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Bombay District Command only are at Bombay. Education in 1880-81
was represented by 146 schools and colleges, with a total of 16,413
pupils, being 1 school to every "i8 square mile, and 217 pupils to
every thousand of the population. The income of the Bombay Port
Trust for the year 1880-81 was .£276,683, and the expenditure
£270,394, inclusive of £"152,656 due as interest on capital, leaving a
net surplus of £"6288, which was paid away in reduction of loans.

Newspapers. — A vigorous English and vernacular press flourishes in
Bombay. The Bombay Gazette- and the Times of India, both of them
daily journals, well-edited and well-informed, represent the Anglo-
Indian community. The Indian Spectator is an excellent native weekly
journal in the English language. The Bombay Catholic Examiner ably
represents the Roman Catholic inhabitants. The Bombay Chronicle,
a native paper, also deserves notice. The vernacular press includes
Indu Brahdsh, Ja?n-e-Jamshed, Rast Goftar, Bombay Sdmdchar, Arya
Patrika, and Gujardthi. These native papers address their respective
circles of readers, explaining passing political events, criticising official
appointments, and bringing grievances to light.

Medical Aspects. — Bombay is not so excessively hot as some
other parts of India. But on the other hand, it has not the bracing
cold weather of the Northern Provinces. The cool months last
from November to May. The south-west monsoon begins about the
second week in June, and the rain continues with great regularity
until the end of September. The hottest months of the year are
May and October, but even then the heat is tempered by cool breezes


from the sea. The average rainfall of the year, as registered at
Koldba observatory, is 70-30 inches; the average temperature, 79*2° F.
The average death-rate in Bombay city during the five years ending
1880 was 38-10 per thousand. In 1881, a total of 21,553 deaths
were registered, of which 529 were assigned to cholera, 37 to small-
pox, 641 1 to fevers, and 2004 to bowel complaints; the death-rate
was 27-87 per thousand. The cost of the Public Health Department
in 1S80 was ,£69,088, or deducting receipts, ^41,090. The health
of the city may now be said to have returned to its normal con-
dition before the influx of immigrants from the famine Districts in
1877. The number of births registered in Bombay city in 1881 was
16,381, giving a ratio of 21-19 P er thousand. There are 5 civil
hospitals in Bombay city, and a dispensary at Mahim, with an average
daily number of 612 in-door, and 577 out-door patients. There is a
lunatic asylum at Kolaba, which contained a daily average of 297*2
inmates in 1880-81, maintained at a cost to the State of ^17, 6s. per
head. In 1881-82, a staff of 8 vaccinators was employed in Bombay
city, who performed 18,869 operations at a total cost of ^"1608.

Bomori. — Town in Orchha State, Bundelkhand, Central India
Agency. Lat. 25 26' 20" n., long. 79 54' 40" e. ; on the road from
Agra to Sagar (Saugor), distant from the former 180 miles south-east,
from the latter 93 miles north-west. Situated on rising ground, on the
bank of an extensive artificial lake, 4 miles in length and 2 in breadth,
formed by damming up the course of a small stream, and largely
utilized for irrigation. On a rocky ridge overlooking the lake stands
the ruined palace of the Raja who constructed it. Population (1881)

Bomr&j (Bomrdz palem). — Estate in Nellore District, Madras
Presidency. Formerly, with Venkatagiri, Kalahasti, and Sayyidpur,
constituting the ' District of Western Palayams.' The peculiar revenue
and stipendiary usages of this estate form a marked contrast to those
in the neighbouring tracts under British administration.

Bon&i. — The most southerly of the Tributary States of Chutia
Nagpur, Bengal, lying between 21 35' 30" and 22 7' 45" n. lat., and
between 84 31' 5" and 85 25' e. long.; area, 1349 square miles;
population (1881) 24,030. Bounded on the north by part of
Singbhum District and by Gangpur State ; on the south and west by
Bamra, a feudatory State of the Central Provinces ; and on the east
by Keunjhar State, Orissa.

Physical Aspects.— -The State is shut in on all sides by the lofty
Bonai Hills, which occupy so large a portion of the country that
only one-twelfth of the entire area is under cultivation. The Brah-
manf flows from north to south, forming in the centre of the State a
fertile and comparatively level tract, in which most of the largest


villages are situated. To reach this central valley it passes in a suc-
cession of rapids through a beautiful glen 8 miles long. These rapids
present difficulties to the floating down of timber j but if they were
removed, or canals cut by which they could be avoided, there would
be no difficulty in sending the exceedingly valuable stores of sal and
other timber which the State contains to False Point by this route.
The timber in the Bonai and Gangpur forests along the banks of the
Brahmani is the most valuable in the Chutia Nagpur Tributary States.
Silk cocoons and stick-lac are the most valuable of the jungle products.
Iron exists and is melted in the State for local use, but is not exported.
Gold is found and washed in small quantities in the beds of the
Brahmani and the hill streams. Wild animals — tigers, leopards, wolves,
elephants, bison, etc. — are very numerous, and do much damage to the

History, etc. — Bonai, together with Gangpur and others of the Chutia
Nagpur States, was ceded to the British Government in 1803, and restored
by a special engagement in 1806. It reverted to the British under a
provisional agreement made with Madhuji Bhonsla (Apa Sdhib) in
1818, and was finally ceded in 1826. Besides paying a yearly tribute
of ,£20, the Raja is bound to furnish, when required, a contingent of
armed men for military service. The State yields the Raja an income
of about ,£600.

Population. — Of the population of 24,030 in 1881, 23,445 were
Hindus by religion, and 31 Muhammadans, while 554 were aboriginal
or hill tribes belonging to other religions not separately classified.
A large number of aborigines by race are included among the Hindus.
Number of males, 12,445; females, 11,585. Average density of
population, t8 per square mile; number of villages, 256; number of
occupied houses, 4372; villages per square mile, '19; houses per
square mile, 3*24; persons per village, 94; persons per house,
5-5. Of the Dravidian aborigines, the most numerous are the
Bhuiyas, who are sub-divided into two clans — the Bhuiyas of the
plains, and the Pahari or hill Bhuiyas. The Bhuiyas of the plains
are the dominant tribe in most parts of Bondi, and were probably the
earliest settlers in the country. They hold fiefs under the Raja, and
form, with the Gonds of South Bonai, the organized militia of the
State. Hardly any other class of subordinate holders have fixed pro-
prietary rights in the soil; and the Raja had formerly no right to
exercise any authority until he had received the tilak or token of
investiture from his Bhuiya vassals. This prerogative is still asserted
by the sdont or head of the Bhuiya clan in Bonai, who holds 12
villages at a quit-rent of £i, 16s. a year, and claims to be the hereditary
diwdn or finance minister of the State. The present chief, however,
does not employ him or acknowledge his claim. Besides their


organization as a semi-military body, the Bhuiyas derive great power
from their position as priests of the oldest temples or shrines. These
temples, although now dedicated to Hindu deities, bear evidence that
they were originally occupied by other images, at a period prior to the
introduction of Hinduism. At some of these shrines, human sacrifices
were offered every third year ; and this practice continued till the
country came under British rule. Next in influence to the Bhuiyas are
the Gonds, also a Dravidian tribe living in the south of Bonai, border-
ing on Bamra State in the Central Provinces. Two members of this
tribe, called respectively dandpdt and mahdpdtra, hold fiefs on con-
dition of military service under the Raja. The Gonds in Bonai have
now become thoroughly Hinduized, and speak no language but Uriya.
A small sprinkling of Kandhs, so long notorious for their practice of
human sacrifice, is found in Bonai. They probably immigrated from
Bod State in Orissa, but have long occupied a servile position in Bonai
as farm labourers, and have lost all the typical characteristics of their
race. Among the Hindus proper, the most noteworthy caste is the
Kalfta or Kulta. They are peculiar to Sambalpur in the Central Pro-
vinces, Bondi, and Assam, and occupy in all three places a very similar
position as most respectable and substantial cultivators. The Kalitas
of Bonai resemble in appearance those of Assam, both having
strongly- marked Aryan features with hazel or grey eyes, and there
appears to be some ethnological connection between the two. The
elders of the caste in Bonai, however, assert that they came ori-
ginally from Mithila, the modern Tirhut, in the days of Rama, and
settled in Sambalpur, from whence they migrated into Bondi six
generations ago. Colonel Dalton, in his Ethnology of Bengal, states
that they form the best cultivators and most substantial people in the
State. He found them occupying villages along with aboriginal Gonds
and Kandhs, but these had nearly all fallen into the position of farm
servants to the Kalitas, who had extensive fields, well-stocked farm-
yards, and comfortable houses. The pardah system of excluding
their females is unknown to them, and infant marriage is not

Agriculture. — The principal crops in the State are rice, pulses, and
oil-seeds. Systematic cultivation is confined to the valley of the
Brahmani river, and, as has been already stated, only one-twelfth of the
entire area is under tillage. Three regular rice crops are grown—
gord dhdn, a highland rice, sown in June and reaped in September ;
autumn rice, also sown in June ; and a winter crop, sown in July. Gord
dhdn yields in good seasons 13 or 14 maunds of paddy for every maund
of seed sown ; but in bad years, or under careless tillage, the out-turn
is not more than four or five fold the amount of seed. A fourth rice
crop, called ddhi dhdn, is grown on forest land by the nomadic hill


tribes. For this no ploughing is required ; the trees are cut down and
burned on the land, the ashes being mixed up with the surface soil ;
and the seed is put in at the commencement of the rains. The out-
turn of the ddhi crop is from 40 to 45 times the amount of the seed,
but after two years the land is exhausted. Wages in Bonai are in-
variably paid in kind; a male day-labourer receives 2 sen (4 lbs.) of
rice a day, and a woman 1 h ser (3 lbs.). Price of best cleaned rice in
1873, 4s. 2d. per cwt. ; of common rice, 2s. id. ; and of coarse unhusked
paddy, is. ojd. per cwt. The principal village of the State is Bonai
Garh, the residence of the Raja.

Trade, etc.— Small boats ply on the Brahmani all the year round, and
the bulk of the surplus produce of the country is exported to Sambalpur
by this route. A portion, however, is carried to the north on pack-
bullocks. Iron is smelted for local use, but is not exported. Gold is
found in small quantities in the bed of the Brahmani and the hill

The family of the Bonai chief claim a mysterious and foreign origin.
They say that they came from Sakaldwip or Ceylon, and that the
founder of the family was abandoned by his mother under a kadamba
tree. Being on the point of falling into the hands of an enemy, the
infant was rescued by a peacock, which swallowed him, and kept him in
its craw until the danger was past. In gratitude for this service, the
peacock was adopted as the family crest. In reference to their early
connection with the kadamba tree, they describe themselves as kadam-
bansi Rajputs. Looking, however, to their position as rulers over
powerful Bhuiya vassals, who hold the bulk of the land, command the
militia of the State, and have even the right of conferring the tilak or
token of investiture on the Chief, there can be little doubt that the
Raja of Bonai was originally the tribal head of the Bhuiya clan. If
Colonel Dalton's theory be correct that the Bhuiyas formed a portion
of the army with which Rama invaded Ceylon, and were, in fact, the
veritable apes of the Ramayana, it would seem as if the family of the
Chief had taken advantage of an ancient legend to conceal their
aboriginal ancestry under the fiction of Cinghalese descent.

Bonai Garh. — Residence of the Raja of Bonai State, Chutii
Nagpur, Bengal. Lat. 21 49' 8" n., long. 85 o' 20" e. ; situated on
the Brahmani river, which surrounds the garh or fort on three sides.
It is further defended by a high mud-wall and moat. Within this
enclosure are about 150 houses, including the palace of the Chief, his
court-house and jail. The entire village contains about 300 houses.
The site, which is very picturesque, is 505 feet above sea-level.

Bonai Hills.— A series of ranges, rising to a height of 2000 and
3000 feet above the central valley of Bonai State, Chutia Nagpur, and
shutting it in on all sides. With the countless spurs which they throw


off, they occupy a large portion of the State. Most of the hills are
densely wooded to the summit, and, except at the regular passes, are
inaccessible to beasts of burden. Through the northern mountain
barrier separating Bonai from Gangpur State, the Brahmani river has
forced its way, passing through a glen 8 miles long. The shortest
route from Gangpur to Bonai is by a rugged path through this glen, but
it is only practicable during the dry weather. Principal peaks—
Mankarmacha, 3639 feet above sea-level; Badamgarh, 3525 feet;
Kumritar, 3490 feet ; Cheliatoka, 3308 feet ; and Kondadhar, 3000 feet.
Fifteen other peaks are named, each more than 2000 feet in height.

Bondada. — Village in Godavari District, Madras Presidency ; paying
^693 per annum as Government assessment. The estate of Bondada,
consisting of 20 villages, was resumed by Government in a.h. 1864, on
account of arrears of revenue.

Bongong. — Sub-division of Nadiya District, Bengal. — See Bangaon.

Bonra. — Marsh in Bogra District, Bengal; locally known as the
bard bi/, or Great Swamp. It is connected with the Chalan Lake, in
Rajshdhi, one of the largest pieces of water of this kind in Bengal.

Boondee. — Native State and town in Rajputana. — See Bundi.

Boragari. — Trading village and produce depot in Rangpur District,
Bengal. Lat. 26 o' 15" n., long. 89 3' 15" e. Chief exports — rice,
mustard, jute, and gunny-bags.

Boram. — Village in Manbhiim District, Bengal. Lat. 23 22' n.,
long. 86° to' e. Chiefly noteworthy on account of the Jain remains in
the neighbourhood, on the right bank of the Kasai (Cossye) river, 4 miles
south of the town of Jaipur. There are many indications that these
remains mark the site of what was at one time a very important place.
Amidst heaps of debris and ruins stand three fine brick temples, of which
the most southerly is the largest. Its tower rises from a base of 26 feet
square to a height of (at present) about 60 feet j the upper portion has
fallen, but the proportions followed in other temples of the same type,
suggest that the original building must have been about one-third higher
than the present ruins. The chamber occupies only 9 square feet ; the
images have been removed. The bricks of which all the temples are
made are beautifully fashioned, and appear to have been finished by
grinding. In this respect, and in their style of ornament and work-
manship, these temples resemble the great Buddhist temple of Buddh
Gaya in Behar.

Borasambar. — Estate or zamind&H, formerly belonging to the
Eighteen Garhjats, but now attached to Sambalpur District, Central
Provinces; situated between 20 43' 15" and 21 ii' 4 5"n. lat., and
between 82 40' 30" and 83 27' 45" e. long. Area, 841 square miles,
nearly half of which is cultivated, the rest being covered by jungle.
Number of villages, 405; occupied houses, 11,965; total population


(18S1) 65,837, namely, 33,762 males and 32,075 females; average
density of population, 78 per square mile. The forests contain
abundance of sdl (Shorea robusta), sdj (Pentaptera glabra), and other
useful timber, besides lac, and cocoons of the tasar silkworm. Wild
beasts are very numerous. In the eastern portion of the estate, a few
Kalita and Brahman families have settled, the former as agriculturists,
the latter both as money-lenders and agriculturists. The leading race are
the Binjwars, an aboriginal tribe who eke out an existence as herdsmen
and labourers, and by occasional cultivation. Banjaras, or carriers trading
in salt and cotton with the east coast, are to be found during the mon-
soon, the grazing for their herds being excellent. A few Saoras, Kandhs,
and Gonds are to be met with. Artisans are very scarce. The chief
crop is rice ; but the soil is good, and pulses, oil-seeds, cotton, and
sugar-cane, when carefully cultivated, have been found to be successful.
Iron-ore is found in considerable quantities. The estimated revenue
of the estate is about ^1480. Tribute paid to Government, ^"30.
The zaminddri was granted by the Gajapatti ruler of Pun, between
1500 and 1600 years ago, to Dasmat Barhea, the founder of the pre-
sent family. The grant was originally limited to a jungle tract near
Borasambar, but the family have from time to time extended their
possessions by annexations from those of neighbouring chieftains, with
whom they were constantly at feud.

Bori. — Thriving town in Nagpur District, Central Provinces ; on
the left bank of the Wana, lying between the Great Southern Road
and the railway, about 18 miles from Nagpur. Lat. 20 54 45" N. 5
long. 79 2 45" e. Population (1881) 2849, namely, Hindus, 2562;
Muhammadans, 201 ; Jains, 37 ; aboriginal tribes, 49. A large portion
are employed in weaving cloth dyed of a red-brick colour. In con-
sequence of the durability of the dye, which is ascribed to some property
in the waters of the Wana, the cloths of Bori command a high price.
The town has a commodious sardi, a police station, and a Government
school. Some fine groves adorn the northern quarters. Maina Bdf
Nimbalkarin, with a garrison of 200 men, successfully held Bori against
three raids of the Pinddris.

Bona (or Adur).— Seaport in the Chiplun Sub-division, Ratnagiri
District, Bombay Presidency, situated midway between the mouths of the
Vasishta and Shastri rivers. Lat. 17° 24' n., long. 73° 13' 15" e. Average
annual value of trade for five years ending 1881-82— exports, ^170° )
imports, ^3857. The port is protected by the bold and conspicuous
headland of Adur, 360 feet above sea-level, and is a safe anchorage
during northerly gales. On the top of the hill overlooking the bay is a
station of the Trigonometrical Survey.

Borsad.— Sub-division of Kaira District, Bombay Presidency. Area,
218 square miles, containing 1 town and 89 villages. Population


(1881) 143,321, of whom 76,595 are returned as males and 66,726 as
females. Of Hindus there are 132,174 ; of Muhammadans, 8386 ; and
of 'others,' 2761. Owing to the intermixture of Baroda and Cambay
villages, the Sub-division is very broken and irregular in shape. Of
the total area, 56 square miles are occupied by the lands of alienated
and unsettled (mehwds) villages. The remainder, according to the
revenue survey returns, consists of 92,901 acres of cultivated land,
2597 acres of cultivable land, 2953 acres of uncultivable waste, and
4389 acres of roads, river-beds, village sites, etc. Alienated lands in
Government villages occupy 40,698 acres. Of the 54,800 acres of
cultivable Government land, 49,035 acres were under tillage in 1876-77.

The Mahi, the only river in the Sub-division, flows along its southern
boundary, and is throughout the whole distance a tidal river. But the
shallowness of its channel, its shifting sandbanks, and the force of its
tidal wave make it useless for boats. Except in the south, along the
banks of the Mahi, the whole Sub-division is a highly-cultivated plain
sloping gently westwards, intersected by rich hedgerows, and adorned
by groves of magnificent trees. Water-supply good. Net Government
assessment, ^26,622, or 9s. 8|d. an acre. The Sub-division contained
in 1883, 1 civil and 2 criminal courts; strength of regular police, 100
men ; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 693.

Borsad. — Chief town of the Borsad Sub-division, Kaira District,
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22 24' 30" n., long. 72 56' 30" e. Popu-
lation (1881) 12,228, namely, 8049 Hindus, 2790 Muhammadans, n 16
Jains, 266 Christians, and 7 'others.' The town is protected by a
double line of fortifications, the outer of which is in disrepair, the
inner in fair preservation. These fortifications are modern, having been
constructed by Ranguji, a Maratha leader, who fixed his head-quarters
here in 1741. The fort was constantly the scene of fighting till 1748,
when, after a siege of five months, the Gaekwar of Baroda captured the
town and made Ranguji prisoner. Besides the ordinary sub-divisional
courts and offices, the town contains a subordinate judge's court, post-
office, dispensary, and 3 Government schools. Borsad is also the seat
of a Presbyterian mission.

Botad. — Fortified town in the peninsula of Kathiawar, Bombay
Presidency. Lat. 22 10' n., long. 71 42' 30" e. ; population (1881)
7755> namely, 5678 Hindus, 1292 Muhammadans, and 785 Jains.

Botawad.— Town in Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency.— £<?*


^ Bowrillg-Pet (or Marumatlu).— Village in Kolar District, Mysore
Native State j 10 miles by road south of Kolar. Lat. 12 59' n., long.
78 15' e.; population (1881) 1265. Founded in 1864, on the open-
ing of the railway, and named after Mr. Lewin Bowring, then Chief
Commissioner. Includes the former villages of Maramatlu and Hosin-


gere. Railway station for Kolar or Kolar Road, and headquarters of
the Betmangala taluk. Weekly fair attended by 1000 persons.

Boyarani. — Town in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. Popula-
tion (1881) 3339, all Hindus.

Brahmagiri (or Marendd). — Range of hills which constitutes a
natural barrier for several miles between Coorg and the Wainad t&luk
in the District of Malabar, Madras Presidency; average height, 4500
feet above the sea. Highest peak — Davasi-betta, 5276 feet. Lat. ii°
56' n., long. 7 6° 2' e. The sides are clothed with forest. Among
these hills are the sources of some of the principal tributaries of the
Kaveri (Cauvery), viz. the Papanashi (sin-destroyer), Valarpattanam, and
the Lakshmantirtha river, which flow towards the east ; and the Eara-
pole, which forces its precipitous course in a north-westerly direction,
and through the Perambadi Pass down to the sea.

Brahmanabad.— Ruined city in Haidarabad District, Sind, Bombay
Presidency. It stood on the old course of the Indus, and was strongly
fortified. Outlying suburbs formerly connected it with the cities of
Depur and Dalarf, — the former the royal, the latter the official quarter ;
Brahmanabad itself being the commercial centre. The ruins of its
fortifications measure 4 miles in circumference. Recent excavations
prove that the inhabitants had attained to great skill in the arts, for
the sculptures, engraved gems, carved ivory, earthenware, and coloured
glass, found among the ruins, show both advanced taste and workman-
ship ; while the arrangement and regularity of the streets, and the solid
proportions of the buildings, attest great architectural excellence.
Legends say that the city was founded prior to the 7th century, and
was destroyed by the gods in punishment for the iniquities of ' King
Dolora.' History so far confirms this tradition as to make mention 01
an unjust ruler, byname Dolora Amrani, in the nth century. That
the destruction of the city was as sudden as it was complete, is proved
by the discovery of whole households overwhelmed together, men
and women at their work, and cattle in their stalls. No marks of con-
flagration are discernible, nor — since household goods and valuables
remain in situ — can the ruin of the city be referred to the invasion
of an enemy, or desertion by the inhabitants. The legend, therefore,
is probably so far correct, that Brahmanabad was destroyed by natural
agency — most probably by the earthquake which about the same date

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 11 of 56)