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firewood created by the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. The
District is, however, well wooded with timber and fruit trees, and
there are few villages without a plantation of some sort. Mango
groves occupy 23,045 acres, and are often planted in avenues
along roadsides for the sake of the shade they afford. Beyond it,
towards the Ganges, rises the high and sandy ridge known as the b/iiir,
which runs parallel to the river from end to end of the District. It
consists for the most part of very barren and almost uncultivated land,
interspersed at wide distances with villages of Ahars, whose cattle graze
upon the short grass which covers its sandy soil. The lower alluvial
basin of the Ganges lies to the south of the bhur ; but the fear of
inundation prevents cultivators from settling on its uncertain lowlands,
and vast savannahs of rank grass and tall tdttar reeds accordingly usurp
the place of tillage. The principal rivers besides the Ganges, the Sot,
and the Ramganga, in order from east to west, are the Aril, the
Andheri, a tributary of the Aril, the Mahawa, with its tributaries the
Chhoiya and the Nakta Nadf. The Ganges is navigable throughout
the year for boats of large burthen ; the Ramganga only in the rainy
season, except for small country craft. Several shallow lakes (jhils) lie
scattered throughout the District, the chief of which, the Daleganj jW,


has a length of about 3 miles. The reeds and grasses which grow on
the surface of these lakes and marshes, are cut by the villages for cattle
fodder or for thatching purposes. A low belt of porous and somewhat
marshy clay, intervening between the bhur and the valley of the Mahawa,
probably marks the ancient bed of the Ganges. Kankar, or nodular
limestone, used for road metalling, is quarried at several places in the
District. The only other mineral product is a kind of calcareous marl,
which is burned into lime. Among the wild animals, antelope, hog,
and nilgai are common, and wolves are found on the sandy wastes of
the bMr tract. Black partridge, quail, water-fowl, and hares abound,
while floriken and sand-grouse are occasionally met with. Many
varieties of fish are caught in the rivers and streams.

History.— Budaun owes its name, as the accepted tradition records,
to one Budh, an Ahar prince, who founded the city about the year 905
a.d. His descendants held the surrounding tract for another century,
and Ahars still form the principal element of the population through-
out all the wilder portions of the District. In 1028, Sayyid Salar
Masaiid Ghazi, nephew of Sultan Mahmiid of Ghazni, invaded the
country now known as Rohilkhand, and established himself for a time
in Budaun. He suffered many losses, however, during his struggle
with its Hindu possessors, and eventually abandoned his conquest,
leaving many of his followers behind. In n 96, Kutab-ud-din Aibak,
Ghiyas-ud-din's viceroy in India, captured the fort of Budaun, killed
the Raja, and sacked the city. Shams-ud-dfn Altamsh obtained the
government of the new dependency, which he exchanged in 12 10 for
the throne of Delhi. Under his successors, Budaun ranked as a place
of great importance ; and in 1236 gave a second Emperor to Delhi, in
the person of Rukn-ud-din, whose handsome mosque, the Jama Masjfd
Shamshi, still adorns the city in which he had been governor. During
the 13th and 14th centuries, the annals of Budaun are confined to the
usual local insurrections and bloody repressions, which form the staple
of Indian history before the advent of the Mughals. In 141 5, Mahabat
Khan, the governor, rose in rebellion, and the Emperor Khizr Khan
marched against him in vain. After a reign of eleven years' duration
the rebellious vassal was compelled in 1426 to surrender to Mubarak
Shah, Khizr Khan's successor. Alam Shah visited the city in i 4 49 5
and during his stay, his Wazir joined with Bahlol Lodi in depriving
him of all his dominions except Budaun, which he was permitted to
retain until his death in 1479. His son-in-law, Husain Shah of Jaunpur
then took possession of the District; but Bahlol Lodi soon compelled
the intruder to restore it to the Delhi Empire. After the estabhshmen
of the Mughal power, Humayun appointed governors of Sambha and
Budaun ; but they disagreed, and the Sambhal governor, having taken
Budaun by siege, put his rival to death. Under the administrative


organization of Akbar, Budaun was formed in 1556 into a Sarkar
of Subah Delhi, which was granted as a fief to Kasim AH Khan. In
157 1, a great fire consumed the larger part of the city; and in Shah
Jahan's time the seat of Government was removed to Bareilly (Bareli).
The rise of the Rohilla power, which centred in the latter town,
accelerated the decline of Budaun. In 1719, during the reign of
Muhammad Shah, Muhammad Khan Bangash annexed the south-
eastern portion of the District, including the city, to Farukhabad,
while the Rohillas under Ali Muhammad seized upon the remainder.
In 1754, however, the Rohillas recovered the par ga fids which had been
united to Farukhabad. Their subsequent history, and their subjuga-
tion by the Wazir of Oudh, belong more properly to the account of
Bareilly (Bareli) District. Diindi Khan of Budaun made his
peace with Shuja-ud-daula before the defeat of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, the
national leader, at Miranpur Katra in 1774; but after that event the
Wazir attacked him, notwithstanding his submission, and took posses-
sion of Budaun.

In 1801, the District passed with the rest of Rohilkhand under
British rule. Originally, it formed part of Moradabad District ; but in
1805, four of its pargands were transferred to Bareilly, namely, Ujhani,
Usahat, Budaun, and Kot Salbahan. In 1823, a District of Sahaswan
was erected into a separate charge, comprising portions of Moradabad,
Bareilly, and Aligarh. Fifteen years later, the head-quarters were trans-
ferred to Budaun, a larger and more important post than Sahaswan.
In 1845, tne Aligarh pargands lying beyond the Ganges were handed
over to the Doab District of Etah, to w T hich they more naturally belong.
Since that period no territorial changes have taken place. The Mutiny
of 1857 alone breaks in upon the peaceful course of civil administra-
tion. News of the outbreak at Meerut reached Budaun on 15th May.
A fortnight later, the treasure guard mutinied, plundered the treasury,
and broke open the jail. The civil officers then found themselves
compelled to leave for Fatehgarh. On the 2nd of June, the Bareilly
mutineers marched in, and on the 1 7th, Abdul Rahim Khan assumed
the government of the District. As usual, disturbances broke out
between the Hindus and the Musalman leaders ; and in July and
August, the Muhammadans fought two regular battles with the Thakurs,
whom they completely defeated. At the end of August several European
fugitives crossed the Ganges into the District, and w T ere protected at
Dataganj by the landholders. After the fall of Walidad Khan's fort
at Malagarh, that rebel chieftain passed into Budaun in October, but
found it advisable to proceed to Fatehgarh. On the 5th of November,
the Musalmans defeated the Ahars at Gunaur, and took possession of
that tahsil, hitherto held by our police. Towards the close of January
1858, the rebels, under Niaz Muhammad, marched against Fatehgarh,


but were met by Sir Hope Grant's force at Shamsabad and utterly
dispersed. Niaz Muhammad then returned to Budaun. On the 27th
of April, General Penny's force defeated the rebels at Kakrala, but the
General himself was killed in the action ; while Major Gordon fell upon
them in the north, near Bisauli. Their leaders fled to Bareilly, and
managers were at once appointed to the various pargands on behalf
of the British Government. By the 12th of May, Budaun came
once more into our hands, though Tantia Topi with his fugitive army
afterwards crossed this portion of Rohilkhand into Oudh, on the 27th.
Brigadier Coke's column entered the District on the 3rd of June, and
Colonel Wilkinson's column from Bareilly on the 8th. Order was then
permanently restored, and has not since been menaced.

Population. — The Census of 1881 showed a slight decrease as com-
pared with the previous enumeration in 1872. In 1872, the population
was returned at 934,670; and in 1881 (the area being the same) at
906,451, showing a decrease of 28,219, or 3*11 per cent, in the 9 years.
The Census of 1881 was taken over an area of 2001 square miles; it
disclosed a total population of 906,451 persons, distributed among
1834 villages or townships, and inhabiting 102,902 houses. From
these data the following averages may be deduced : — Persons per
square mile, 452*8; villages per square mile, 0-91 ; houses per square
mile, 51*4; persons per village, 489 ; persons per house, 8'8. Classified
according to sex, there were— males, 487,351; females, 419,100; pro-
portion of males, 5378 per cent. As regards religious distinctions, the
Hindus numbered 767,255, or 84*6 per cent.; while the Musalmans
amounted to only 138,687, or 15-3 per cent. The proportion of
Muhammadans is smaller in Budaun than in any other District of
Rohilkhand, except Shahjahanpur. The Census also returned 160
persons Jains, 40 Sikhs, and 309 Christians or ' others.' Among the
various Hindu castes, Brahmans numbered 60,863; Rajputs, 63,562;
Baniyas, or trading class, 32,480; Ahars, graziers on the bhitr tract,
the predominant caste in the District, 133,085 ; Chamars, landless
agriculturists, who have emerged under British rule from the position
of serfs, 122,085; Gadarias, or shepherd caste, 27,811; Kachhis,
cultivators, 107,230; Kahars, labourers and palanquin-bearers, 37,146;
Kayasths, 9778; and Kurmis, 6274. The Musalman population com-
prised 66,024 Sunnis, 370 Shias, 7 Wahabis, and 107 of unspecified
denominations. The total agricultural population of all ages and both
sexes amounted to 672,773. As regards the occupations of the people,
the Census report classifies the male population into the following six
main divisions: — (1) Professional class, including Government officials
and the learned professions, 5272; (2) domestic servants, hotel and
lodging-house keepers, etc., 1426; (3) commercial class, including
merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 6079; (4) agricultural and. pastoral

j2o BUD A UN.

class, including gardeners, 248,543 ; (5) manufacturing, artisan, and
other industrial classes, 44,500; (6) indefinite and non-productive
(comprising 23,735 labourers and 157,796 unspecified, including male
children), 181,531. Three predatory races infest the District — the
Bhantus, a Hindu tribe who wander about in large gangs of from 20 to
50 persons, and live entirely by begging and stealing ; the Habiirahs,
also Hindus, who form smaller bands, and occasionally undertake field
work ; and the Sansias, a vagrant Musalman clan who cross over from
the Doab, and bear a bad reputation for kidnapping children. Seven
towns contain a population exceeding 5000 souls — namely, Budaun,

33,680; SAHASWAN, 14,605; UjHANI, 7185; ISLAMNAGAR, 5890 ;

Alapur, 5630; Bilsi, 6301; and Kakrala, 5810. Bisauli, which
had less than 5000 inhabitants at the date of the Census, is also a con-
siderable town, with many fine Pathan buildings, including a handsome
mosque. Of the 1834 towns and villages comprising the District, 543
contain less than two hundred inhabitants ; 741 have from two to five
hundred; 381 from five hundred to a thousand; 133 from one to
two thousand ; 19 from two to three thousand; 10 from three to five
thousand ; 5 from five to ten thousand ; 1 from ten to fifteen thousand ;
and 1 from twenty to fifty thousand inhabitants.

Agriculture. — The District contains 2001 square miles, of which
1370 are cultivated, 381 are cultivable, and 250 are uncultivable. The
fertile upland of Budaun consists of a light loam, merging gradually
into the poor and almost barren sand of the bhur region ; but the
District also comprises considerable fringes of lowland, known as khddir
and^ tardi. The khddir is composed of porous clay, capable of pro-
ducing two crops a year for many seasons in succession ; it occupies
the deserted channel of the Ganges, where water may always be found
at a few feet below the surface. It is specially adapted for rice, which
is always grown for the autumn harvest ; while barley and wheat follow
immediately as spring crops. The tardi comprises the modern alluvial
fringe along the present beds of the Ganges and the Ramganga. The
valley of the former river contains several large patches of iisar land,
whitened by the destructive saline efflorescence known as reh, whicli
appears upon the surface after inundations or heavy rain. The mode
of tillage does not differ from that of other North-Western Districts.
lhe kharif or ^ autumn crops include cotton, indigo, sugar-cane, rice,
joar bajra, and moth; the rain or spring crops consist chiefly of wheat,
barley, oats, peas, and other cereals or pulses. There is no canal
irrigation in the District, the fields being watered either from wells,
akes ponds, swamps, or rivers; about 24 per cent, of the entire culti-
vated area is ^gated in this manner. Manure is not employed for

immecnrr ^^Tf Sta P les > but is ^piously applied to the lands
immediately around the villages, which produce poppy, tobacco, ve^e-


tables and other choice crops. The ordinary modes of personal and
communal tenure exist in Budaun, divisible into the three chiei heads
of zaminddri, pattiddri, and bhdyachdrd. The Rajputs are the great
landowning caste, and they hold in all 622 estates. The Shaikh
Musalmans rank next with 346 estates, and the Ahars third with 194-
Where many small proprietors exist, the owner often cultivates the
whole, or nearly the whole, of his land ; but, as a rule, the greater
portion is leased to cultivating tenants. Out of the total cultivated
area of 891,189 acres, 139,106 acres are held by the proprietors as sir
or homestead ; while 561,212 acres are tilled by tenants with rights of
occupancy, and 190,871 acres by tenants-at-will. The average area
cultivated in 188 1 by each head of the agricultural population (672,773,
or 74-22 per cent, of the District population) was 172 acres; the
amount of Government land revenue and cesses levied from the land-
holders was £122,9441 ™ d the amount of rental, including cesses paid
bv the cultivators, was ,£236,540, or an average of 5s. 2jd. for eacli
cultivated acre. Besides the rent, however, the income of the landlord
receives considerable additions from the customary dues or cesses
which tenants present upon certain stated occasions. Each agncultur al
tenant must supply a measure of bran in the spring, and a bundle ot
fodder in the autumn ; he must plough his landlord's fields twice a
year at the festivals of Holt and Dasahdra, and must lend his cart to
carry home the harvest. In like manner, the oilman must offer a jar
of oil, the tanner a pair of shoes, and the potter 50 earthen vessels a
year- while the tailor is similarly bound to make four suits of clothes
for his landlord, who supplies the cloth, but pays nothing for the labour
These dues give the proprietor great social consequence as the cniet
personage in his own village; and the tenants in return expect from
him many favours, which would not be shown if they were remiss in
discharging their customary obligations. The situation of Budaun
lying apart from the busy channels of trade, has produced a less rapid
rise in prices and wages than has occurred in many neighbouring
Districts! The construction of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway
however, has greatly added to the facilities for distributing the local
produce, and rents and prices have both felt the influence of this
important change. Coolies and unskilled labourers receive from
2 i d to i2d. per diem; agricultural labourers, zjd. to 3d. per diem ;
and bricklayers or carpenters, 6d. to is. per diem. The prices current
of food-stuffs ruled as follows in 1880: Wheat, 15 sers per rupee, or
7 s. 6d. per cwt.; rice (best), 6 sers per rupee, or iSs. 8d. per cwt ; nee
(common), i 4 f sers per rupee, or 7 s. 8d. per cwt ; jodr, .1 sers per
rupee, or 5* 4 d. per cwt. ; bdjrd, i8| sers per rupee or 6s. id. per cwt

Natural Calamtiies. -YXoote on the Ganges and Mahawa occu to
greater or less extent every year; and when they rise unusually high or


late, much of the autumn crop is carried away. The loss, however, is
not considerable, as the banks of these rivers are lined with jungle, and
only occasionally cultivated by speculative proprietors. But Budaun
suffers greatly from drought, the common scourge of all Upper India.
The first recorded famine occurred in the year 1761, when many of the
people died, and large numbers emigrated. The next severe scarcity
took place in 1803-04, when the autumn crops utterly failed, and the
spring harvest was far below the average. In the great famine of
1837-38, Budaun suffered the extreme of misery, thousands died of
starvation, grain rose to unattainable prices, and the police found them-
selves powerless for the preservation of order. In i860, the autumn
crops again failed, and no rain fell after September ; the spring sowings
accordingly perished, and many persons died of starvation. The price
of grain began to rise in August i860, and continued high till March
1 86 1, when it gradually fell, and in October ordinary rates once more
prevailed. In 1868, the rains partially failed, and distress arose in
1869, as the autumn harvest had only produced half its average yield;
but timely showers in January and February 1869 prevented the scarcity
from ever reaching famine pitch, although relief operations on an
extended scale became necessary.

Commerce, etc. — The trade of Budaun, which is chiefly confined to
agricultural produce, centres in the three towns of Budaun, Sahaswax,
and Bilsi. The last-named mart forms the main distributing agency
for European goods and imported wares in this part of Rohilkhand.
Its imports include chintz, salt, groceries, iron, metal-work, and /#'///
while its exports consist chiefly of sugar, grain, and leather. The only
manufacturing industries, apart from the simplest forms of weaving, the
making of rough agricultural tools, and of brass or earthen domestic
vessels, is indigo manufacture and sugar-refining. The principal seat
of the former is at Bilsi, where a European firm has a large factory,
with branches in other parts of the District. A great fair takes place
at Kakora, on the last day of Kartik, attended by about 100,000
persons. Other large fairs are held at Chaopur (20,000 visitors), Suk-
hela (10,000), Lakhanpur (7000), and Bara Chirra (5000). The. Oudh
and Rohilkhand Railway cuts the District in two places. The main
line from Bareilly (Bareli) to Chandausi traverses the north-eastern
angle for a length of 16 miles, with 3 stations — namely, Karengi (better
known as Mahmiidpur), Dabtiira, and Asafpur. The Moradabad and
Aligarh branch runs through the north-western corner for a distance of
13 miles to Rajghat on the Ganges, where it crosses the river by an
iron bridge. The two stations on this branch of the line are Balrala
and Dhanari. Good roads connect all the principal centres of popula-
tion ; the most important being that from Bareilly to Hathras, through
Budaun and Ujhani, crossing the Ganges at Kachhlaghat by a bridge

BUDAUy. 123

of boats. Four other similar bridges exist at Aniipshahr, Rajghat,
Kadirchauk, and Surajpurghat— the last two on the Etah and Fateh-
garh roads respectively. The Ganges is navigable throughout the year
for boats of large burthen.

Administration. — The District staff usually comprises a Collector-
Magistrate, 1 Joint and 1 Assistant Magistrate, 1 Deputy Magistrate,
and S tahsilddrs. The Judge of Shahjahanpur holds civil jurisdiction
over the entire District ; the criminal jurisdiction being under the
charge of the additional Judge of Bijnaur and Budaun ; the Judge of
Bareilly has charge of the remainder. Four munsifs courts are also
established at East and West Budaun, Sahaswan, and Bisauli. The
whole amount of revenue — imperial, municipal, and local — raised in
the District in 1876, amounted to ,£149,908, of which ,£102,914, or
a little more than two-thirds, was contributed by the land-tax. In
1S80-81, the imperial revenue amounted to ^120,544, of which
,£103,625 was derived from the land; the cost of officials and police
of all kinds, in the same year, was ,£20,644. The regular police force
in 1880 numbered 393 officers and men, besides a municipal'or town
force of 222 men of all ranks, maintained at a total cost of ,£6804, of
which ^5490 was contributed from provincial and ,£1314 from local
funds. In addition, there were 2031 village watchmen (c/iaitkiddrs),
maintained at an estimated cost of ^7335. The District contains but
one jail, which had a daily average of 379 prisoners in 1881, including
14 females. There were 7 Imperial and 11 District post-offices in
1877, besides 5 telegraph stations on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Rail-
way. The number of Government aided or inspected schools in
1881-82 was 160, with a roll of 4239 pupils on 31st March 1882.
This is exclusive of unaided or uninspected schools. The Census
Report returned 4828 boys and 225 girls as under instruction in 18S1,
besides 12,475 males and 211 females as able to read and write, but
not under instruction. The Government District school is of the
lower middle grade, and has a boarding-house attached, for boys from
a distance. There are aided schools under the superintendence of
the American Methodist Episcopal Mission. For fiscal and adminis-
trative purposes, the District is divided into 5 tahsils and 1 1 pargamis,
containing, at the date of settlement in 1870, an aggregate number of
2140 estates, held by 30,104 registered proprietors or coparceners.
Municipalities have been established at Budaun, Bilsi, Ujhani, and
Sahaswan. In 1880-81, their joint revenue amounted to ,£3252, or
is. 4jd per head of population (51,690) within municipal limits.

Medical Aspects.— The climate of Budaun resembles that of other
Districts in Rohilkhand, being somewhat cooler and moister than the
adjacent portions of the Doab, owing to the greater proximity of
the hills and the damp submontane tract. The average rainfall


during 31 years has amounted to 32*49 inches per annum. The
maximum during this period was 44*2 inches in 187 1, and the minimum
14*0 inches in 1868, when the danger of famine was imminent. The
mean annual temperature reached 76 F. in 187 1, with a maximum
monthly average of 91° in June, and a minimum of 5 8° F. in January.
The total number of deaths recorded in the year 1880 was 24,951, or
27-52 per thousand of the population. Charitable dispensaries have
been established at Budaun, Sahaswan, Gunraur, Islamnagar, Bisauli,
Dataganj, Usehat, and Bilsi. These eight institutions afforded relief
in 1881 to 60,172 persons, of whom 1624 were in-door patients. [For
further information regarding Budaun District, seethe Gazetteer of the
North-Weslem Provinces, vol. v. pp. 1-236 (Allahabad, 1879). Also
the Settlement Report of the District, by C. P. Carmichael, Esq., 1873;
the North-Western Provinces Census Report of 1881 ; and the Annual
Administration Reports from 1880 to 1883.]

Budaun. — Head-quarters tahsil of Budaun District, North-Western
Provinces, lying along the northern bank of the Ganges, and com-
prising the pargands of Budaun and Ujhani. Area, 466 square
miles, of which 309 are under cultivation. Population (1881) 222,312.
Land revenue, ,£21,337: total revenue, ^24,210; rental paid by
cultivators, ^55,340. The Sub-division contains 2 civil and 6 criminal
courts, with two police stations (thdnds) ; strength of regular police, 56
men; village watchmen {cliaukiddrs), 326.

Budaun. — City, municipality, and administrative head-quarters of
Budaun District, North-Western Provinces. Lat. 2 8° 2 30" n., long.
79° 9' 45" e. Lies about a mile east of the left bank of the river Sot,
and consists of an old and a new town. The former stands on a com-
manding eminence, and contains the fort, the ruins of whose enormous
ramparts of early architecture gird it round on three sides. Handsome
mosque, originally a Hindu temple, built of massive stone, and crowned
by a dome of singular beauty. Besides the usual District Courts, Budaun
contains a dispensary, school, municipal hall, jail, church, and chapel of
the American Methodist Mission, which maintains several girls' schools
in different parts of the town. Although intersected at all points by

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