koucher, and coixtri?^
bute to relieve the obscurity attendant upon this part of the
eoa$t«

^^u^heer**' varies as much ia its orthography as any place *^



••• See anchoragea after passing Mount
Biruft, Jafky and Tarsia.

•** I beg to gi^c you the following^ as the
best account my recollection affords of both
tfu^se placcB* Bushire» as it is commonly
caVed by the Englbh, is Aboushabr as written
by the Persians) and is situated on a point of
land washed by an inlet of the sea. A wal]»
by which the town is fortiiied on the land side^
renders the figure of it an irregular triangle.
The present town of Bushirc has been cnaitd
within these thirty years, in consequence prin-
cipally of the troubles which took place at
Scherause on the death of the Vakeel Kerim
Khan» and of the mild, equitable, and inde-
pendent govemiaent of Scheik Nassir. The
vessels which frequent this port, provided they
are not abov<; 300 tons burtlien, may anchor in
what is called the inner roads, though even
there they are somewhat exposed to the north-
west I and as the anchorage ground is not very
capacji^usy and t^ bar disagreeable, I have



known but few of the Company's Biarine offi-
cers f^d of ruHMBg into the inner . noads.
The town may qonsist of from 300 to 350
houses, most of which are triily miserable.
The water ia the town ia very brackish, and
consequently the better sort of inhabitanta
bring the water they use from the Dutch gar-
dens, or even from Bischen The towo^ when
I fii*8t went to Bassora^ er^yed a great com«
merce with India, and indeed during the lifb
of Scheik Nisslr ; but since the deceaae of the
old Scheik, and the accession of his son Scheik
Nessr, and the- extirpation of tlie Zund ^mily
from Scheraijze, this <;ominerce has giadually
been on the decay. TIk town is washed on
two sides of it by tlie sea ; and on the lanS
side a sandy desert extends about \ or |^ of a
mile. Mr. H. JoneSi who waa resident several
years at Busheer.

'^ Reix^el by the Portuguese^ who bad a
fort here* Abbcsecr, Van Kcukn»



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P E R S I S. ^5

within the gulph^ for it is written BuBhire, Bischehr, Abbesee^
&c. and is likewise confounded with Rusheer and Rischer,
which 26 a fort at the back of the peninsula, and which gives it
the title of Bender-Rischer ; but last of all comes Niebuhr, who
writes it Abu-Shdhhr*", with Rischdhhr*** at a distance; and
thus, probably from his better knowledge of the language, wA
have the proper *^ name at last.

Whence the Mes4mbria erf Anian is deduced does not im^
mediately appear, fm- though the word is expressive of noon ita
Greek, we may be assiu-ed its origin is not from that language^
Arrian describes it as a Chersonefee, and Ptolemy and Matcian
use that term only Avithout the addition of a name ; this induces
me to conjecture that both merely translated the native tenii
Mesambria* Now it will appear hereafter that Mefeen signifiei
an island, and is applied as such to a Mes^ne on the Schat-el-.
Arab, to another in Mesopotamia, and to a Mupan in the Sinus
Mesanius of Ptolemy. This word, therefore, with tlie addition
of Ber***, a continent **\ which we obtain from Montfaucon
produces Mesen-ber-ia, corresponding literally with the Greek
term Cherso-nese *^. I give this only as a conjecture, though
the circumstances of the place persuade me that it is something
more ; and, in support of this opinion, I refer to Captain Sim-

*" Or Abu-Schxhhn are built from the materials of the old town.

•** Rushire, or Roo-il-Shahr^ Cape Shahr, Mr. H. Jones,
delated to Abu-Shahr, is a place of great re- '" 6tter writes it Bender- Ebouchehre

puted antiquity, distant from the present torn. ii. p. 134.

Bushire about six or seven miles. The present. •** Bar or Ber is eoaity and usually a low

fort, which I believe wad built by the Portu- coast below the mounuins. Nicbuhr, vol. ii.

gUcse, stands on an eminence Overlooking the p. 300.
sea, and I have marked on the map with a dot *^ See tufra*

and an R the site of it. It has the appearance «*^ From ;^*^j, a continent / n'c^ an uland,

of having been formerly a place of consequetice ; a peninsula,
and the present little huts surrounding the fort

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396 GULPH QF PBRSrA-

monss plan*^' of Busheer,. by whose assistance I can carry
Nearchus to his moorings io the port, as- readily as if I were
upon the spot ; for in that plan there is a place marked as the
watering village, within a mile of an insignificant stream cor*
responding with the Padacgus of Arrian, and hi the interval be»
tween these two points I suppose the fleet to anchor.

Busheer )ias been latterly much more frequented by the Eng^
lish than Gomeroon,, or any port in the gulph except Basra, for
they had a factory here as late as the year one thousand seven
hundred and sixty-five, and I knpw not that it is y^et abandoned^
The town occupies the angle at the cape» with a fort usually
called the Old Town, and sometimes Rbchcr, at the back of
the cape, near five miles distance. The cape is johied to the
main by a neck, the narrowest part of which is at the torrent
Padargus, forming the Chersonese mentioned by Ptolemy and
Arrian ; but Niebuhr *** obseiTcs, that the country is sometimes
overflowed, so that the town is situated alternately on the con-
tinent and on an island ^^ ; but it is not a little remarkable, that
out of three wi4:nesses who have been on the spot, two*** should
assert that the town *** is walled, as it appears in Captain Sinir-
menses drawing ; and a third,. M'Chier, should maintain, that there
are not the least marks of defence about the place; It ought
not to be omitted that the gardens or plantations which deco-.
rate Captain Simmons^s chart are noticed by Arrian "^ in a

pointed manner, as if the goodness of the soil had produced the

I

*•■ Published by Mr. Dalry^plc, and copied **' Tliis questioQ is decided* b)^ the testimony

in Niebuhr. Voyage, torn. il. of Mr. Jonei, in note p. 394. who from hit

•^ Thcvenot calla it an igland, Part ii. long residence there could not be misukcn.

p. 1 72. •** w avTw xflToi rt woXAci, xal axfoi^uct tvwrrW

•** Dalrymple't Preface, p. xviii. I^'irt, p. 354.

^ Captain Simmons and Niebuhr.



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P E R S I S.



397



same cultivation so many ages ago, as cheers the country in the
present dechning state of Persia. This, however, is denied by
M*Cluer, who calls the neck a sandy desert, and never culti^
vated, which is a second instance of contradiction in two eye-
witnesses, and respecting the same place. Mr. Jones also con-
firms the testimony of M*Cluer, and contradicts the assertion of
Niebuhr, where he mentions that the neck is overflowed. The
country as far as Busheer is still called Kermesir **' by Niebuhr^
that is, the low land, though we see in the drawings here the
high land of Halila, as we do at several other points along the
coast,* at Kenn, Nabon, Sec. but which are not sufficient to
invalidate the title, or perhaps worthy to compare with the
grand *** ridge which runs inland in a line with the coast*. This
district, Niebuhr infomis us, is inhabited by Arabs, not of the
tribe of Beni-Houle, which prevails from Gomeroon to Konkun,
but by two clans of long standing, and a third whicli has iur
truded itself into, the government, named Matarisch, the head
of which was in his time Sheik Naser, a chief who. had degraded,
himself by marrying a Persian, and professing himself of the



Online LibraryWilliam VincentThe commerce and navigation of the ancients in the Indian Ocean → online text (page 34 of 49)