William West.

Picturesque views and description of cities, towns, castles, mansions, and other objects of interesting feature, in Staffordshire, from original designs, taken expressly for this work by Frederick Calvert, engraved on steel dy [sic] Mr. T. Radclyffe, with historical and topographical illustrations online

. (page 1 of 20)
Online LibraryWilliam WestPicturesque views and description of cities, towns, castles, mansions, and other objects of interesting feature, in Staffordshire, from original designs, taken expressly for this work by Frederick Calvert, engraved on steel dy [sic] Mr. T. Radclyffe, with historical and topographical illustrations → online text (page 1 of 20)
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The intention of the following pages has been to present short sketches of
the principal Towns, and most of the Mansions and Seats of the Nobility
and Gentry, with which this delightful and interesting County is so
abundantly graced.

The Proprietor is aware that the Work might have been carried to a far
greater extent, but he has been unwilling to increase the expenses of the
Publication by elaborate details.

References have been made to the ancient as well as to the modern
structures, which perhaps exceed in this those of most other Counties ;
Views of the most interesting will be found to be accurately delineated.

In the concluding pages is given a general outline of the County, as
regards its ancient name, its Topographical situation, Climate, and Soil, as well
as an account of its Agriculture, Commerce and Population, Civil and
Ecclesiastical establishments, &c.

In reference to various places described, some Biographical sketches, and
traits are inserted to eminent men, to whom the County has had the honour
of giving birth.

I 091





Formerly called Litchfield, and said to be of Saxon origin, is an ancient and interesting city,
and approached with feelings of veneration and respect, by all admirers of architectural taste,
and of the literary character : it is topographically described, as containing three parishes, in
Offlers hundred, Staffordshire, on a small branch of the Trent 16 miles N. of Birmingham, and
119, N. W. from London by Coventry, 67 from Manchester, 30 from Newcastle, 16 from
Wolverhampton, 16 from Stafford, 9 from Walsal, 7 from Rugeley, and 7 from Tamworth.
It is a city and county of itself, lying in the lap of a delightful and fertile valley surrounded by
gentle eminences, and nearly in the centre of England. It consists of four principal streets, and
several of a minor character ; but the majority of the houses are very handsome, and are occupied
by persons of independent fortunes, whose good taste and love of quiet and retirement it would
appear, has attached them and their families so long and so closely to this small city. The
cathedral commands much interest, and the associations connected with it, considerable clas-
sical taste. This circumstance and the picturesque beauty of the surrounding country, thickly
studded, as it is, with the mansions and demesnes (which we shall hereafter describe) of the
nobility and gentry, naturally renders this city the desirable place of residence for the class of
persons already noticed.

The city is divided by a small stream of water from the Close, which consists of the bishop's
palace and houses principally belonging to the church. — The city contained in 1821 — 1028
houses and 4022 inhabitants, 2237 of whom were males and 2783 females — and although 509



families were said to be employed in various trades and manufactures, they are not of a descrip-
tion that can affect the health of the inhabitants, being principally, in addition to the usual handy
craft trades, that of manufacturing carpets, horse rugs and sail cloth, coarse earthen-ware, tan-
ning-leather, kc. Lichfield is said to have originated from the ruins of a Roman town, called
Elocteum, about a mile distant ( Chesterjield Wall), at the crossing of the Ikenild and Watling-
street roads.

The cathedral it is said was first built at the early date of 300 — rebuilt in 766 by Offa, king
of Mercia, who, in the latter part of the 8th century erected this city into an archbishopric, but
it was soon after under the archbishop of Canterbury reduced to a bishopric. This see was re-
moved to Chester in 1075 — and in 1102 to Coventry, but soon after was restored to Lichfield
united with Coventry. The cathedral was again rebuilt in 1148, and considerably enlarged in
1296. There appears, however, a great contrariety of opinion respecting the origin of this city
and its cathedral, which has occasioned learned controversies among antiquaries. Mr. Britton,
that excellent antiquary and historian of Lichfield, and of all our principal cathedrals, observe*
that " the name of Lichfield is of Saxon origin, but its Etymology has long been a subject of
dispute. In the Saxon chronicle the word is written Licetjield ; in Bede, Lycetfelth and Licit-
field ; subsequent writers call it Licethfield, Lichesfield, and Lychefield. By some authors it is
derived from " leccian" to water; as being watered by the river; by others from " lose e^ a
physician ; perhaps it may with more probability be supposed to have originated in the verb
" licean" or " lician," to like, or be agreeable ; and therefore to signify pleasant field. But it
has generally been considered as derived from lie, a dead body, and consequently as signifying
u cadaverum campus," the field of dead bodies. This derivation is however conceived to be sup-
ported by a tradition, which prevails very generally in Lichfield, that of the martyrdom of a
great number of British Christians there, during the persecution under Dioclesian and Maximian :
as this tradition has been noticed in every history of the cathedral, and by some is adduced as
the reason for the establishment of the see on the spot consecrated by an event of such religious im-
portance, it cannot with propriety be neglected in this place. The substance of it is, that a thou-
sand Christians, the disciples of St. Amphibalus, suffered martrydom in the time of that perse-
cution, on the ground whereon Lichfield was afterwards built ; " whence the city retains the
name of Lichfield or Cadaverum Campus, the field of dead bodies, and bears for its device rather
ihan arms, an escutcheon, of landscape with many martyrs in it, several ways massacred." But
as this device could not have been used in any authentic shape before the incorporation of the
guild in 1387, it can add little weight to the tradition of a fact so very remote. Several
writers of eminence are of opinion, that St. Amphibalus never existed ; that his name originated
in a mistake made by Jeffrey of Monmouth, that the whole legend relating to him was fabricated
after the time of that historian, and that " the first authentic mention of Lichfield occurs in
Bede's Ecclesiastical History, where it is alluded to as the see of an Anglo-Saxon bishop, nearly
four hundred years after the date ascribed to the martyrdom of the disciples of Amphibalus.'*
Dr. Stukely derives the Etymology of the name of this city from Lich, a Saxon word, signifying
a morass, and which not only appears to correspond with the term '■' Cadaverum Campus,'" but
also agrees with the name and site of Lichfield. In consulting authorities, it appears, that during
the war between Charles I. and his parliament, this city was several times taken and retaken ;


and during these unhappy disputes the cathedral was garrisoned by royal troops, ana suuered

Lord Brook and Sir John Gell, in March, 1643, the former was shot through the eye, by a
o-entleman of the Dyott family, and the spot where he fell is now distinguished by a pavement
of white pebbles, and a marble tablet bearing an inscription commemorating the event. During
these unhappy disputes the cathedral suffered very considerable damage, not orrfy from the fire
of the batteries and musketry, but also from the rapacity of the republican soldiers. Immedi-
ately after the restoration, Dr. Hackett was appointed to this see ; and he the very morning
after his arrival, set about cleaning and repairing his episcopal church ; and by his own large
contributions, and the subscriptions he obtained from the neighbouring gentry, was soon enabled
to restore this noble pile to its former splendour ; he also repaired the palace. 1 '

The bust in the east aisle of the cathedral of Dr. Samuel Johnson, simply inscribed thus :
" as* a tribute of respect to the memory of a man of extensive learning, a distinguished moral
writer, and a sincere Christian," is strictly appropriate, and as Mr. Britton truly remarks, u had
all the admirers of Johnson been content with that moderate and justly merited praise, his weak-
nesses would never have been brought into that public notoriety, which makes the present gene-
ration hesitate to rank him with the truly great. In early life Johnson attempted to establish a
school at Lichfield, for preparing gentlemen for the universities. Of his three pupils David
Garrick was one, and, after a short probation the master and scholar migrated together to the
metropolis in search of more congenial pursuits. This journey ultimately led the way to fame
and fortune to the latter, and literary fame to the former : their friendship was only terminated
by death. Mrs. Garrick erected a cenotaph, after a design by James Wyatt, to her husband,
near that of Dr. Johnson with a bust by Westmacott.

There is also a handsome monument executed by Mr. Bacon Jun. in 1818, by request of
Miss Anna Seward (who died at the age of 66 in 1809) to the respective memories of her father,
mother and sister : a female figure (with a harp hanging on a willow) representing filial piety,
weeping over a tomb is well executed ; the conclusion of the inscription written by Sir Walter
Scott is as follows,

" Honour'd, belov'd, and mourn'd, here Seward lies ;
Her worth, her warmth of heart, our sorrows say,
Go seek her genius in her living lay."

The church is walled in like a castle, and stands so high as to be seen at the distance of many
miles. Its length is 411 feet, and breadth 153 ; from the centre rises a spire 256 feet high,
and two towers which rising from the west front terminates also into, and forming pyramidal
spires : the beauty of its proportion is hardly to be paralleled in England. The chancel is paved
with alabaster, and Connel coal, in imitation of black and white marble. One of the windows
is fitted up with very handsome stained glass, purchased by the dean and chapter from a
ruined abbey in France, and the north door is extremely rich in sculpture. In 1789 this church
underwent a thorough repair ; behind the altar piece is an elegant stone screen, which divides
it from St. Mary's chapel. In the inside of the dome are some neat marble monuments,
particularly two near the south entrance, to the memory of Dr. Johnson, (that Hercules in lite-


rature), and David Garrick, both natives of this place : another in the north aisle to lady Mary
Wortly Montague, another to Anna Seward ; but the most beautiful monument here is that of
the two grandaughters of dean Woodhouse, by Chantry, which are models of taste and genius.
There belong to this cathedral, a bishop, dean, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, four archdeacons,
(of Coventry, Stafford, Shropshire, and Derby,) and twenty-seven prebendaries, beside five
priest vicars, seven lay clerks or singing men, choristers and inferior officers. There are three
other churches in Lichfield, one of which St. Michael's, has a church yard containing six or seven
acres. On the site of its ancient castle (where Richard II. was confined on his way to London)
now stands a handsome building, erected by Andrew Newton Esq., and well endowed for clergy-
men's widows and unmarried daughters. At the S. E. end of the city is a college priory, or
hospital of St. John the Baptist, for a master and poor brethren. Here is also a new theatre.
The guildhall has a very neat and elegant appearance, the top being ornamented with the city
arms carved in stone, and under it is the goal. The market house is neat. Lichfield, as we
have before remarked, is a county of itself, and contains a jurisdiction extending about twelve
miles in compass ; it has the power of holding assizes, and determining cases of life and death.

It is governed by two bailiffs (chosen yearly out of twenty-four burgesses), a recorder, a
sheriff, a steward, and other officers. Lichfield is famous for its ale, — the sale of which is consi-
derable and lucrative : it has sent two members to parliament since 33rd Edward I. the right
of election being in the bailiffs, magistrates, freeholders of forty shillings a year, the holders of
burgage tenures, and in such freemen as are enrolled and pay scot and lot. The number of
votes is about 620. This city gives title of earl to the family of Lee ; it has a good free-school,
founded by Edward VI., at which Dr. Johnson, Addison, Ashmole, Woolaston and Garrick
received the rudiments of grammatical instruction. It has also an English school. The mar-
kets are on Tuesday and Friday — fairs the three first Thursdays after twelfth-day, Ash Wed-
nesday, May 1st and the Friday before St Simon and St. Jude. Lichfield by the means of the
Wyerly and Essington canal, communicates with the Mersey, Dee, Ribble, Ouse, Darwent,
Trent, Severn, H umber, Thames and Avon. The churches of St. Michael and St. Chadstow,
are only chapels to St. Mary's and in the patronage of the vicar thereof. St. Mary's in Foro is
a vicarage, value ten pounds, in the patronage of the chapter of Lichfield.

In taking our leave of Lichfield associated and connected as it is with English literature, it is
worthy of remark that it has not only been the natal spot of the eminent characters to which we
have alluded, but also the chosen residence of Mr. and Mrs. Edgeworth, Dr. Darwin, and other
eminent literary characters.





• This noble modern structure is said to resemble in its plan, the late edifice of Buckingham-
house, in St. James's park, the interior of which was, doubtless, unexceptionable at the time,
and furnished an excellent model. The exterior of Buckingham-house was not, however, gene-
rally admired — Trentham hall, in this respect appeared vastly its superior, not only from the
advantages of its site, but from being divested of that dull uniformity, and barrack-like appear-
ance which characterised Buckingham house.

This fine seat, situate four miles south from Newcastle-under-line, and five north-west from
the town of Stone, has been erected (although termed modern) about a century — the grounds
and beautiful picturesque scenery which surround it, were laid out by Brown, who, at that time,
was considered a complete master of the art.

The grounds originally possessed peculiar advantages and have been, with the mansion, at
subsequent periods much improved.

The late marquis made considerable and general alterations and improvements to this edifice,
from chaste and elegant designs by the talented Holland, giving a new and imposing feature
to the whole.

This extensive demesne furnished with fine timber, abounds in charming prospects, exqui-
sitely diversified with spacious sheets of water — and the river Trent, which here pursues its
beautiful course, supplies these apparent lakes ; the banks of which are not only overshadowed
with trees, but their umbrageous branches hang considerably over the water, and produce a
picturesque effect.

The fine lawn, the various clumps of shrubs — the distant hill — with

Tree above tree,
A woody theatre,

produces a grand effect.

The numerous and spacious apartments of this mansion are graced with an extensive and
fine collection of paintings by ancient and modern masters — and when it is recollected that the
principal gallery and collection belonging to the marquis — is at Cleveland house in London,
some idea may be formed of the noble proprietor's patronage to the fine arts.
- In addition to the alterations made in this mansion, as before alluded to, the present marquis
has, on the western side, added an extensive drawing room, and, on the eastern, some excellent
private apartments.



As our work is of a pictorial character, we have exhibited a compressed list of many of the
pictures which ornament the walls of the numerous apartments of this mansion, without pro-
fessing any particular arrangement or order.

It will be observed that many repetitions of the portraits of the same noble personages occur,
and also similar paintings on other subjects, by different masters.

In taking our leave of this subject and of Trentham-Hall we may apply the lines of Mr.
Britton, prefixed to his " Catalogue Raisonne" of the paintings belonging to the noble Mar-
quis, in the gallery at Cleveland-House.

" Hail Painting hail ! whose imitative art,
Transmits through speaking eyes the glowing heart."

St. Peter,
Young Fifer,
Old man's head,
Hare-skin man,



Sir William Becchey.

T. Barker.

Portrait of Henry Charles, Earl of

Surrey, . . Phillips.

Portraits of Charlotte, Countess of Surrey,

Lady Elizabeth, and Lord Francis

Leveson Gower, - Phillips.

The Virgin, Christ, and St. John,

Portrait of Elizabeth, Marchioness of Staf-
ford, . Mrs. Mee.
Virgin and Child, Charles Wilkins, after

Portrait of Mademoiselle de Charolois, sister
of the present minister, Monsieur le
Due, . . Nattier.

Christ and Mary Magdalen Westall.

Ruins at Rome . Paolo Panini.

Moses in the Bullrushes,
Ruins at Rome
Artist reading,
Hannah and Samuel

a copy of Rembrandt, at Cleveland- House.
A Calm, . B. Hoppner.

Home, ^ G. Jones.


Paolo Panini.




The Circumcision, . Guido.

Aurora. . , Howard.
Descent from the Cross.

Satyr and Nymph, . N. Poussin.

Chevy Chace, . . Bird.

St. Catherine, . Domenichino.

Cottage girl, .. . Shee.

View near Scarborough, . Hqffland.

Female Artist, . Watson.

Flowers . , Hewlett.

Sea piece, . , Morland.

A Sorceress, . . Tenters.
Portrait of Edward Wortley Montague, Esq.


Two Children,

View at Lewisham,


Vulture and Serpent,



St. Stephen,

T. Barker.




B. Barker.

D. Guest.

Annibal Carracci.

Portrait of George Grenville, Earl Gower,

Girl's Head, . . Mrs. Hakewill.

Portrait of John Grenville, Earl of Bath,

Portrait of His Majesty, George IV. when
Prince Regent,


Portrait of Thomas, Earl of Arundel,

Miss M. Mure.
a copy from the Picture by Vandyck\at Cleve-
land-House, from the OrlearCs Collection.
Landscape . . Miss Palmer.

Portrait of Lady Jane Leveson Gower,
Portrait of Jane, Countess of Bath,

William Wissing.
Py ramus and Thisbe, Wright of Derby.

Cast of Lord Chancellor Thurlow,

A Mosaic of Florentine marbles.
Portrait of Caroline, Countess of Carlisle,

Moonlight, . . Hoffiand.

Portrait of Cromwell, Earl of Essex, Holbein.
Ditto the Elector Palestine.
Ditto Lord Chancellor Ellesmere.
Ditto Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk,

Girolama da Trevisa.
A Consistory, . . Tintoret.

Portrait of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Straf-
Portrait of Christiern, Duke of Brunswick.
Ditto Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, the

parliament general.
Portrait of Elizabeth, the marchioness of Staf-
ford, . Sir Thomas Lawrence.
Landscape, . Caspar Poussin.
Virgin, Christ, and St. John, Pietro Perrugino.
Portrait of George Granville, Marquis of Staf-
ford, . . Phillips.
Landscape, . Caspar Poussin.
Landscape, . Claude Lorraine.
Holy family, Rottenhamer and D. Sagers.
Marriage of St. Catherine, Venetian School.
Christ crowned with thorns, L. Carracci.
Two. — Murillo, and a Spanish painter, un-
known, in one frame.
Portrait of Charles James Fox, Jackson.
Frederick, Earl of Carlisle, Jackson.

Village Politicians, . Bird.

Portrait of George Granville, Marquis of Staf-
ford, . . Romney.

A frame of Miniatures, containing portraits of
the Earl of Bredalbane, Countess of
Moray, &c. »

Cast of William Pitt, . Miss Andras.

A Picture in Florentine inlaid marbles,

A Portrait of King Henry VIII, Holbein.

A Frame of Miniatures, consisting of portraits
of Gertrude, Duchess of Bedford ; Le-
titia Countess Gower ; King Charles
II. ; Mr. William Leveson Gower ;
Miss Fazakerley, first wife of Granville,
Marquis of Stafford, and Mrs. William
Leveson Gower,

Head of Titian . Tintoret.

Portrait of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester,


Education of Cupid, . Titian.

Portraits, . , Paul Veronese.

St. Margaret, . School of Carracci.

Portrait of Don Garcia, Sarmiento a" Acuna.

Rape of Proserpine, Nicolo de V Abate.

Portrait of Ratcliffe, Earl of Sussex.

Head of Aretino, . Tintoret.

Old Somerset House.

Six Subjects after the antique, Pechux.

Queen Charlotte, after Sir Joshua Reynolds.

Granville, Marquis of Stafford, Romney.

Portrait of Caroline, Countess of Carlisle,

Angelica Kaufman.

Portrait of Lady Anne Vernon ; Lady Geor-
giana Eliot ; the Duchess of Beaufort ;
the Countess of Harrowby ; and Vis-
count Granville, . Romney.

Lady Louisa Macdonald, Angelica Kaufftnan.

Remorse, . . F. Rehburg.

George Granville, Marquis of Stafford, Owen.

The Standard, . . Cowper.

Landscape, . . De Mame.


View on the Firth of Forth,

Elizabeth Marchioness of Stafford.
The Entombment of Christ, Hilton.

Scale of Mountains, . Riddell.

Landscape, . . Gainsborough.

Portrait of Lord Chancellor Thurlow,

Portrait of King George III.

after Sir Joshua Reynolds.
Vice Admiral Sir Richard Leveson,

H. C. Vroom.
A Sketch, . . Velasquez.

Virgin and Child.

A Burgomaster, . . Meerveldt.

Portrait of a Venetian Senator, Titian.

Landscape, . . G. Poussin.

Portrait of Cardinal Barberini.
Landscape, . . Coninck.

Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus,

A copy of the portrait of Mrs. Siddons by Sir
Joshua Reynolds, on Worcester China.
Landscape, . . Wynants.

View of Nimeguen, Von Goyer.

Portrait of Elizabeth, Marchioness of Stafford,

Horse and Serpent, Ward.

Venus and Cupids, . Coy pel.

Landscape, . . Clennel.

Angelica, . . Imperiala.

View of Scheveling, Von Goyer.

A Painting in imitation of Salvator Rosa,

Caerphilly Castle, . Ibbotson.

Portrait of Lady Elizabeth Belgrave, Gummow.
I mitation of Salvator Rosa, LinglebacJc.

Game, , . Reinagle.

Sea Piece, . . Brooking.

Portrait of Sir Beville Granville, Walker.

Portrait of Frances, Countess of Mar,

C. K. Sharp.

William Cantrill.

W. Williams.


Miss Geddes.

Miss M. Spilsbury.



A Subject after Titian,

Dunrobin Castle,



The Holiday Feast,


Peasant Boy,

Saint and Angel.

Sheep-folding, . . Starke.

A School, . . Barney.

Dance, . . after Titian.

Portrait of Sir Archibald M'Donald, Craig.

Landscape, . . Barrett.

Landscape, . . Vincent.

Landscape, . . Barrett.

Landscape, . Cranmer.

A Portrait

Portrait of Devereux, Earl of Essex.

Landscape, Sir George Beaumont.

A Gate, Edinburgh, Runciman.

Portrait of John Leveson, Marc Garrard.

Portraits of King Charles II., King James II.,

and Princess Henrietta, Maria,

Old Stone, after Vandyck.
Portrait of Gertrude, Duchess of Bedford,

Evelyn, Duke of Kingston.
Evelyn, Lady Gower.
Portrait of Queen Anne.
A Portrait.
Portrait of Lady Margaret Beckford Serena,

Portrait of Catherine Duchess of Rutland.
Portraits of Mr. William Leveson Gower and

1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Online LibraryWilliam WestPicturesque views and description of cities, towns, castles, mansions, and other objects of interesting feature, in Staffordshire, from original designs, taken expressly for this work by Frederick Calvert, engraved on steel dy [sic] Mr. T. Radclyffe, with historical and topographical illustrations → online text (page 1 of 20)