William Wilson Hunter.

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good metalled roads, the town stands apart from the modern course of
traffic, owing to the growth of railways, which have somewhat diverted
its trade. Population (1881) 33,680, namely, 19,492 Muhammadans,
14,134 Hindus, and 54 Christians; area of town site, 415 acres. Muni-
cipal income (1881-82) ^2211, or an average of is. 3|d. per head
of the population. Budaun was founded, according to tradition, by
Budh, an Ahar prince, about 905 a.d., and held by his descendants
till the invasion of Sayyid Salar Masaud Ghazi, nephew of Mahmiid
of Ghazni, in 1028. Sacked by Kutab-ud-din in 1186. The city
formed the seat of government for a sarkdr under the Pathans and


Mughals, but it was almost entirely destroyed by fire in 157 1. During
the reign of Shah Jahan (1627-1658), the seat of the Governorship was
removed from Budaun to Bareilly. On the death of the Emperor
Farukh Siyyar in 17 19, the Nawab of Farukhabad seized the city, from
whose son it was wrested about thirty years later, by the Rohillas
under Hafiz Rahmat. In 1774, Budaun, with the rest of Rohilkhand,
was annexed by the Nawab Wazir of Oudh, whose deputies governed
the city till its cession to the British in 1801. On the outbreak of
the rebellion in May 1857, the treasury guard at Budaun mutinied,
and being joined by the townspeople, broke open the jail, and burned
the civil station. A Native Government was then established, and
remained in power till General Penny's victory at Kakrala in the follow-
ing April, when the rebel governor fled the city, and order was again

Buddh Gaya (or Bodh Gay a). — Village in Gaya District, Bengal.
Lat. 24 41' 45" N., long. 85 2 4" e. Situated about 6 miles south of
Gaya town, on the west bank of the Phalgu or Nilajan river, just above
its junction with the Mohana. The ruins at this place are among the
most interesting and famous in India, for it is acknowledged to have
been the dwelling-place of Sakya Muni or Buddha, the princely founder
of the Buddhist religion, who flourished in the 6th century before the
Christian era. According to General Cunningham, Buddha had ascended
a mountain to the south-east of Gaya, called Pragbodhi, for the purpose
of dwelling in silent solitude on its summit ; but being disturbed by the
tremblings caused by the flight of the god of the mountain, he descended
on the south-west side, and went 2 J miles to thepipal tree (Ficus religiosa)
ai Buddh Gaya. Midway in the descent, there was a cave (mentioned
by the Chinese pilgrim Fa Hian) where Buddha rested with his legs
crossed. Under the pipal tree the sage sat in mental abstraction for
five years, until he obtained Buddha-hood— absolute enlightenment.
This celebrated bodhi drum, or Tree of Wisdom, has long ago dis-
appeared ; but a lineal descendant of the famous fig is now within the
courtyard of the great temple, and is reverenced as the sacred tree
itself both by Hindus and Buddhists, many of the latter coming from
Nepal, Arakan, Burma, and Ceylon on pilgrimage to the holy spot.
To the east is a massive brick temple, described below. The rdjdsthdn
or palace in the northern portion of the ruins, now partially restored,
measures 1482 feet by 1006 in its greatest dimensions ; it was probably
the residence of the Buddhist King Asoka (250 B.C.), and his successors
on the throne of Magadha. Immediately south of the palace, and
on the spot where Buddha sat under the sacred pipal tree, in the 6th
century B.C., King Asoka built a small temple, circa 250 B.C. Recent-
explorations have brought to light remains of this ancient shrine buried
under the foundations of the existing one, which was built by a Burmese


king in the early years of the 14th century a.d. on the site of Asoka's
early vihar, described by Hwen Thsang.

The temple of the 14th century fell in its turn into decay, and
its ruins have become the subject of antiquarian research. General
Cunningham has published the results of his labours in the Journal of
the Archaeological Survey. A few years ago, the Burmese Government
attempted a restoration of the great temple, but without success. The
Bengal Government thereupon undertook the work, and placed it in
the hands of Mr. J. D. Beglar, who has kindly furnished the following
description of this celebrated shrine. The existing temple of Buddh
Gaya consists externally of a tall spire about 47 feet square at the base,
rising from a terrace 80 feet long by 78 feet wide. The terrace itself
is 30 feet high, and the spire, without the pinnacle, rises to a height of
nearly 160 feet above the floor below. The tower is hollow, and con-
sists of four tiers of chambers, the two lower chambers of which have
been always accessible. A third chamber has long been visible, owing
to the falling off of the masonry in front ; and the existence of a fourth,
reaching to the very top of the square portion of the tower, was
disclosed during the recent repairs. The lowest chamber originally
enshrined a clay figure of Buddha, which was demolished by the
Burmese during the repairs they undertook in 1878, and replaced by
a misshapen gilt brick and mortar figure. This has in its turn been
removed and replaced by the largest stone figure of Buddha that could
be found in Buddh Gaya. The figure rests on a great raised throne of
stone, which itself encloses and buries a more ancient small throne,
within which were found deposits of precious stones which have
been placed in the Museum at Calcutta.

The upper chamber contains a masonry throne, also enclosing an
inner and smaller one, but it has been always empty. The temple
was enclosed within what is known as the Buddhist railing, portions
of which were found buried beneath the accumulated debris of cen-
turies, and have been as far as possible set up in their original positions.
The character of the inscriptions, as well as the boldness and style of
the sculptured scenes and ornamentations, indicate the date of the
construction of the railing to be the 3rd century B.C. Several pillars
of this interesting railing were, however, carried off many years ago by
the mahant or head priest of the adjacent monastery, and now support
the verandah round the great quadrangle of the mahanfs residence.

Within the court of the temple, remains of all the ancient buildings
mentioned by Hwen Thsang have been found buried under an
accumulation of rubbish to a depth of nearly 30 feet in places. The
outside of the wall of the great monastery, adjoining and to the north
of the great temple, mentioned by Hwen Thsang, has also been
exhumed and found in a fair state of preservation. It is adorned with


iJiches and sculptured figures, mostly, however, in fragments. Excava-
tions to the south of the temple have brought to light a handsome
light of stone steps leading into what was a tank, with remains of
ornamental cloisters on the north bank. On the east, and in front of
the temple, besides numerous minor objects of interest, the remains
have been exhumed of a stone gateway consisting of very massive
pillars and architraves profusely ornamented. On the west side of the
temple, the fall of a wall in 1880 disclosed the original back wall of the
temple. Buried 30 feet under the debris, a handsomely ornamented
throne was found, in the vicinity of which were fragments very much
decayed, of the holy pipal tree. The accumulation of rubbish has
caused the elevation of the modern representative of this ancient pipal
to a height of 45 feet above the original plan of the courtyard. A
deposit of precious stones was also found here within a plaster figure
of Buddha, which was seated in a niche immediately over the throne.
These relics, too, have been placed in the Calcutta Museum.

Pilgrims visit Buddh Gaya by thousands, and deposit their offerings
under the sacred pipal tree ; but since the abolition of the fees
formerly levied, the exact number cannot be accurately estimated.
Close by the temple is a large convent of Sanyasis, the mahant or
abbot of which shows visitors over the convent after they have visited
the temple.

Buddh Gaya is now easily reached by the Patna and Gaya State line,
which leaves the East India Railway at Bankipur, and brings pilgrims
to Gaya station six miles by road from the Buddh Gaya shrines.

Buddhain (or Buddhavana; ' Fo-tho-fa-na ' of Hwen Thsang).
— Hill in Gaya District, Bengal; 17 miles north-east of Kurkihar
village. Lat. 25° n., long. 85 ° 31' e. On account of its commanding
position, it was made one of the stations of the great Trigonometrical

Buddri. — Town in Partabgarh (Pratapgarh) District, Oudh. — See

Budge-Budge. — Village in Twenty-four Parganas District, Bengal.
— See Baj-Baj.

Budhana (or Burlidna). — South-western tahsil of Muzaffarnagar Dis-
trict, North-Western Provinces, lying between the West Kali Xadi and
the Jumna, and traversed by the Hindan river and the Eastern Jumna
Canal. Area, 286 square miles, of which 215 are cultivated. Population
(1881) 169,650; land revenue, ^28,896; total revenue, ^£31,849;
rental paid by cultivators, ^72,047. The tahsil contains 2 criminal
courts; but in civil matters the jurisdiction is vested in the fftunsif oi
Shamli. Three police stations (thdnds)\ strength of regular police. 36
men ; municipal or town police, 48; village watchmen (chaukidars), 236.

Budhana.— Town in Budhana tahsil, Muzaffarnagar District, North-


Western Provinces, and head-quarters of Budhana tahsil. Situated on
the right bank of the river Hindan, distant from Muzaffarnagar t 9
miles south-west. Lat. 29° 16' 50" N., long. 77° 31' 10" E. ; population
(1S81) 6232, namely, 3937 Hindus, 2251 Musalmans, 43 Jains, and
1 unspecified. A small municipal income is derived from a house-tax
for police and conservancy purposes under the provisions of Act xx.
of 1856. The outer walls of the houses adjoin each other so as to form
a kind of fortification, through which four openings, called gates, give
access to the town. Bazar, first -class police station, post-office.
Malarious fever occasionally prevails. During the Mutiny the old fort
of Budhana was occupied by Khairati Khan of Parasauli, with the
assistance of the Jaula people, but recovered on the 15th of September

Budhata.— Village in Khulna District, Bengal. Lat. 22 37' n.,

long. 89 12' e. Once a very flourishing place, and still a considerable

trading village. In 1857 it contained a police station, salt warehouse

(gold), landholder's revenue court, and many rice granaries ; markets

were held twice a week. Ruins of extensive masonry buildings are

visible, and there is a set of 12 temples dedicated to Siva, called

Dwadas mandir. Annual fairs are held at the Hindu festivals of the

Rds-jdtrd, Durgd-pujd, and Kdli-pujd.

Budhpur. — Village in Manbhiim District, Bengal ; situated on the
Kasai (Cossye) river. Lat. 22 58' 15" n., long. 86° 44' e. Extending
for two miles along the bank are several ruins of what are thought to be
Jain temples. A number of carved slabs of stone are scattered about ;
and an extensive collection of octagonal headstones is believed to
mark the graves of the early settlers. About four miles to the north,
at Pakbira, is a group of temples with a colossal figure, about 9 feet
high, supposed to represent one of the Tirthankaras or deified saints
of the Jains.

Budihal. — Taluk in Chitaldrug (Chitaldroog) District, Mysore
Native State. Contains 6 hoblis, with 164 primary and 54 secondary
villages. Area, 369 square miles; population (1872) 37,337. Land
revenue (1880-81), exclusive of water-rates, ^5302. Cocoa-nut palms
are largely grown. Head-quarters at Huliyar.

Budihal. — Village in Budihal idluk, Chitaldrug District, Mysore
Native State, and formerly head-quarters of the Budihal taluk. Lat.
13 37' n., long. 76 28' e. ; population (1872) 821. The fort, erected
by an official under the Vijayanagar dynasty, contains several inscrip-
tions of the 1 6th century. It suffered during the wars between the
Muhammadans and Marathas. and is now in a ruinous state. It
was one of the last places at which the insurgents held out during the
disturbance of 1830. The head-quarters of the taluk of the same name
have been transferred to Huliyar.


Biidikot ('Fort of Ashes'). — Village in Kolar District, M
Native State. Lat. 12 54' 40" N., long. 78 9' 50" k. ; population
(1881) 1266. Birthplace of Haidar Ali, who was born in 1722, when
his father, Fateh Muhammad Khan, was living at Biidikot as Faujdar
of Kolar under the Nawab of Sira. Small fair held weekly on Mondays,
attended by 100 persons.

Buffalo Rocks {Liep Kywon, or 'Turtle Island').— Lat. 16° 19' to
1 6° 22' N., long. 94° 12' e., bearing nearly S.£w. from Calventura Rocks,
and distant therefrom 10 or 11 leagues. A group of rugged detached
rocks extending nearly north and south for 3 miles, and lying off the
coast, 29 miles from shore, bearing north from the western extremity of
Cape Negrais, British Burma. The North Buffalo is about half a mile
to the south-west of South Buffalo Island, and separated from it by
the Perforated and Pillar Rocks. On the west side of the rocks the
soundings are regular— 20 fathoms about a mile from them, and 50 or
60 fathoms at 5 leagues distant.

Blikera. — Village in Alahyar-jo-Tando taluk, Haidarabad District,
Sind, Bombay Presidency ; 18 miles east from Haidarabad. Popula-
tion about 700, chiefly Musalmans, engaged in agriculture, trade, and
fishing. There are four tombs here held in some repute by the Musal-
man community ; one, that of Shaikh Banapotra, is said to be 500
years old ; another, Pir Fazl Shah's, 400 years old. A fair is held at
these tombs twice a year, and is attended by thousands of Musalmans.

Bukkacherla.— Village in Anantapur District, Madras Presidency.
The site of an important water project in connection with the Tiingab-
hadra irrigation system. This project, now completed, consists of
anicuts across the Pennar and Badrapurnala rivers; a canal 18 miles in
length and 52 yards broad, with an average depth of 7 feet of water, to
feed the Anantapur, Singanamalla, Kondapiir, and Penir tanks ; and a
great reservoir in the place of the present Bukkacherla tank ; erected at
a cost of ^135,150; irrigates about 11,000 acres of waste land, which
now yields in land revenue ^6400 per annum.

Bukkapatnam— Town in Anantapur District, Madras Presidency ;
situated on the Trunk Road from Bangalore to Bellary. Population
(1881) 3680 The station of a sub-magistrate and police force.
Besieged in 1740 by the Palegar of Raidrug. The Palegar of Bellary
raised the siege, and, having been admitted as an ally within the forti-
fications, seized the place. The tank here is the largest in the District,
and possesses some historical interest. It is formed by a dam, erected
400 years ago across the Chitravati river, connecting the two low
ranges of hills which flank that stream, and irrigates 3500 acres, yielding
^2100 per annum in land revenue.

Bukkarayasamudram.- Village in Anantapur District, Madras
Presidency.— See Bakkarayasamudram.



Bukkur (Bakhar).— Fortified island in the river Indus, lying be-
tween the towns of Sukkur (Sakhar) and Rohri, in Shikarpur District,
Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 27 42' 45" n., and long. 68° 56' 30" A
Bukkur is a rock of limestone, oval in shape, 800 yards long, 300 wide,
and about 25 feet in height. The channel separating it from the Sukkur
shore is not more than 100 yards wide, and, when the river is at its
lowest, about 15 feet deep in the middle. The eastern channel, or that
which divides it from Rohri, is much broader, being, during the same
state of the river, about 400 yards wide, with a depth of 30 feet in the
middle. The Government telegraph line from Rohri to Sukkur crosses
the river here by the island of Bukkur. A little to the north of Bukkur,
and separated from it by a narrow channel of easy passage, is the small
isle of Khwaja Khizr (or Jind Pir), containing a shrine of much
sanctity ; while to the south of Bukkur is another islet known as Sadh
Bela, well covered with foliage, and also possessing some sacred shrines.
Almost the whole of the island of Bukkur is occupied by the fortress,
the walls of which are double, and from 30 to 35 feet high, with nume-
rous bastions ; they are built partly of burnt and unburnt brick, are
loopholed, and have two gateways, one facing Rohri on the east, and
the other Sukkur on the west. The fort presents a fine appearance
from the river, and has a show of great strength, which in reality it does
not possess. Until 1876, Bukkur was used as a jail subsidiary to that
at Shikarpur. That Bukkur, owing to its insulated position, must
always have been considered a stronghold of some importance under
Native rule, is evidenced by its being so frequently a bone of conten-
tion between different states. So early as a.d. 1327, when Sind was
an appanage of the Delhi Empire, Bukkur seems to have been a place
of note, from the fact of trustworthy persons being employed by the
Emperor Muhammad Tughlak to command there. During the reign
of the Samma princes, this fort seems to have changed hands several
times, being occasionally under their rule, and at times under that of
Delhi. During the reign of Shah Beg Arghiin, the fortifications of
Bukkur appear to have been partially, if not wholly, rebuilt, the fort
of Alor being broken up to supply the requisite material. In 1574,
the place was delivered up to one Keshii Khan, a servant of the
Mughal Emperor Akbar Shah. In 1736, the fortress fell into the
hands of the Kalhora princes, and at a subsequent date into that of the
Afghans, by whom it was retained till captured by Mir Rustam Khan
of Khairpur. In 1839, during the First Afghan war, the fort of Bukkur
was ceded by the Khairpur Mirs to the British, to be occupied by
them, and it so remained till the conquest of the Province in 1843.
Bukkur was the principal British arsenal in Sind during the Afghan
and Sind campaigns.

Bulandshahr. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the


North-Western Provinces, lying between 28' 3' 30" and 28' 42' 45" n.
Kit., and between 77 20' and 78° 31' 45 ° e. long. Area (1881) 19 14-9
square miles; population, 924,822. Bulandshahr is a District of the
Meerut (Mirath or Merath) Division. It is bounded on the north by
Meerut District; on the west by the river Jumna; on the south by
Aligarh ; and on the east by the Ganges. The administrative head-
quarters are, on account of its central situation, at the town of Buland-
shahr, but Khurja is the most populous city in the District.

Physical Aspects. — Bulandshahr forms a portion of the Doab, or allu-
vial plain, enclosed between the Ganges and the Jumna, and presents
the usual sameness which characterizes all parts of that monotonous
tract. Its surface exhibits to the eye an almost uniform level of
cultivated soil, stretching from one great boundary river to the other,
with a scarcely perceptible watershed in its centre separating their
respective tributaries. The plain follows the general slope of the Doab
from north-west to south-east, as indicated by the courses of the two
main streams themselves, no less than by those of the minor channels.
The average elevation is about 650 feet above the sea. Shortly before
reaching the bed of either arterial river, the central plateau descends
abruptly by a series of terraces, scored with deeply-cut ravines, into the
khddir or low-lying alluvial valley which forms the actual bank. The
upland plain, here as elsewhere throughout the Doab, is naturally dry
and barren, intersected by sandy ridges, and rapidly drained by small
watercourses, which have excavated for themselves a network of petty
gorges in the loose and friable soil. But this unpromising region has
been turned into a garden of cereals, cotton, and dye-plants by the
industry of its inhabitants and the enterprise of its modern rulers,
especially through the instrumentality of artificial irrigation. The
Ganges Canal passes through the whole length of the District from
north to south, entering in three main branches, one of which again
divides into two near the town of Sikandarabad. The central branch
is navigable throughout the District ; and the whole system is distributed
to the fields around by 626 miles of lesser ramifications. The Fatehgarh
branch of the Lower Ganges Canal also intersects the entire length of
the District, and is largely utilized for irrigation. Under the beneficial
influence of the water so supplied, cultivation has spread widely in
Bulandshahr. There is now little waste land in the District, except a
few patches of worthless jungle in the neighbourhood of the Ganges ;
and even this is rapidly disappearing wherever the soil is sufficiently
good to repay the cost of tillage. There is also comparatively little
barren land known as itsar, covered with the white saline efflorescence
called reh. and incapable of producing any vegetation, and the unprofit-
able area has decreased in Bulandshahr District since the date of the


The Ganges flows along the north-eastern border of the District for
a distance of 45 miles, with a maximum velocity of current in time of
flood of 1 2 feet per second, and a minimum velocity in the cold season
of 3 feet. The river is liable to the formation of shoals, and constant
alterations of its main channel ; its course changes yearly, and large
portions of land on its north-eastern bank are annually cut away and
deposited elsewhere. The south-western bank alters but little, being
protected at many places by strong headlands of hard clay and kankar^
reaching 20 feet above high flood-level ; on the north side of the
river the banks are low and shelving, and at a point near Ahar
during floods the low-lying surrounding country is liable to inunda-
tion. The Ganges is navigable all the year round, but during February
and March the water is often very shallow in places. The second
boundary river, the Jumna, first touches upon the District opposite
Delhi, and then flows along its south-west border for 50 miles, with a
flood velocity of about 4 J feet per second, and a cold weather velocity
of about 18 inches. There is no irrigation from the Jumna, and the
navigation is chiefly confined to the rafting of timber and the transport
of grain and cotton in small quantities. The bed of the river is com-
posed of micaceous silt, and there are no rapids, or even eddies,
except during the rains. Of the internal streams, the Kali Nadi or
Kalindi divides the District into two parts, entering it from Meerut on
the north, and, flowing in a tortuous south and south-easterly direction
for about 50 miles, passes into Aligarh. In Bulandshahr, the Kali
Nadi is little more than a natural drain to carry off the superfluous
water from the surrounding country. It is navigable in the rains by
boats of about 4 tons burthen, but it is seldom, if at all, used for this
purpose. The Hindan also enters this District from Meerut, and after
a winding and irregular course of about 20 miles, falls into the Jumna
at Mangrauli village. It flows between high shelving banks, and is not
a navigable stream. In the hot weather the water is sometimes so low
that not even a small boat could cross it. Other minor streams are
the Karon, Patwai, and Chhoiya.

There are no reserved forests in Bulandshahr, but isolated groves of
various sorts of fruit and timber trees are numerous. The commonest
and most useful tree is the kakar (Acacia arabica), the wood of which
is hard and tough, and used for making agricultural implements, cart-
wheels, boxes, etc., and also for burning into charcoal. Slusham
(Dalbergia sissoo), a well-grained heavy wood, is largely used for beams,
planks, and for articles of furniture. Dhdk (Butea frondosa) is mainly
used for fuel in the shape of charcoal. The country has been much
denuded of trees of late years, owing to the great demand for fuel far
the railway. Salt, saltpetre, and kankar are the only minerals worthy
of notice. The wild animals include hyaenas, wolves, antelopes, hog,


and jackals. The magar and gharial, two species of crocodile, arc
found in the Ganges and Jumna.

History. — The early traditions of the people assert that the modern
1 district of Bulandshahr formed a portion of the great Pandava kingdom
of Hastinapur ; and that, after that city was cut away by the Ganges,
the tract was administered by a Governor who resided at the ancient

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 16 of 56)