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as one of the most important of the Hindu nobility of Bengal. In
the map to the Abb£ Raynal's History of the East and West Indies
(London edition, 1776), ' Bissenpour ' and Calcutta are the only two
cities which appear in large letters in the present Lieutenant-Governor-
ship of Bengal. For further information based on the local records,
see my Annals of Rural Bengal.

Bison Range (native name, Pdpi-Kondd). — The highest part of the
hills which form the northern frontier of Godavan District, Madras
Presidency. Height, about 3000 feet. Situated to the west of the
magnificent gorge by which the Godavari enters the District ; the range
is remarkable for its fine scenery and abundance of large game ; its
sides are clothed with luxuriant teak forest.

Bisrampur— Village in Sargiija State, Chutia Nagpur. Lat. 23 2 .\\,
long. 83 14' 10" e. The residence of the chief, Maharaja Indrajit
Singh. Contains a school supported by the Raja and the principal
landholders. A weekly market is held in the village, attended only by
people living in the immediate neighbourhood.

Bisrampur Coal-Field. — The name given to an area of coal
measure rocks, situated in the eastern portion of the comparatively low-



lying ground in the centre of Sarguja State, Chutia Nagpur. It occupies
an area of about 400 square miles, throughout which, except in the
river-beds or their immediate neighbourhood, and on a few small hills,
no rocks are exposed, a covering of alluvium concealing oil. Good
coal exists in abundance, and in a suitable condition for working, but
borings (which could alone furnish facts sufficiently trustworthy for
estimating the extent and thickness of individual seams, and generally
the total amount of coal existing in the field) have not yet been made.
It is, however, very probable that when the series of railways it is
proposed to construct on and near the Chutia Nagpur plateau, are
completed, that these mines will be extensively worked. A road could
be easily made from the Lohardaga plateau to Sarguja. A detailed
account of the field has been given by Mr. V. Ball, from whose paper,
quoted in the Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xvii. pp. 225-228, the
above information is taken.

Bissau (Baswd). — Town in Shaikhawati District, Jaipur (Jeypore)
State, Rajputana, about 120 miles north-west of Jaipur town. Popu-
lation (1881) 6546, namely, Hindus, 5 121 ; and Muhammadans, 1425.
The town is walled, and possesses a fort of some pretensions ; post-office.
Bissemkatak. — Town in Jaipur (Jeypore) estate, Vizagapatam Dis-
trict, Madras Presidency. Lat. 19 30' 30" n., long. 83 ^^' e. ; houses,
415; population (1881) 1726, principally retainers and servants of the
Tat Raja, the feudatory at the head of the military force of Jaipur. The
only building of any importance is the Raja's fort, an erection of mud.
The inhabitants being suspected of the practice of human sacrifice, this
town was included in the proscribed circle of the Meriah Agency in
1 85 1. — See Jaipur.

Bissemkatak. — One of the 7 Kandh muttas of Vizagapatam District,
Madras Presidency, proscribed by the officers of the Meriah Agency in
1851 as addicted to human sacrifice. It contains 497 villages divided
into 8 sub-muttas — Kanakalddi, Jigada, Sogata, Kojiri, Ambodalu,
Bhangoda, Jagdalpur, and Kutragoda. Situated west of Rayabigi, in
the highly cultivated country of the Deshya or 'outer' Kandhs (as dis-
tinguished from the Kotiya or mountaineer Kandhs, who inhabit only
a few villages), with Bissemkatak, the capital of the Tat Rija, as its
chief town. All the villages are under supervision. The taluk enjoys
considerable trade, exporting grain, tobacco, saffron, mustard and
gingelly seeds, and unrefined sugar in exchange for iron, cloths, and salt.
Biswan. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Sitapur District, Oudh; bounded
north by Nighasan, east by Bahraich, south by Bari, and west by
Sitapur tahsils. Area, 573 square miles, of which 389 are cultivated.
Government land revenue, ^31,432. Population (1881) 246,464,
namely, Hindus, 208,114; Muhammadans, 38,328; Jains, 22. Number
of villages or towns, 508 ; average density of population, 430 per square


mile. The tahsil comprises the 3 pargands of Biswan, Tambaur, and
Kundri (North). The administrative staff consists of a talisilddr and
munsif at Biswan town, and two honorary Assistant-Commissioners at
Mallanpur and Rampur-Muttra. These officers preside over 2 civil and
3 criminal courts; strength of regular police, 62 men; village watch-
men (chaukiddrs), 1049.

Biswan. — Parga?id in Sitapur District, Oudh; bounded on the north
by Laharpur and Tambaur, on the east by Kundri, on the south by Mah-
mudabad and Bari, and on the west by Pirnagar and Khairabdd. The
land in the east of the pargand is very low, and much cut up by small
streams leading to the Chauka, which marks the boundary line. West
of this lies a rich tract of country, always green, owing to the proximity
of water to the surface, and bearing fine crops. A high ridge
of land, which appears to have formed once the right bank of the
Chauka, runs through the pargand. The extreme west lies high.
Area, 220 square miles, or 140,688 acres, of which 98,721 are culti-
vated, and 26,220 cultivable but not under tillage. Of the 215 villages
composing the pargand, 99 are held under tdlukddri and 116 under
zami?iddri tenure: 81 villages are owned by Rajput landlords, 57 by
Muhammadans, 46 by Kayasths, and 29 by Seths. Population (1881)
105,559; average density of population, 479 per square mile.
Bi-weekly markets held in 16 villages.

Biswan. — Town in Sitapur District, Oudh, and head-quarters of
Biswan tahsil and pargand ; 21 miles east of Sitapur, on the road to
Gonda and Faizabad. Lat. 27 29' N„, long. 8i° 2 e. Said to have
been founded about 500 years ago, by an ascetic named Biswanath.
Population (1881), including Jalalpur,. 8148, of whom 4601 are Hindus,
principally Brahmans, or belonging to artisan castes; Muhammadans
number 3525, and Jains 22; area of town site, 355 acres. Municipal
income in 1880-81, ^311, or an average of 9ld. per head of municipal
population. Daily market; annual sales, about ^15,000. Principal
buildings — palace, mosque, tomb, and caravanserai, erected by on' 4
Shaikh Bari; 21 Muhammadan mosques; 17 Hindu temples. The
Government buildings consist of the usual courts, police station, post-
office, registration office, school.

Bithar.— Town in Undo District, Oudh; 10 miles south-east of Unao
town, on the road from that place to Rai Bareli. Lat. 26 25' 20" n\,
long. 8o° 36' 25" e. The head - quarters of the Rawat tribe, who
formerly owned the whole of the large pargand of Harha, in which the
village is situated. Population (1881) 3187, namely, Hindus, 3001 ;
and Muhammadans, 186. Ten Sivaite temples; bi-weekly market;
Government school.

Bithiir (Bithaur). — Town in Cawnpur District, North-Western
Provinces, lying on the south bank of the Ganges, 1 2 miles north-west


of Cawnpur City. Lat. 26 36' 50" n., long. 8o° 19' E. ; population
(1881) 6685, namely, 5970 Hindus and 715 Muhammadans; area of
town site, 217 acres. A small municipal revenue for police and
conservancy purposes is raised under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856.
Picturesque front facing the river, adorned by ghats or bathing steps,
temples, and handsome residences. The principal ghat, built by Raja
Tikait Rai, minister of Ghazi-ud-din Haidar, Nawab of Oudh, with an
imposing Saracenic arcade on its upper platform, is known as the
Brahma ghat, being sacred to that god ; and a bathing fair is held there
on the full moon in November. Baji Rao, the last of the Peshwas,
was banished to Bithur, and had extensive palaces in the town. His
adopted son, Dandhu Panth, better known as the Nana Sahib, was the
instigator of the massacre at Cawnpur. The town was captured
by Havelock's force on the 19th of July 1857, when the Nana's
palaces were utterly destroyed ; but he himself succeeded in making
good his escape. On the 16th of August, after Havelock's first unsuc-
cessful attempt to reach Lucknow, Bithur was once more retaken, and
never again lost. Its population and importance have greatly declined
since the extinction of its local court. Large numbers of Brahmans
reside in the town, and superintend the bathing festivals. A branch of
the Ganges Canal is in course of construction to Bithur.

Bitraganta. — Village in the Kavali taluk, Nellore District, Madras
Presidency. The annual fair held here in honour of Venketeswara-
swami attracts 4000 persons. Weaving forms the chief industry of
the place. Population (1881) 1015, namely, 995 Hindus and 20

Black Pagoda. — Ruined temple in Pun District, Orissa. — See

Blue Mountain. — Principal peak (7100 feet high) in the Yoma
range, at the north-west of Akyab District, British Burma, lat. 22 37'
n., and long. 93 10' e.

Boalmari. — Trading village in Faridpur District, Bengal; situated
on the Barasia river. Lat. 23 23' n., long. 89 48' 30" e. Chief trade —
rice, piece-goods, country cloth, cotton twist and yarn, jute, and tobacco.
The resident population of the village in 1881 was returned at only
in, but the weekly market on Sundays is attended by a large number
of non-residents.

Bobbili. — An estate in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. 1 8° 22' to 1 8° 46' n., long. 83 10' to 83 20' e. ; area, 227 square
miles, containing 178 villages, with 29,023 houses, and (1881) 139,974
inhabitants, almost all Hindus : males, 69,666 ; females, 70,308.
Surrounded by the British taluks of Chipurpalle, Vizianagaram, Saliir,
Palkonda, and Bobbili. It consists of 3 pargauds, Bobbili, Rajam, and
Kavite, and yields to its owner a revenue of ,£37,500 per annum. Of


this, ^8977 is paid to Government as tribute or peshkash. This estate
is one of the most ancient in the Presidency, and possesses an interesting
history. When, in 1652, Sher Muhammad Khan, the Nawab of
Chicacole, entered the District, there followed in his train two rivals —
the one Peddarayudu, the ancestor of the present chief of Bobbili, the
other the ancestor of the Vizianagaram family ; and from this time dates
the rivalry between the two houses. Peddarayudu soon after received,
in reward for gallantry, the estate of Rajam, where he built a fort,
naming it Bobbili (the royal tiger), in honour of his patron's designation,
Sher (tiger). This estate bordered on Vizianagaram, and the ill-feeling
between the chiefs was fomented by constant embroilment. In 1756,
the turbulence of the Poligars called for measures of repression, and
M. Bussy marched with a European force to restore order. On his
reaching Vizianagaram, the Raja assured him that the chief of Bobbili
was the instigator of all disturbances, and to testify his own loyalty,
joined the French with a force of 11,000 men to assist in crushing his
rival. Before attacking him, Bussy offered the chief a pardon for the
past, and lands of equal value elsewhere, if he would abandon his
ancestral estate ; but the offer was refused.

The attack which followed on the fort at Bobbili is one of the
most memorable in Franco - Indian history. At daybreak, the
field-pieces began to play on the mud defences, practicable breaches
were at once made, and the assault sounded. After four hours'
desperate hand-to-hand fighting, Bussy called off his men to allow the
cannon to widen the breaches. A second assault was then ordered, but
with no better results, for not a man had gained footing within the
ramparts, when, five hours later, Bussy again withdrew the storming
party to repeat the argument of artillery. The defenders now recognised
their desperate position, and collecting their wives and families, put
them to death, and returned to their posts. The assault soon recom-
menced ; and when at sunset Bussy entered the fort as victor with the
remnant of his army, it was only because every man of the garrison was
dead or desperately wounded. An old man, however, crept from a hut,
and leading a child to Bussy, presented him as the son of the dead
chief. Four other men had preserved their lives ; and two nights later,
when the Vizianagaram camp was buried in sleep, they crept into the
Raja's tent, and before the sentries had discovered and shot down the
assassins, they had stabbed the Rdja to death with thirty-two wounds.

The child Chinna Ranga Rao, saved from the slaughter, was invested
by Bussy with the chiefship of the lands that had been offered to his
father; but before he attained his majority, his uncle regained by force
of arms the former estate of Rajam. At last the Vizianagaram family
compromised with their rivals, and leased to them the Kavite and
Rajam parga?ids. The old feud, however, again broke out, and the


Bobbili chief fled into the Nizam's country. But in 1794, when the
Vizianagaram estate was dismembered, Chinna Ranga Rao was restored
by the British to his father's domains, and in 180 1 a permanent settle-
ment was concluded with his son at an annual tribute of ^9000. Since
then the peace of the estate has been undisturbed.

Bobbili. — Town in the Bobbili estate, Vizagapatam District, Madras
Presidency. Lat. 18 34' n., long. 83 25' e. ; houses, 3010; popu-
lation (1881) 14,946, namely, 14,545 Hindus, 329 Muhammadans, 38
Christians, and 34 'others.' Situated about 70 miles north-west of
Vizagapatam. As the head-quarters of the taluk, it possesses a sub-
magistrate's court, a sub-registrar's office, dispensary, school, etc. A
fortified enclosure in the centre of the town surrounds the temple and
the residence of the chief. — See Bobbili Estate, supra.

Bod. — The most westerly of the Tributary States of Orissa, lying
between 20 13' and 20 53' 30" n. lat., and between 83 36' 45" and
84 50' e. long. ; area, including the Kandh-mals (under British
administration), 2064 square miles; population (1881)130,103. The
State is bounded on the north by the Mahanadi river, separating it
from Sonpur State in the Central Provinces, and from Athmallik State ;
on the east by Daspalla ; on the south by the Madras States ofGoomsur
(Gumsar) and Kimidi ; and on the west by Patna and Sonpur States
in the Central Provinces, from which it is separated by the Tel river.
Bod is under the supervision of the Commissioner of Cuttack and the
Government of Bengal. To the south of Bod proper, are the Kandh
Hills, now under British management, but formerly feudatory to the
Bod Raja. The tract comprising the Kandh-mals consists of a broken
plateau intersected by ridges of low hills, the last refuge of the Kandh
race. The principal hills in the State are — Bondigara on the southern
border, 3308 feet high; Bankomundi, 2080 feet; and Siananga, 191 7

The population of Bod, including the Kandh-mals, numbered in
1881, 130,103, living in 1741 villages and 16,409 houses; number of
males 66,754, females 63,349; average density of population per
square mile, 6^; persons per village, 74; persons per house, 7-9.
Classified according to religion, the Census thus divides the population :
Hindus, 93,011; Muhammadans, 73; Christian, 1; aboriginal tribes,
37,018. Separate details of the population, etc., of the Kandh-mals
will be found in the article on that tract. The following are the figures
for Bod proper without the Kandh-mals. Total population, 7 1, 144, living
in 856 villages and 14,242 houses; number of males 36,723, females
34,421; persons per village, 8^; persons per house, 5. Classified
according to religion, the Census thus divides the population : Hindus,
71,075; and Muhammadans, 69. There is a considerable aboriginal
population in Bod, but owing to a different system of classification


between the Census of 1872 and 1881, only those who still cling to their
ancient religion have been returned by the last Census as aborigines,
and in Bod proper they are included among the Hindus.

The Mahanadi, which forms the northern boundary of the State, and
the Tel, which borders it on the west, afford excellent facilities for
water carriage ; but except a little sal timber, none of the produce of
the country is exported. Weekly markets are held at eight villages,
the principal commodities sold being coarse rice, oil-seeds, and jungle
products. The largest and most important village, and the residence
of the Rajd, is Bod (lat. 29 50' 20" n., long. 84 21' 41" e.), in the
north of the State on the right bank of the Mahanadi, 190 miles from
the sea. The only other village of any size is Jagatigarh.

The State yields an estimated revenue of ^2400 a year to its chief;
the tribute to the British Government is £&o. The reigning family
claims an uninterrupted descent from a stranger who founded the petty
principality about a thousand years ago; they are Rajputs of the
Solar race. The Raja's militia in Bod proper consists of 22 men, and
his police force is of the same strength. He maintains a school. A
post-office has recently been established.

Boda. — An extensive zaminddri (estate) belonging to the Raja of
Kuch Behar State, Bengal. Area, 475 square miles ; number of
villages, 288; number of houses, 37,111. Population (1881) 194,915,
of whom 100,278 are males and 94,637 females. Average density of
population, 410 per square mile; villages per square mile, '6; houses
per square mile, 78; persons per village, 676; persons per house, 5*2.
Chief town, with revenue court of the Raja, Boda; lat. 26 12' n.,
long. 88° 38' e.

BodanoneSS. — Petty State of Und-Sarviya District, in Kathidwar,
Bombay Presidency, consisting of one village, with one independent
tribute-payer. Lat. 21 24' o" n., long. 71 50' o" e. ; estimated
revenue (1881) ^105, of which ,£10 is payable as tribute to the
Gaekwar, and 18s. to the Nawab of Junagarh.

Bodhan. — Village and place of pilgrimage in the Mandvi Sub-
division, Surat District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 21 20' n., long.
73 7' e. ; population (1872) 3305. No later return of population
is available. The fair is held when the planet Jupiter enters the
constellation of the Lion, an event which happens every twelve years ;
about 2000 people attend, the majority being from Surat, Broach, and
Ahmadabad Districts, and from Baroda and Rajpipla territory. The
last fair was held in September 1872. The temple contains the image
of Gautameshwar Mahadeo, in whose honour the fair is held. The
temple holds lands free of rent.

Bodh Gaya. — See Buddh Gaya.

Bodinayakaniir. — Estate in Madura District, Madras Presidency.


Area, 98 square miles, containing 21 villages and hamlets, with
6509 houses, and (1871) 34,497 inhabitants. Later information is
not available. Situated in the valley between the Travancore and
Palani ranges, watered by the Teni river. This estate was one
of the original 72 Naiakais Palaiyam of Madura, the family having
emigrated from Gooty (Giiti) in 1336 a.d. It was resumed by
Haidar Ali in 1776, and after an interval of semi -independence,
again reduced by Tipii. The Raja of Travancore subsequently
seized the estate, but in 1793 the Bodinayakamir chief recovered
possession. When, in 1795, tne Company's officers proceeded to the
settlement of the District, they were resisted by the chief of
Bodinayakamir, and the party was fired upon. It was one of the
largest of the 24 Palaiyams then settled, containing 30 villages, and
yielding about ^7000 per annum. Annual tribute paid to Government,

Bodinayakamir. — Town in Madura District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. io° o' 50" n., long. 77 25' o" e. ; population (1881) 14,759,
namely, 13,914 Hindus, 619 Muhammadans, and 226 Christians;
houses, 2508. Situated 65 miles west of Madura. The head-quarters
(kasbd) of a large estate of the same name.

Bodwad (Botdiaad). — Town in the Bhusawal Sub-division, Khandesh
District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 20 52' 15" n., long. 76 2' o" e.
Situated on the main road from Aurangabad to Burhanpur, 80 miles
north-east of Aurangabad, and 2 miles south of the Nargam station on
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1881) 5282, namely,
Hindus, 4307; Muhammadans, 847; Jains, 73; and 'others,' 55.
Area of town site, 60 acres. Important trade in cotton, linseed, and
other oil-seeds ; post-office. The houses are for the most part poor
and badly built, and the streets narrow, crooked, and dirty. Bodwad
was once a place of some consequence, and the ruined remains of an
old fort, city gateways, and an old reservoir still exist.

Boggeru. — River in Nellore District, Madras Presidency. Rising
among the Ghats at Boggu Venkatapuram, it drains the country west
and south of the Durgam, and flowing through Atmakur, it joins the
Penner at Sangam, where the tw r o rivers have overspread a considerable
tract with alluvial deposits. The Atmakur taluk to some extent, and
the Udayagiri taluk almost entirely, depend upon the Boggeru for

Bogoola. — Village in Nadiya District. Bengal. — See Bagula.

Bogra (Bagurd). — District occupying the east central portion of the

Rajshahi Division, under the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal. It lies

between 24 32' 15" and 25 18' 30" n. lat., and between &&° 54' 15"

and 89 48' o" e. long., its eastern boundary being roughly formed

y the main channel of the Brahmaputra; area, 1498 square miles;


population, according to the Census of 1SS1, 734,358 souls. The
administrative head-quarters are at Bogra town on the Karatoya river.

Physical Aspects. — The District presents the usual appearance of an
alluvial tract, consisting of one level plain, seamed with river-beds
and studded with marshes. It naturally divides into two portions of
unequal size, an eastern tract forming part of the valley of the
Brahmaputra, and closely resembling the country in Maimansingh on
the opposite bank ; and a western and larger portion, which merges
into the undulating clay lands of Dinajpur. Both these tracts are
profoundly modified by the fluvial action of the great streams which
flow through or over them ; but the boundary between the two consti-
tutes an important landmark in the geographical system of Bengal.
The soil of the Brahmaputra valley is pure alluvion of a whitish colour,
locally called pali, the recent deposit of the river floods. In the
western tract the soil is a stiff clay of a reddish colour, known as khidr,
which rests upon a lower stratum of sand; the country is generally
above flood-level, and much overgrown with scrub jungle. In this
region are situated the peculiar plots of mulberry-land, which are raised
by trenching and embankment above the danger of inundation.

The river system is constituted by the numerous channels of the
great river of Rangpur, which is variously known as the Tista or Atrai.
The Brahmaputra itself, locally termed the Daokoba or Hatchet-cut,
only fringes the eastern frontier of the District as far as the junction of
the Manas. The other rivers of the District are the Jamuna, Nagar,
Karatoya or Phuljur, Bangali, and Manas. Most of these inter-
mingle with one another by cross streams; and they fall ultimately
either into the Atrai, or directly into the Brahmaputra. They are all
portions of the same drainage system, and their comparative importance
is so variable that it would be useless to describe the course of any
particular channel in any given year. Historically, the Karatoya was
the main river which brought down towards the Ganges the great
volume of Tista water, before the disastrous floods of 1787. The
width of its former bed is still pointed out, and numerous local tradi-
tions bear witness to its early importance. At present, it is one of the
minor rivers of the District, and but little used for navigation. There
are no lakes in Bogra, but marshes are numerous, especially in the
east and south of the District, where the greater part of the country is
a network of marshes interlacing in and out of the District. Most of
these dry up from the end of January till the rains, but many are
always flooded. Nothing has been done to drain any of these swamps,
but several are silting up. All except the deepest are largely utilized
for the cultivation of the long-stemmed variety of rice, which is
generally sown from transplanted seedlings at the beginning of the
rains, and grows with the rise of the water. The Collector of the


District reported in 1873 that this rice 'rises with the floods, however
deep they may be. It is almost impossible to drown it. It grows as

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