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find the following numbers under the several classes. I only
take those who may fairly be considered in the rank of labouring
men :

MALE ADULTS.

Class II. (Professionals) Musicians 713

/ Personal servants ... 5,288

Class III. I Sweepers 303

Service. ) Water-carriers ... 23

(Unspecified 27,150

Class V fCartmen 912

Conveyance of 9 oo ds . \*^T Z Z %85

Lime-burners ... ... 228

Diggers 1,853

Basket-makers ... 1,839



Class VI.
Poorer craftsmen.



Cotton-spinners ... 19,827

Shoe-makers ... ... 3,545

Cotton-carders ... 1,354

Bird-catchers 108



42 PATNA DIVISION : SOUTH OF GANGES.



Class VII (Beggars 5,585

J 77 ^Labourers 153,533

Miscellaneous. ) TT , ,

(Unemployed ... 10,320

Total ... 234,877

The total population of Gaya District is 1,949,750. Taken
by castes, 647,333 persons are returned as belonging to labour-
ing classes, or about one-third of the total population. Accord-
ing to occupation, there are 234,877 male adults, or 704,631
males, females, and children, being about three-eighths of the
total population.

The foregoing calculation yields the following results :

1. Total population 1,949,750

2. Agriculturists according to castes (Hindus) 481,693

3. Gross agricultural population according to

occupation 749,061

4. Labouring population according to castes

(Hindus, aborigines and semi-aborigines) 647,333

5. Labouring population acccording to occupa-

tion (all) ... 704,631

6. Total agriculturists and labourers according

to caste statement (Hindus, aborigines, &c.) 1,129,026

7. Total agriculturists and labourers according

to occupation statement ... ... ... 1,453,692

N.B. It must be remembered that the total number of agri-
culturists and labourers, according to occupation, is obtained by
multiplying the number of male adults by three.



SHAHABAD DISTRICT.

FAMINE PRICES. The maximum price of rice in Shahabad dur-
ing the famine of 1866-67 was reported to me by the Collector
at Us. 4-7 a maund, or 9 seers for the rupee, and of paddy, Ks.
2-10 a maund, or 15 seers for the rupee. There was also a
severe scarcity in 1868-69. On both these occasions Govern-
ment stepped in with relief measures, which were undertaken
with great watchfulness and care. The Collector in a report to



SHAHABAD DISTRICT : FAMINE WARNINGS. 43

me, dated June 1871, states that by a timely attention to the
commencement of relief works, the distribution of food in
charity (which has a most demoralising effect on the people) may
be generally avoided. Professional beggars, and the labouring
poor who are reduced in strength, might be formed into separate
squads and put to light work proportionate to their strength.
On this point the District Engineer, in a report on the scarcity
of 1869, wrote as follows :

Under these circumstances I have formed what the people
themselves call a Kangali or beggar squad, in which I have
drafted all those who are in bad case, and where they are made
to work according to their ability to do so. By this means the
remaining working parties or able-bodied, are left susceptive of the
checks and measurement of work, by which alone a fair out-turn
can be obtained for the money expended. The usefulness of
the Kangali or beggar squads was most marked. To them is to
be attributed the absence of that demoralising aid, gratuitous
relief, which for a few days was forced on the Magistrate of
Baxar owing to the number of beggars who at one time flocked
into the station. These people were drafted into the Kangali or
beggar squads, where they had to do light work proportionate to
their strength, and were paid daily ; but even the little restraint
that this occasioned was irksome to the professional beggars, and
most of them soon returned to , their accustomed haunts and
scattered throughout the District."

FAMINE WARNINGS. The Collector in 1871 reported to me
that prices had returned to what were considered their ordinary
rates before the famine. Judging from the results of 1866 and
1869, he stated that if rice were selling at the rate of Ks. 3-5 a
maund or 12 seers for the rupee soon after the crop had been
harvested, or in January or February, it would be necessary to
commence relief operations. He reports that this rate was
reached in January 1869. Shahabad District mainly depends
upon the aman or winter harvest, and a fair yield of this would
enable the people to tide over any deficiency or failure of the
rdbi or spring crop.

MEANS OF TRANSIT. The means of communication at the
disposal of the District for the purpose of importing grain in
times of scarcity, are reported exceedingly deficient, especially
during the rains when such importations are most needed. As an
illustration of this, the Collector states that in 1869, grain was sell-
ing at 30 per cent, higher rates in the southern and interior parts



44 PATNA DIVISION : SOUTH OF GANGES.

of the District than in the part near the line of railway. On
this point the District Engineer reported as follows : " In look-
ing back on the circumstances connected with the late distress,
it is impossible to doubt that the large importations of grain into
the District warded off the famine that was impending, and the
inhabitants, rich and poor, bespeak blessing on the railway.
But the railway was not all that was needed. The grain
had to be distributed throughout the District, and the im-
perfect condition of the local roads rendered this a task of the
utmost difficulty. During the rains when the importations were
greatest, the Sasseram and Arrah road, which is the principal
line in the District, was crowded with traffic j and it was painful
to witness Jong strings of carts, half a hundred in a line, cutting
their way through a foot deep of puddle. The road is kacha
(i.e., unmetalled), and with the traffic that was on it, mud and
water, do what we might, would produce puddle ; so that in the
interior of the District particularly towards the south, grain was
selling at from 30 to 40 per cent, higher rates than at the railway
station."

CULTIVATED AREA ; OUT-TURN OF CHOPS, &c. The Collector
in June 1871 returned the cultivated area at 1,763,200 acres, or
2755 square miles, out of a total area of 4403 square miles.
A fair average out-turn from a bigha of good rice land paying a
rent of Rs. 3 a bigha, is estimated by the same authority at 5
maunds of paddy valued Rs. 5, and 4 maunds of a second crop
valued at Rs. 6 ; total Rs. 11. From a bigha of inferior land at
half the above rent, a fair out-turn would be 2 J maunds of paddy
valued Rs. 2-8, and 2J maunds of second crop, valued at Rs.
3-1 2j total Rs. 6-4.

PRICE CURRENTS. The prices in 1862 were as follow :

Coarse rice in ordinary use ... 30 seers per rupee.

Pulses ... ... ... ... 50

Wheat 22

The prices obtaining in the year 1866 were as follow :

Coarse rice in ordinary use, ... 9 seers per rupee.

Pulses 10

Wheat, cheapest sort ... ... 9

The Collector reported to me that the Railway works in the
District has created a class of labourers many of whom had wholly
withdrawn themselves from agricultural pursuits. A large num-
ber of such labourers are now employed in the Soane irrigation
works. Labourers not possessing lands of their own, but



SHAHABAD DISTRICT : AGRICULTURAL POPULATION. 45

employed to till the lands of others, are called Bhuinhars in the
District. Women are largely employed in the fields.

AGRICULTUKAL POPULATION. I have obtained no statistics
from the Collector under this head. But the Census Keport of
1872 (pp. cxxvii., cxxviii.) gives the total "Agricultural and
Pastoral Castes" (Hindus) of the Shahabad District at 441,621,
including males, females, and children, and exclusive of the
Musalmans who live by cultivation, and of the aboriginal or semi-
aboriginal tribes, partly living by agriculture. But by analysing
the details of population arranged according to occupation, at
pp. clxix., clxx., I find that the total male adults of class iv.,
i.e., persons engaged in agriculture or with animals, is 270,959.
Allowing two other individuals as an average for the females and
children connected with each male adult, the total population
living by agriculture or by tending animals amount to 812,877.
Deducting 14,454 male adults for the " excepted classes," ex-
plained at a foregoing page, i.e., persons possessing estates or
otherwise well off, a balance remains of 256,505 males under
class iv., or allowing two other persons to each male adult, a total
population of 769,515 souls living by actual husbandry, or em-
ployed in connection with animals, or tenure holders belonging
to the classes who are generally people in a small way. This
represents the gross agricultural population. The total number
of male adult "cultivators," as returned by the Census, is
246,805, or taking the average of two souls to each male adult
as family and children, a net cultivating population of 740,415.

LABOURING POPULATION. The Census Keport in its Statement
of Castes and Nationalities (pp. cxxvi.-cxxix.) returns the labour-
ing classes,* below the rank of artisans, of the Shahabad District
as follows :

1. Aboriginal tribes 13,245

2. Semi-Hinduised aborigines 230,368

3. Personal servant castes ... ... ... 85,384

4. Weaver castes 12,153

5. Labouring castes 22,193

6. Boating and fishing castes 20,398

7. Musician and vagabond castes ... ... ... 218

8. Unclassified, Vaishnavs, &c 11,731

Total ... 395,690

* The figures have been corrected from the District Census Statements
subsequently compiled by C. F. Magrath, Esq., now in charge of Census.



46



PATNA DIVISION : SOUTH OF GANGES.



Turning to the Statement of Occupations (pp. clxv.-clxxix.),
I find the following numbers under their respective classes. I
only take those who may fairly be considered in the rank of
labouring men :

MALE ADULTS.

... 5

... 195
2,780

gapers ... 484

J Water-carriers 54

(Unspecified ...... 15,130

fCartmen ......... 903



Class I. (Government employ) Piyadas
Class II. (Professionals) Musicians

n fl TTT Personal servants

Uasslli.

Service.



Class V
Convene of



VI.

Poorer craftsmen.



Class VII
uass v



Lime-burners

Diggers

Basket-makers

Cotton-spinners

Shoe-makers

Cotton-carders

Bird-catchers

(Beggars ...

< Labourers ...

( Unemployed



Total ... 158,398

The total population of the Shahabad District is 1,723,974.
Taken by castes, therefore, there are 395,690 persons belonging
to the labouring classes, or above one-fifth of the total population.
According to occupation there are 158,398 male adults, or
475,194 males, females, and children, being more than one-fourth
of the total population.

The foregoing calculations yield the following results :

1. Total population ............ 1,723,974

2. Agriculturists according to castes (Hindus)... 441,621

3. Agricultural population according to occu-

pation (total) ............ 769,515

4. Labouring population according to castes

(Hindus, aborigines and semi-aborigines) 395,690

5. Labouring population according to occupa-

tion (total) ......... ... 475,194



SARAN DISTRICT : FAMINE PRICES. 47

6. Hindu agricultural and labouring population

according to caste statement ... ... 837,312

7. Total gross agricultural population and labourers,

according to occupation statement ... 1,244,709

N.B. It must be remembered that the total of agriculturists
and labouring population, according to occupation, is obtained by
multiplying the number of male adults by three.



SABAN DISTRICT.

FAMINE PRICES. The maximum price of paddy and rice during
the famine of 1866-67 is reported to me by the Collector to have
been Rs. 3 and 4-8 per standard maund. The point at which
relief for the able-bodied poor should commence, is, in his opinion,
reached when the price of grain rises 50 per cent, over the average
rates, especially if the market at the same time shows an upward
tendency. The Collector in his report to me, January 1871,
states that it would then become necessary to distribute food in
charity. But if food does not rise more than 50 per cent., he
thinks the able-bodied would be capable of supporting themselves
and dependants.

The Collector would not recommend the opening of gratuitous
relief operations until staples, which ordinarily sell at 30 seers
per rupee, or Rs. 1-5 a maund, should rise to 13 or 14 seers for
the rupee, or from Rs. 2-13, to Rs. 3. But he would advocate
the opening of relief works as soon as it is ascertained that the
ordinary labourer or small cultivator has become unable to earn
sufficient to keep his family in health ; and this point is in his
opinion reached when the purchasing power of wages has
decreased to one-half.

FAMINE WARNINGS. The Collector considers the first warning
of a famine is the loss of two out of the three crops, especially if
these should happen to be the winter and spring crops, the rain
crops being comparatively insignificant. Great pressure may be
predicted, if not actual famine from April to September, after a
total failure of the winter crops, along with a probable failure of
the spring crop, the prospects of which are always pretty well
ascertained by the middle of January. The scarcity would, how-
ever, be sensibly relieved by the rain crops if they proved favour-



48 PATNA DIVISION : SOUTH OF GANGES.

able. In making these calculations, the Collector assumed a
general failure of crops in the adjoining Districts. A merely
local failure of the crops in Saran would not produce famine,
although it might cause distress among the agriculturists.

MEANS OF TRANSIT. Saran is well intersected with unrae-
talled roads which are passable even in the rainy season, and the
Collector thought there would be no difficulty in distributing
imported grain throughout the District.

AREA UNDER TILLAGE, AND OUT-TURN OP CROPS. The Col-
lector returns the approximate acreage under the principal crops
as follows : Rice 475,000 acres ; wheat 275,000, other edible
grain 322,320 ; probable total area under cultivation 1,252,820
acres. Fifteen maunds of paddy are considered a first-class
yield for a biyka of rice-land, and from 9 to 1 1 maunds of paddy a
good average yield. Land yielding 9 or 10 maunds to the bigJia
is considered inferior ; soils yielding less than 5 or 6 maunds are
reported as scarcely worth cultivating. The price of paddy in
ordinary years is stated at 30 standard seers for the rupee. It
is not general to take a second crop from rice-lands, but in some
rice-lands khesari and gram are sown by the cultivators before
the rice is cut and without any ploughing. Such a second crop
gives a small out-turn averaging 3 or 4 maunds per bigha. But
the best rice-lands are never cropped twice. The Collector
reports to me that 25 bighas of land yield a comfortable main-
tenance for a husbandman's family, and renders him better off than
a shopkeeper with a clear profit of 8 Us. a month. The prices of
the principal grains in 1871 were returned by the Collector as
follow :

Cleaned rice ... ... 12 to 16 seers per rupee.

Do. do. coarse quality 20 to 25 ,,

Unshelled rice, best quality 20 to 25

Do. do. coarse quality 35 to 40

Maize ... ... ... ... 40

Barley 30

Wheat 18

AGRICULTURAL POPULATION. The Collector does not furnish
any statistics regarding the proportion of agricultural and labour-
ing population. The Census Report of 1872 (pp. cxxvii.,
cxxviii.) gives the total " Agricultural and Pastoral Castes" (Hin-
dus) in the Saran District at 508,687, as corrected by the
subsequent District Census Statement, including males, females,



SARAN DISTRICT : LABOURING POPULATION. 49

and cliildren, and exclusive of the Musalmdns who live by culti-
vation, and of aboriginal or semi-aboriginal castes who partly
employ themselves in agriculture. But by analysing the details
of population arranged according to occupation at pages clxix.,
clxx., I find that the total male adults of class iv., i.e., persons
engaged in agriculture or with animals, is 427,810. Allowing
two other souls as an average of females and children connected
with each male adult, the total population living by agriculture
or by connection with animals amounts to 1,283,430. Deduct-
ing 16,013 male adults for the "excepted classes" explained at
a foregoing page, i.e., persons possessing estates or otherwise
well off, a balance remains of 411,797 males under class iv. ; or
estimating two other persons to each male adult, a total popula-
tion of 1,235,391, living by actual husbandry, or employed in
connection with animals, or tenure-holders belonging to the
classes who are often people in a small way. This represents
the gross agricultural population. The total number of male
adults " cultivators," as returned by the Census, is 408,333, or
adding two other persons to each male adult for women and
children, a total of 1,224,999. The male adults employed
in cultivation form a little less than half of the total males
in the District ; and the net cultivating population, males,
females, and children (as estimated by my analysis of class iv.),
amounts to 1,224,999, or three-fifths of the total population of
the District, namely, 2,063,860.

LABOURING POPULATION. The Census R3port in its state-
ment of Castes and Nationalities (pp. cxxvi.-cxxix.) returns the
labouring classes, below artisans, of the Saran District as follow,
the figures being corrected from the subsequent District Census
Statements :

1. Aboriginal tribes ... ... ... ... 7,796

2. Semi-Hinduised aboriginals ... 213,468

3. Personal servant castes 86,225

4. Weaver castes 10,460

5. Labouring castes ... ... ... ... 67,273

6. Boating and fishing castes 38,352

7. Musician and vagabond castes ... ... 47

8. Unclassified, Vaishnavs, &c 29,456

Total ... 453,077

Turning to the statement of occupations, I find the following

D



50



PATNA DIVISION : SOUTH OF GANGES.



numbers under the several classes. I only take


those who may


be fairly considered in the rank of labouring men


:




MALE ADULTS.


Class II. (Professionals) Musicians


343




' Personal servants


2,977


Class III.


Sweepers


377


Service.


Water-carriers ...


2




Unspecified


... 16,377


C/IRSS "V


Cartmen


1,783


Conveyance of goods.


Palki-bearers . . .
Boatmen


2,096

4,828




' Lime-burners . . .


181




Diggers


10


l^lnoa "VT


Basket-makers


1,991


V/lcLbo V J-

Poorer craftsmen.


Cotton-spinners
Shoe-makers . . .


... 13,329
1,624




Cotton-carders


2,456




Bird-catchers . . .


57


Class VII. j Beggars
Miscellaneous. j^^,


3,722
... 47,469
4,209



Total ... 103,831

The total population of the Saran District is 2,063,860.
Taken by castes, therefore, there are 453,077 persons belonging
to labouring classes, or more than one-fifth of the total popula-
tion. According to occupation, there are 103,831 male adults,
or 311,493 males, females, and children, being less than one-
sixth of the total population. As a rule, the Occupation State-
ment should show a larger result than the Caste Statements, for
it includes Musalmans as well as Hindus. In this District,
however, either the chamars are agriculturists, or the Census
Report fails us altogether. Thus the Caste Statement shows
94,844 chamars, while the Occupation Statement shows only
1624 shoe-makers and 1360 tanners and dealers in hides.
The same sort of discrepancy is found with regard to the Per-
sonal Servant Castes.

The foregoing calculations yield the following results :

1. Total population ... ... ... 2,063,860

2. Agriculturists according to caste statement

(Hindus) ... ... ... 508,687



T1RHUT DISTRICT : FAMINE PRICES. 51

3. Gross agricultural population according to

occupation statement ... ... 1,235,391

4. Labouring population according to caste

statement (Hindus, aborigines, and semi-
aborigines) ... ... ... 453,077

5. Labouring population according to occupa-

tion (total) ... ... 311,493

6. Total agriculturists and labourers according

to caste statement (Hindus, &c.) ... 961,764

7. Total agriculturists and labourers according

to occupation statement (all) 1,546,884

N.B. It must be remembered that the total of agriculturists
and labourers is according to occupation, and is obtained by
multiplying the number of male adults by three.



TIRHUT DISTRICT.

FAMINE PRICES. The maximum price of rice during the famine
of 1866 was Ks. 8 a maund, or 5 seers to the rupee ; and for
paddy Us. 4-7 a maund, or 9 seers for the rupee. The follow-
ing statement is compiled from a return of the price of food
grains at the principal market towns in Tirhut, dated 27th
August 1866, when the famine was at its height. (1.) Muzaffar-
pur, the headquarters station. Cheapest description of rice,
Rs. 5 a maund ; cheapest sort of pulses in ordinary use, Rs. 4-3 a
maund; wheat, Rs. 4-7 a maund; janirah, Rs. 3-10 a maund.
(2.) Darbhanga town. Common rice, Rs. 6-2| a maund ; common
pulses, Rs. 7-4 a maund ; wheat, Rs. 6-1 0^ a maund; janirah
and^oar, Rs. 5-5 a maund. (3.) Hajipur. Common rice, Rs. 4-7
a maund; common pulses, Rs. 3-13 a maund; wheat, Rs. 4-5
a maund. (4.) Sitamari. Common rice, Rs. 5-15 a maund ;
common pulses, Rs. 5-15 a maund; wheat, Rs. 5-5 a maund, and
janirah and ./oar, Rs. 3-6 a maund. These rates are reported to
me as considerably more than double the average prices at the
same season of other years. There was another very severe
scarcity in 1869, but prices did not reach the excessive rates
which they did in 1866. The Collector thinks that local prices
in 1871 may be said to have generally returned to what ^Yere
considered their ordinary level before the famine of 1866.



52 PATNA DIVISION I NOKTH OF GANGES.

FAMINE WARNINGS. The Collector states that it is not easy to
lay down any particular rates at which relief operations would
become necessary, as prices taken by themselves do not afford a
sufficient criterion. If rice were selling at Ks. 2-3 a maund or
18 seers for the rupee after the harvesting of the winter crops, in
January or February, and the spring crop also proved a failure,
there would (later in the year) be more suffering and want
among the labouring classes than there would be even if the
price of rice had been higher than Rs. 2-3 a maund in January,
provided that the spring crop was a fair one. But in the anti-
cipation of a failure of the spring crops as well as the winter
harvest, from drought (which is the only cause of famine in
Tirhut), a rate of 16 to 18 seers per rupee in January should be
considered as indicative of severe pressure from May to Septem-
ber. These rates, although not perhaps indicating actual famine,
might render it advisable for the State to begin relief works
(particularly in the southern part of the District, which depends
largely on the spring harvest). A rate of from 14 to 16 seers
per rupee in January or February would probably render relief
operations expedient on a large scale. The rate in August and
September in such a year, would probably reach 8 to 12 seers
per rupee.

MEANS OF TRANSIT. Tirhut being usually an exporting Dis-
trict, importations even in a bad year cannot (in the opinion of
the Collector) be looked for on any sufficient scale, although
good means of communication exist by road and river. Even
in the famine year of 1866 exportation went on from the District.

CULTIVATED AREA ; OUT-TURN OF CROPS. The Collector in
his report to me, dated March 1871, returned the approximate
area of the District at 6114 square miles or 3,913,221 acres, of
which he estimated about three-fourths might be calculated as
under tillage, and the remaining one-fourth occupied by village
sites, mango groves, rivers, roads, waste lands, &c. A fair out-
turn of paddy from the local bigha (35,156 square feet) of
good land is returned at 20 maunds, and from a local bigha of
inferior land at from 7 to 10 maunds, valued at Rs. 14 and Rs.
7 or Rs. 8 respectively. Reduced to the standard bigha of
14,400 square feet, a fair out-turn for good lands would - be
about 8J maunds, and for inferior lands from 2f- to 4|
maunds. But the Collector mentions that the yield of land
in the different parts of the District varies considerably. He
gives the above as an average calculation. A holding of more



TIRHUT DISTRICT : AGRICULTURAL POPULATION. 53

than 70 bighas is considered large ; one below ten bighas is
reckoned below the adequate size. A fair-sized holding would
be 25 bighas. In the south of the District, where the lands are
generally high and yield two crops in the year, a holding of


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