William Walton.

An exposé on the dissentions of Spanish America ...: Intended as a means to ... online

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cere gratitude of its inhabitants of both hemispheres,,
and oiuse this same gratitude to last beyond the dura*^
ticm of the present conflict, she ought to have lifted up
her views to higher hopes, and to a bolder policy,
than merely to fight the battles of the deluded Fer-*
dinand. ,

§ It has been, so far, my object, to trace to their v6iy
origin, the presient dissentions existing between Euro^^
pean and American Spain; and if in pursuit of this pur-<
pose, I have been diffuse, it has been owii^ to my
anxious wish, d^t every concurrent circumstance, might
be fuUy understood^ I have, also, by this time, brought
my reader, as much, in chronological order, as I was
ablcy to that stage of the transatlantic occurrences, when
open war began to flame between two sister kingdoms^
who h^ad, for more than three hundred years, remained
united by the strongest possible ties; and between whom,
till n^w, no material variance, bad occurred. Yet,
though, I flatter myself, with having irrefragably de*
monstrated my position,, in general principle, founded
pn a series of facts, and illustrated by the most leading^
and accompanying circumstances, I am, nevertheless)
scarcely, satisfied, with having fully attained my object
I am, still, fearful, that some of the premises on which
my deductions rest, may, by the superficial reader, to
whom the subject is novel, appear partial, or devoid of



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157

sufficient tcntimony. I could not, therefore, in thii
place, refrain from sanctioning my assertions, respectii^
the impolicy and injustice of the war declared, by the
Cadiz Regency, against Caracas, on which, my most m»«
terial arguments are founded, by the opinion of the res*
pectable editor of the El Espanol, whose testimony to a
British mind, must bear the greater weight, from the
sincere and unbiassed manner, in which he has uniforml]^
discussed the detatched transactions of the Spanish revo*
lotion, which, as a periodical writer, have fallen und^
bis review. From his being, also, an European laniard,
one, who was never on the other shores of the AtlatH;i<^
but who haft, ever, felt for the wel&re, as well as for the
honour of ^h native soil, I feel the greater confidence in
(mining forward his remarks; which through all his
labours, have not only been distinguished for r»ige of
general reasoning* but in many tnt»esting topics, have
bespoke the patriot and the philosopher, conversant in
hunaan nature, and alive to the multiplied evils, by
which the bosom of his ill-fated country, has been har>
rowed up. The foUowii^, are hia words.

*'.An attentive meditation on the actual state of
things, betwe^!! Spain and America, has excited in sale
the fDllowmg doubt. If a people^ or province, belong*
ing to the crown of Spain, were to raise their voice and
to proclaim ;^-from this moment, we no longer acknow*
ledge Ferdinand VIL as^ our king— -we divest ourselves,
€^ the obedience we had pledged to him — ^we declare
war against Spaniards, — and we deliver ourselves up to
Napoleon;-^what punishment would be aissigned for
anch a crime, and what measures' would be tab^
a^nst such a people or province? jt seemd to pne



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dia)t ab Qian of llondiiriil tbe world, wotiUi fattl to'liay^
HQcfa A people bafl committed an mdigmty; and so •cri*'
mitral a pr^eeedin^, deserves coadiga pusisfament. He
iroiiM mid^ govemnrent ought to take the most effective
tiieai^pes/to oppose so absurd an idea; it ou^t to blocks
ti^ l^teir shores, tbat tbey may hsTe no comniumca-
tic^n wiAk odiers^ tbb ships which approaqh their ports,
1^ whatsoevQr na^OE they may be, ooght to be confis-
cated,^ those of enemies; and; ihoti^ it is hard, to go
to extremes against a people, who fbrm^fly ^Constituted
jMefimily, and to arm brethri^i against brethrto, it i$
AeHrertfheless, neoe8S&ry,.ia consequence of dieir rebellion,
to shut tkiem tip and to^Uockade them, by Jand atid sea^;
moA dkir nei^bours ought to be comn>anded, to hind^tr
^he bntiy of pi^orisioDs, and the export of the products
^ their soil and iiid«»try ; in short, every eicertioB ou^
to be made, to prevent every commuj^iication wfth thrir
^nhstbkants. In^iase the authors a£ sudt a saieasure, aife
apprehended, th^^ ought to be punished, with all the
tigour, airtiiorized by the righte of 80vecrigntyJ*~

*^ And, what would the unhappy and benevvrfeitt
Fe^ttiand VIL say, if he knew, that this same rigour
lieid bee» decreed against a peqple, wiso, entbusia^*
'(gtily, renewed their obedience to him; who offered
ftkf^it blood in order to preserve their fidelity ^nd do-
^ttinioiis to him; who tendered tbe fruits d their in-
tduetry, ais a ransom^ for him^ and his country, whilst in the
possession of enemies; who aflfectioiiately hoped at
some period, to have the means of coossoliiq^ hi«, for
«n Ms misfortunes; and who, perhaps, only err, in
•believing, that their beioved sovereign, is not, at present,
represem^ in those distant provinces, in a hmumm>



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even, coofoiiBoatile k> bia own itttetes^I^ Ceitainly, I
cannot guess what Ferdinand VIL would say, but I do
not believe, he would use the kngaagie of the Segaicy,
ip its decree i^in^t Caracas."* — These sentunents/
were penned in September, IBIO, that i% a numth after
the Regency decree, had been in^ned; consequently,
long before its fatal consequences bad been produced*
. Not, sufficifsntly, satisfied, with the sole testimony
of one Spaniard, however weighty and respecHable bt9
'authority, before J take leave of this part of my subject;
I conceive it my duty, to insert the avowed sentutniente
of another; who in presenting to his own nation, ^* An^
impartial examination of the di9sentioms of Ameriea, wWk
^paip,'' uses the following words. ** In conformity fay
these mistaken principles^ the Central Junta, instead ef
^nding, afresh, the sections of America to the Peninsalft^^
fay authorizing them to name and form provincialJuntasy
composed of their own inhabitants, as the only means^
^ndically, to destroy the repeated acts of injustice, there^
committed by the governmental authorities; riot only
fndeavoured to abolish them in the Peninsula, but^
^dso, never took care to establish them in Aiiierica. This
meia^ure, alone, would, most assuredly, have filled the
Ai»ericans with, joy; and by this pieans, discontented
parties, would have beeen avoided."! Further on, he
l^d^. " The i^ews of the 6ccurrences in Caracas, waiJ
received by the Regency; but, instead of preventing a
civil war, by acceiding to the most just proposate, made
by the members of that Junta, in their letter of May W,'
dir^ctM tp. the Marques de las Hormaeas, (heveafter

• Vide £1 Etpanol, London, Sept. ISIO. ,

t Estrada, Parti,



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1«)

quoted) and without attending to the uniforih dictated of
juBtice, and unmindfal of the situation of the Peninsula^
ft decrees, to reduce them, by force, to submit to th^ law,
which they (the Regents) thoUght proper to dictate.
Neglecting all other measures, but those suggested by
an impotent vengeance, the Regency declares the port
of La Guira in a state of blockade, commissions a coun-
sellor, and a parcel of other ministers, with ample fa-
culties, to oblige the people, to enter into what, despotic
governments, usually, call, duties of the subjects; and
for this purpose, it adopts such measures, as a similar
government would oiily adopt, when able to realize them;
but which, in other cases, it would disregard, if want
of reflection were libt added to despotism, &c. Such
measures, which, besides, being unjust, the Regency
had not the faculties to carry into execution, could
answer no other purpose, than to exasperate, still more,
the minds of the discontented, and to give them new
and just motiv^^ of complaint, thus, urging them on, to
the prosecution of their enterprize."*

These are the united sentiments of Spaniards, and
of the two principal characters, who have attempted
to discuss the question in view. To them I could add^
the corresponding opinions of others, were I not afraid
to trespass on the patience of my reader. I have pro-
duced them, rather, as a corrobation to my premises^
than as an amplification of my subject; and when the
3ritish, government had equity and justice on its side,
when the thinking part of the Spstnish community, also,
both openly, and in their hearts, condemned the arbitrary

• Estrada, Part 11.



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ttm'dtiet of the trade-l^gued Regents, their pef^usal cau«
not fail to -excite surprize, that no effective measufr^ ot
prevention was attempted ; and that the ministers of St.
lanies, in this unguarded ihoinent, should thus, by their
want of energy arid foresighti hate blasted the fairest
prospect of giving force 5ind efficacy td dUr new alliance
with European SpHiri; and of securing great and lasting
advafatagesj to our mercantile and political interests, in
Spfitnish.'Atnerica. The present convulsions in this unhap-
py country/' tlius clearly, resulted from the ihtemperate
an^ impolitic condluci: of the five Regetits who succeedecC
the Central Junta, overawed, as they were, by the
trading interests of CtidiZk *rhe Regency, iii its officiat
capacity, might haVe been injured of offended by the
acts 6f the transmarine provinces, but hOw cbuld it al-
lege the rights of k Sovereignty, of which it did hot
pastas a single component elemelit; and under the cir*
camsiances in which Spain was at that time, how could
fuch impotent rigour^ redound to the advantage of the
funeral cause? This offence, however, could scarcely
be r^ented by the Cadiz Regency, individuaily, . for
die occurrences in Caracas took place, when the disi^
petsion of the Central Junta Was known, that is, prior
to advices having been received, of the instfillatidn oi^
the Regency. *

8 The evident injustice of the Cadi^i gdvei'timenit* to^
wards the ultramarine provincJes, and the marked im*^
policy of England) in first not preventing, and after-
vardis, during more than four years, in not applying 'ef«
ftciive remedies to the increasing evils, which, have, al-'
seady, bathed the fairest portidn of the Spanish America,
in theblood^ its inhabitants, are,lpresn!ii€^i5ufficiently,



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eyjjctced iQ t]hi9 (division of tpy sul]()€ict, and ki tbe ^tluc^
tipns^ tjdetice- regularly, established. From injr gebeitrl
statcfi[ient8, it would result, that Baost has been owhig ia
the wamton cruelty, and utfjtist »ad intemperate cp^iiduct
pf the Cadi« Regents; who, callous to the mifferbig| d
their fellow-citizens, and awed by themercentiy clamours
of the pw>nopplists of that trading port, declared war
?^aip8t their distant brethren, and thereby, opened tbe
'' flppdg$te^ of anarchy and civil dipcord* It was di|s
impolitic measure, whjcb first excited a spirit cf
indignation and open enmity^ in the msulted and
^utrnged inhaJbilants of Spanish An^erica, whom we,
lately^ beheld flowing with the most eiHluisiastic se^**
mentsof loyalty and patriotism, and pledging their Kycs
aiid fo^upes in aid of the Peninsula. Amongat tbe
'same, lor njoi^tbap four years, have. we, nerertheless,.
witnessed a merciless warfare, such a oi^e, that humanity
shudders to contem^ate« As a vengeance on them, we
have seen new racks and tortures invented, even such, fr
ane unknown to the States of Barbary. We Iwive read
of oceans of carnage* and of tbe t^discj^iminate massacre
of the defenceless natives of eveiy section; and ftill, we
are not weary of the long drama of iniquity, so l^ag re^
pre«fenting in that unfortunate country^ We see
VfflOOfiOO of our most faithful and zealous allies, en-*
d^je^l these evijs, and we scarcely r^meniber that Ifiey
es^ist. Yet, what has beeij their crime? If oaly le*-
dr^sfH^d' and regenerated^ Spanish Apericn, was ready
tQ^ form a sincere and active pfirt of tbe entire n^tiM;
^e was willing to contribute with her tieasqiie and her.
spB9« to fight the commpn isaemy; and ccmU fiD^gkund or
Spain, require more? Could eitker^ look for ^ greateor



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proof of teyal^ or cooperation? T^, boBi never at-
tempted to improve tbese valuable tenttmentSy in proper
time; iiot had either, the cotirage jpr the energy, to

:^taunch 80 many horrors, vs^hich issued ifrom this fint
neglect* Early reittedies, one would hare thou;ght ad-
H^isa^le, k they had been for no <rther object, than «*a

'means of wii^ly redeeming thi3 first ^rror.

Every measure, in short, hittierto, presdribed and

'^^pted for Atn'erican Spaiti, fedWi by ttie Cadiz and
Londoit) cabinets; seems rather to have been dictated by

'tlie ettemfe« of both, than a« emanating from dther la
ccdiisistenfcy In reasoning, or sound ifrtsdomjn poiitieal
systems* Hitherto, the promises of the on«, have been
as^ InsiBcere, a-a the reproaches <rf their presses, have been
unjuvt; and every step has helped to jplui^, Europeati
Spahi into frdsh difficulties, and frerfi wants, by^epriving
her g( all her Wes(tern sources of revenue. And, coiiW
the enemy have desired more? Was, i«)t this, rend^ieig

.her> €1 mote easy prey to hts base attempta? The coii-
d«kJt of the other, besides, aidit^ to produce <diecottse-

^ences jusrt stated, has ttamrfused tn odium to Hie
British name, which wifl become an heredil^ry ffdh^^
in the descendants of those iamifies, who have aufibred
and lost so much; and from whoae comtnetcial inters*
CMirse, present and future, so much private x>puteoce
^d public revenue, might have been derived; tt is,
^iso;, in consequence of this odium, that out gteat and
^grounded hopei^, on the unejcplored resources of the
Spanish American continent, Will, hereafter, be frostrnt-

, ed. And/ could the enemiea of Bngland, hare desired

it was, earJy, evident, tniin the unjust conduct of the
1.2



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.Cadi^&foveram^Htfafid I make this distioGtiop; becaose

, tfa^ ^j^usatioti iacLudesnot the nation at larg^) that if

Spain wag, .^ypTt to t^Btore her authority in th^ itioenaed

s^ttimmcf Spanish America, if l^agland did n.ot intei-

fim,'k cMki, only» be at the expenoe of blood, and at

the .point of the 6iltrord« Victory and teri!or> iu^^OEl,

were to prtM^ecfe, efeiy step of this sut^ectiqn. And

;lroQ| ifi^faence were tbe?armies to come, which were to be

made theJuetrunMBnts of these victories andnterror? The

jJE^nalsof our own transactions^ and our attacl^ on the

^ajticiifes^of^panitfa America,, might hare tayght us, that

^)lo effective !^»&isb force existed thepe, even to reaift

Jl^r^igR invasion^ l^uch I^ess, to stop the spread of popular

^i^ini)[iotio9s« Where the armies of the Peninsi^la th^i,

.«idi|(^tao requisite at home, to: be sent across^ the Al-

bnljc^tp^ect purposes, neither warranted by justice,

iQir recrainiended by policy? The united exertums <lf

l^aigbnd aixd Spain, were then engaged in a struggle,, tile.

.duj^ticN^ of which, wras not fixed, and whose sacrifice^,

^oouhl, not, at that time, bci numbered. Was ecoiH^my,

JHf^p^ioTeyjao olyect> in tbe general seale of consideration?

^jpplitics, as well as in mechauics; it isran unpardonable

l^fpf, toiaise.ahigh superstructufe, where the basis-is

jK^ Spund and well prepared^ and where each correspond-

>art, is not perfectly adju^d and mu-

If we rushed into a tr^y with. an

without defiD^g or understafiuding the

one half bore to the other, what ex;^

re have, of full and durable effect beii^

nee; and if we beheld the mostessen-

Ipain wasted away, without a struggle

to improve^ or preserve them, what ev^tual hopes conl 1



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we Iwnre, oT ctxiwning owr exerlidns wrtfi success, or ^f
g^mg; to that siKpefVCf ucttim of fi1e»d^hip; imidei4l^^
eu^dcpoj^iatioa, ^ wMch we/had bailt tbehop^nxtf
OUT alliance, any lafiting- and 8oUd consequenciBsf ' > »
The world bebeld, with astonished wcmderj tte
oc^rageoua and enaagdtic manner, in wfaidi the peapta^^
af .Spain, rose tn .pjms ta repel the insidious inrffi^ii of
a powerful enemy; and admii^ the pei^wring Mt^
S^th which, thq? continued* their eiiteTpriae, «^e«l
amidst.tbe mi^tt unheard of difficult!^ and '1iardi^i|Mi.
£^ejy nnlioQ, has, also, seem, the incaleiiiabie gsood that
iN» baenxttiived Aom the {U^riatie displa^-of the ^ener^
gie^jof a people^ of themselves, neith^ past a sio drtdt
ansiiea or fleets ^oomparatively speaking) aad wbo,* iA*
^i^, bad little else, than patrtotii»[n for their guMe
smd tuppfo^* Bust, how miish gj^eater, would not^nM^
b^n tbe benefits and .^effeets tJieoce* deii'^edi if tbli
people had o&^ beea led on, by a wise, «iitoral, and-
JA^t gtm&aomtwA; mfd tfaeir ^leripes bad been^ seecH»ied|'
b;^ u|»r^bt and piwrvideot eouiicils ?t What 4t£hwil>
elects, WQitU not, tba!i bare teen produced i - * Spain Iums*
opemt^ as a pi^ot^ on which thegneatinsunretstions of
the nofth of Europe, baiie, in gr^kt measwe, turned;
but howi difierent, would hee^m been the results, par^'
tik^lady, lOn her own soil, if • all her resouices hadUbe^eti '
Oondensed^ad Jcept iiniled ; if, «narc|^, distrust, and c^ieii^
enmity* bad been prev\entad; and if her Euti^pean) as
iKell as Ameriaui strei^h, had been direetedi ^itk ^
fifcraigbt Jine^ towards the maiD t)l:^ct tn v^iew? If.
Spain, should, unfortunately, 'fail, it will not ha^re been
^rom want of enei^gy, and patriaMism pn the part t>f the
pieppl^ so much, as in consequence of a want of pecu-
Ptiary resoiiices. U wi)^ nUfaei^ haw been .owing to vtbe



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w*

•l«tom> to jtoep tc^^tber* the^n^ost iaAerftsliog j^temwl^

^wor^plaiw mid p»aiyfe«t it.appea«b that the tE*sW|W-
,:feiaf!lWfvioc«ft,of Sptier at tte period whwth# whole
^moufchg^ ^f9»^4»f^i^^^ o£U&«oY<d(eigi^ ecMildibe viaonr^
wot crf^ l«h*»i*>y *^ w^ly (wirtituted ^uthofit^o*
Sfitiii^ ^Jb^ ilfr fopming. a pe^le^ m eveiy 8cts6, e^pul
wA tb»vis^^ ^ ^i^^^ll to tb^ right. of rcf^lBciig^
-tiMri«slw<bHMHif9' oC tb« kong^ IB thfi^samewigr w hs^
|gijfe4qae>;ifi ibfi Fenjos^J*. Theonla^ljood of ^uvflcm^
vMohewkteA belfiifeeii ^ tneo, ^irai ttfe ptssoop o£ tfep>
]0i^; S^Misb Aoierica t^ Sfmn, bad no otbti? legabM-
,i«IMi,.^WI ^^o/ l9!d<Ew^hlg;to the same 80Te9«^ and
jfiiiiii^pBitQllthfi sawB nalioiL ¥et, hoik the. Juntw
<j{f^i^|it^ Aatems^protended a ftOl $jW«r^ty over
t^ 9a«i»t of A^ierie*;^ each lased eteiy. ejBortiwto
AJkkMk it^ m^> ^s i^ would appear, to jNmSex h|«y^Miea6»
t»:^ie redresn, w4 to . act with* lihemJ joati»j birt^ nh
&»n \^ mm^^ nw»« i^swwpc^ to. oiKaiw tfia pi^o-
-<hi«oC*« W»««^i a0d to «ij9y a mpi^ extended sphere
joSjemnmM^ iSt? #wt wne tlwse ewrtisBw jroadse ta
-eiwietOtiPtorf^. wwl «^ wrtl<iisBQa«dv «AWahitual<y «»l>-
..i^iii^tsr^ w^gwr UlpSpaoifh^iiu^ckfai^* tbots the ^^«*»*
')mt»'fm»i .At om ti»e, wljpritiMawiing il«iinmffi
galiiy, wto«w|edgedi V a^- ^^ TteeaogfRamf capttiii-
•^ertlf*.*ibi»»a^ aad,©M>ti^ ^oAthatthir

•'rOuiW, WW tike oirfjf scaioa, tfial 'o|i|k)«c<r iiWtg:WiMJi^ l«'tte
'i:«tti4«^«JliBt•T tot^thb w* • temporary 64fC5ttrtiiw, ob«ll0»te
hm^, «o% iiito»efd»bf UN^triiopji of LUna and Saote^^l*



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m

-SirtbeconWituted tttthv^^ities, did it a* a me^^ to |M*-
i^iir« tfceir o#n pdwer, and t^st&if^ t\^it 6A6m.' TIfe cA*^
'bild<Mr assented frotn Eumpean ^lflae^ee, but i^k^sei^iiif ^
jjdi tbemnelres, warceiy thfe s^M&lt ^hkdoif of pdpufetf
repiMeotatioii^ frcmi tte iseat^Mytei^eirt, bring ifidrt* i^nt*
^Q«tMe tkati «leeti^y tlfis^^d^ oM^4^emly,' nfo r^^
^ ^jr Ian4 to transfer rtw fptifeteigtftf of the" Anieiri<^
iieopKtoany iwfated Iwxfy ^the Peilihsttte -^^al^eVer.
How cottJd i^' tberi^ft^, bcT 6«p«:ted^ th* a jk^wj^i ttet
^ler cdnsHlted nor reprfesentdd, woold^ willkigly' attd pei*-
ftian^tly acknowledge acorpcm^^i ^hite^ in ^e Feuii^
•ubiitself) bad cmly a? prc^ififional qhkrttcter, and^ bMMilt,
Wiiig4€ifectbe in its tegs^ m^mio^i ^iMj afeid, dil^eitddipr
^et«i3refl5eie«tft)riti; / ^

Tlw only iairaisd'jbsrmfennfeft id Wttieh il i# F^
id interpret tbe ilnaU^abte ihid inl^rebcn^tlble rigtttd
4^ a amfion, and iHtch as tbiey are su|$][)dsed to ^eridbiti
every people^ h, bjr fixing; a^a bafeift tliat ttU-flie dii^l^
sioBs and membeHr tbereof; llave an equal right td flibard
HI tbe natlmialrepredef^ttitibh; tbe <^Iy fountain of crv41
liberty; and tli^ only minms of gtmrding agaiftst; and^of
eorrectrng the aHuses ef that gO^erYitaiettt to* adifli^
AistMioor, which an have coflsidered hecei^s^ty^ ftdth ^
pr&ieiple of genetal good; This pitintiple 6f ihlitnd^ tt^
nefit, fonnded on ieonsent, coHstttules &it it^liy trae, aodf
strcH% tie, which binds the willing obedierice of •sbcietjf^
These are rigllls^, t«*ieb, ttereforei are cottsider^rdj fitt
nev^ haribg been affected oi^ ic^t^ hf ttsy possible ^cAi^
cnmstances; and« Aey are of s^ch a naturef^ thfstt ta6
.generation c$t| deprive their post^irity qf them* Cotise**
{fOaitfy, tho fights of tiku^fipaniik^^cbericans; conkln^t



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/tuive be^n impaired, by the acftncrwledgment made of
, th^ Central Junta, by the viceroys and captain-generals j
.fiince it was don^ without the consent and concurrence
pf the people; and, in many places, the aciquiescence^
.the cabildos or municipalitios, was obtained by threats,
.Even some of the audieneias in Ameriqa,'in whom a
respect for legal forms/ predominated over Peninsular
prejudices, and who have always been ' the .strbngest in%
struments in the subjection of the ultramarine proviuccs,
jvere opposed. to the absolute control of European Jun-
las; not, so much, from this dependence being in coa*
i;radiqtion to th^ principles of liberty, since proclaimed
at home, but in consequence of its militating against ihB
apcie^t and less liheral character of theSpanisli legisla-
tion. In fact, according to the known laws of the Spat
pish monarchy, the pretended absolute sovereignty of the
PentralJurita, over the Mitmmarine provinces, was not
only unjustifiable and inconsistent; but, even the man-»
per, in which its authority was, in a ten^piorary n^anner,
acknowledged by the colonial chiefs, as a means. of pro-
longing their respective commands, and on' wbicbthe go*,
vemment of Spain, now grpunds a charge of ihgmtitude,
^nd rebellion, when every ciripumstanCe is duly consi-.
dered, turns put to be, the greatest chihiera, by which
iscernmei^t of ^ people, were ever i'n-
r thin allegation more cle&r and ih<;efti«
)ack my reader to a cOnt^mplWion of
:h the Central Juntji vyas first formed^
^ract0r, and leading conduct; as this,
ectuaj naeaps of enal^ling bim to draw
8, and of establishing, whether or not,
^ legal committee thereof, was afterwards, authorized t^
become the despots of Spanish America,



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' The editor of tb? El Esfw^ol, who from beiogajx eyef
witness, and w^ll acquainted w^th the early occurrences
of the Peninsula, is deserving of full credit, after sk^tcb^
ingthe spontaneous energy, with which the Spani^ipfO*
pie rushed topms^ observes, " that the first.persoip who
offered themselves to the people, then in a tumultuous
state, were, chosen to govern the provinces. In Seville^
a popular leader proposed the creation of a Junta, andt
for this purpose, the curate and superiors of the conventS)
were assembled. Tilly and his party, having formed a
list of the persons who were to constitute this Junta, he
^nd his emissaries entered the town faouse^ and propos*
ing each other in a loud voice, they were elected as
members, without waiting for any body's answer. To
these ilire afterwards added, other persons, who, from
their credit or dignity, were possessed of the confidence
of the people." Such is the picture of the formation of
the Junta of Seville, which afterwards denominated itself
Supreme and Central ; and, as drawn by an eye-witpesa
of undoubted credit.* I omit any further ^details, which
might serve, more fully, to explain the irregular charac*
ter of the principal persons, who contribute4 to the for-
mation of this Junta ; as they would only tend to make
its origin more degrading, when my object, is, princi*
pally, to insist on its injustice.

In sngb a government as this, it was, that the
Spanish people, blindly, placed their confidence,; un«i
aware, v^hat powers they had, thus, assented to, in these
their new representatives. This government it was, ac»



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