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channel is a mere bed of coarse sand ; but it is liable to sudden and
violent inundations, which do great damage to the surrounding country.
Embankments are constructed on both sides.

Chandarnagar (popularly Chundernagore, correctly Chandan-nagar
— 'City of Sandalwood'). — French settlement, within the boundaries of
Hugli District, Bengal ; situated on the right bank of the Hiigli river, a
short distance below Chinsurah. Lat. 22 5 1' 40" n., long. 88° 24' 50" e.


Chandarnagar, occupied by the French in 1673, was acquired in 1688,
and rose to importance in the time of Dupleix, during whose administra-
tion (1 731-41) more than 2000 brick houses were erected, and a con-
siderable maritime trade was developed. In 1757 it was bombarded
by Admiral Watson, and captured ; the fortifications and houses were
afterwards demolished. On peace being established, the town was
restored to the French in 1763. When hostilities broke out in 1794, it
was again seized by the English ; restored by treaty, 1802 ; retaken the
same year; and held by them till the Peace of 1815 definitively made
it over to the French, 4th December 18 16. All the former grandeur of
Chandarnagar has now passed away, and at present it is a quiet suburban
town, with but little external trade. It continues, however, the official
seat of a French sub-governor, with a few soldiers. The railway station,
on the East Indian Railway, is just outside French territory, 22 miles
from Calcutta (Howrah). Chandarnagar receives from the English
Government 300 chests of opium annually, on condition that the
inhabitants do not engage in the manufacture of that article. The
sub-governor is subordinate to the French Governor - General at

Chandauli. — South-eastern tahsil of Benares District, North- Western
Provinces, including the whole portion of the District on the right bank
of the Ganges. Traversed by the East Indian Railway, with a branch
from Mughal Sarai to the bank opposite Benares. Area, 418 square
miles, of which 335 are cultivated; population (1881) 240,698; land
revenue, ^28,634; total Government revenue, ,£31,597; rental paid
by cultivators, £66, 61 7. The tahsil contained in 1883, 3 criminal
courts, with 6 police stations (thands) ; strength of regular police, 8 1
men ; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 507.

Chandausi. — Town in Moradabad District, North - Western
Provinces, 27 miles from Moradabad town. Lat. 28 27' 5" N.,
long. 78 49' 20" e. ; population (1882) 27,521, namely, 20,381
Hindus, 6990 Muhammadans, 29 Jains, 118 Christians, and 3
'others;' area, 220 acres. Municipal income in 1881-82,
£1238, derived principally from octroi. Lies on the Budaun road,
28 miles south of Moradabad, and 4 miles west of the Sot river.
Station on Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, with junction for Aligarh
branch. Principal mart for surrounding parts of Rohilkhand ; con-
siderable export trade in sugar. Large cotton-pressing factory, under
European management. Dispensary, and telegraph office. Extensive
quarries of kankar or nodular limestone.

Chandavolu (Tsandavolu). — Town in Kistna District, Madras
Presidency. Lat. 16 1' n., long. 8o° 40' e. ; houses, 560; population
(1881) 2895, namely, 1992 Hindus, 896 Muhammadans, and 7 Christians.
A large treasure of gold bricks was found here in 1873.


Chandbali. — River port on the left bank of the Baitarani river,
Balasor District, Orissa. Lat. 20 46' 30" n., long. 86° 47' 56" e.
This place has risen to importance only within the last few years, and
is now the centre of a rapidly growing trade. Several steamers ply
regularly between Calcutta and Chandbali, and an idea has been
entertained of making the latter a sea-bathing place for the metropolis.
Value of imports, 1873-74, ^"112,143, exports ^61,436; 1881-82,
imports £435,672, exports ^"339,170. The trade in merchandise
is supplemented by a passenger traffic, which in 1874-75 amounted to
32,000 persons either way. A portion of these passengers are pilgrims
on their way to and from the shrine of Jagannath — chiefly up-country
people of the middle class, who can afford to pay their fare by rail
to Calcutta, and by steamer to Orissa. There is also a strictly local
passenger traffic of Uriyas, who resort to Calcutta in considerable
numbers in search of domestic service.

Chanderi. — District in Gwalior State, Central India. Contains 380
villages, transferred in full sovereignty to the British Government by
the treaty of i860, among other Districts, for the maintenance of the
Gwalior Contingent. Chief town, Chanderi.

Chanderi. — Town in Sindhia's territory, Gwalior, Central India,
and head-quarters of Chanderi District ; at present an insignificant
place, but once a fortified town of importance and splendour.
Lat. 24 42' o" n., long. 78 11' o" e. Distant 105 miles south of
Gwalior, 170 south of Agra, and 280 south of Delhi. According
to the Ain-i-Akbari, it contained ' 14,000 stone houses, 384 markets,
360 caravanserais, and 12,000 mosques.' The fort, surrounded by a
sandstone rampart, and guarded by circular towers, is situated on a
high hill. It was a place of great strength, and at one time sustained
a siege of eight months. The ruins which remain show that some of
the buildings of the ancient city must have been of considerable size
and magnificence. Among other memorials of the former greatness
of Chanderi, a pass cut through a solid rock, 100 feet high, is con-
spicuous. The rock bears an inscription, stating that the lofty gate of
Giimti and Karauli, near the tank, was built in 1301 by Ghias-ud-din,
Emperor of Delhi.

Chandgaon. — Town in the head-quarters Sub-division of Chittagong
District. Population (1881) 5276, namely, 2602 males and 2674

Chandisthan. — Shrine in Basdeopur village, Monghyr District,
Bengal; sacred to Chandi, the tutelary goddess of the place. The
shrine is covered by a small brick building.

Chandkhali. — Village in Khulna District, Bengal ; situated on the
Kabadak, about 10 miles north of the point where that river enters the
Sundarban forest. Lat. 22 32VN., long. 89 17' 30" e. Chandkhali


was one of the villages founded about 1782 by Mr. Henckell, the
Magistrate, in pursuance of his scheme for the reclamation of the
buNDARBANS. It is now a leading mart in this part of the country, to
which the villagers bring their rice for sale, purchasing in return their
little home stores and necessaries. Monday is the market day, and the
picturesque scene is thus graphically described by Mr. J. Westland in
his District Report on Jessor : — ' If one were to visit Chandkhali on an
ordinary day, one would see a few sleepy huts on the river bank, and
pass it by as some insignificant village. The huts are, many of them,
shops, and they are situated round a square ; but there are no purchasers
to be seen, and the square is deserted. On Sunday, however, large
native craft come up from all directions, but chiefly from Calcutta,
and anchor along the banks of the river and creek, waiting for the
market. On Monday, boats pour in from all directions laden with
grain, and others come with purchasers. The river, a large enough
one, and the khdl or creek, become alive with native craft and boats,
pushing in among each other, and literally covering the face of the
water. Sales are going on rapidly amid all the hubbub; and the
traders and merchants are filling their ships with the grain which the
husbandmen have brought alongside and sold to them. The greater
part of the traffic takes place on the water \ but on land, too, it is a
busy sight. On water or on land, there is probably a representative
from nearly every house for miles around. They have come to sell
their grain and to buy their stores ; numberless hawkers have come to
offer these stores for sale — oil, turmeric, tobacco, vegetables, and all the
other luxuries of a peasant's life. By evening, the business is done ;
the husbandmen turn their boats homewards ; the hawkers go off to
the next market village, or procure fresh supplies ; and with the first
favourable tide the ships weigh anchor, and take their cargoes away to
Calcutta. By Tuesday morning the place is deserted.' Chandkhali is
also the principal seat of the Sundarbans wood trade. Police outpost

Chandko.— The old name for a fertile tract of alluvial land in
Sind, Bombay Presidency, on the right bank of the Indus, lying be-
tween 26 40' and 27 20' n. lat., and between 6f 25' and 68° e. long.
It is inhabited by the Chandia tribe, to the chief of whom a portion
was made over mjdgir by the Talpur dynasty in 181 8. In 1842, Wall
Muhammad, the then jdgirdar, having shown sympathy with the hostile
Mirs, this estate was seized by Mir Ali Murad of Khairpur. Sir C.
Napier, however, restored it. In 1859, the original portion was con-
firmed to the present chief, Ghaibi Khan Chandra. The chief town of
this tract is Ghatbi Dero.

Chandod. — Village and place of Hindu pilgrimage in Gujarat
(Guzerat), within the territory of the Gaekwar of Baroda, Bombay


Presidency; population (1881) 4200. Situated 30 miles south-east
of Baroda, on the right bank of the river Narbada (Nerbudda), in
lat. 21 58' n., and long. 73 29' e., and 12 miles south of Dabhoi,
with which town it is connected by a narrow-gauge State Railway, a
branch of which terminates there. Close to Chandod is the village
of Karnali, and territory of the petty Raja of Mandwa. Both these
villages, the temples, and certain sacred spots on the river, are twice a
year visited by from 20,000 to 25,000 persons. The chief fairs are
held on the full moon of Kartik (October - November) and Chaitra
(March and April). Forbes wrote a century ago, what is still the
truth : ' No place in the Western Province of Hindustan is reputed so
holy as Chandod ; none at least exceed it ; its temples and seminaries
almost vie with the fane of Jagannath and the colleges of Benares.'
Should the Narbada take the place of the Ganges in the estimation of
the pious, Chandod would become its Benares. Branch post-office;
two dharmsdlds.

Chandor (or Chdndwar). — Sub-division occupying the centre of
Nasik District, Bombay Presidency. Area (1881) 385 square miles,
containing 2 towns and 106 villages, with 8177 occupied houses.
Population, 50,899, namely, males 25,917, and females 24,982.
Hindus numbered 44,485; Muhammadans, 2414; and ' others,' 4400.
Except in the eastern corner, which is roughened by bare hills and
which drains east to the Girna, Chandor is a waving plain, sloping gently
down to the Godavari. In the centre and south the soil is a deep rich
black alluvium, yielding heavy crops of wheat and gram. In other
parts, the soil is poor and shallow. The Sub-division is well provided
with roads. The cultivators are generally in debt, but some villages
show signs of material comfort. Of 118,487 acres under cultivation
in 1880-81, grain crops occupied 96,115 acres, or 81 -n per cent.;
pulses, 14,350 acres, or 12-11 per cent.; oil-seeds, 5652 acres, or
477 per cent. ; and miscellaneous crops, 2257, or 1*90 per cent. In
1880-81, the number of holdings was returned at 3530, with an average
area of a little over 43 acres, paying an average rental to Government
°f £?» 5 s - 7 2^- Divided among the agricultural population, these
holdings show an average allotment of 17 \ acres per head, each paying
an average land-tax of £1, 6s. 6d. In 1883, the Sub-division contained
2 criminal courts and 1 police station {thdnd) ; strength of regular
police, 28 men; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 130.

Chandor (Chdndwar). — Town in Chandor Sub-division, Nasik
District, Bombay Presidency ; situated in lat. 20 19' 40" n., and
long. 74 19' o" e., at the foot of a range of hills varying from 4000
to 4500 feet in height, 40 miles north-east of Nasik town. Population
(1881) 4892, namely, Hindus, 3551; Muhammadans, 1061 ; Jains,
73; Christians, 6; 'others,' 201. Before the opening of the railway,


there was a small manufacture of copper and brass pots and ironwork.
A market is held here once a week, and there is a post -office.
Chandor is said to have been founded by Holkar in 1763, and
remained until 1818 the private property of that chief. The Maha-
raja has a large, and once magnificent, house (wddd) in the centre of
the town. The old fort of Chandor, 3994 feet high, on the flat summit
of a hill rising immediately above the town, is nearly inaccessible, and
commands an important ghat or passage on the route from Khandesh
to Bombay. Weekly market held on Mondays ; two Hindu temples,
and a Muhammadan mosque.

Chandpur. — Tahsil of Bijnaur (Bijnor) District, North-Western
Provinces, comprising the pa/'ga /ids of Chandpur, Burhpur, and Bashta.
Area, 307 square miles, of which 213 are cultivated; population
(1881) 123,679; land revenue, ,£21,050; total Government revenue,
£23,870; rental paid by cultivators, £"42,860. The tahsil contained
in 1 88 1, 1 civil and 2 criminal courts, with 3 police stations (thd/ids) ;
strength of regular police, including municipal and town police, 103
men; village watchmen (chaakiddrs) and road police, 299.

Chandpur. — Town in Bijnaur (Bijnor) District, North-Western
Provinces, and head-quarters of Chandpur tahsil, distant from Bijnaur
19 miles south. Lat. 29 8' 25" n., long. 78° 18' 50" e. ; area, 165
acres; population (1882) 11,182, namely, Muhammadans, 7618;
Hindus, 3557; and Christians, 7. Municipal income in 1880-81,
£512. Chandpur, which in 1868 was officially described by the
Sanitary Commissioner as the 'filthiest place in this Province,' is now a
well paved and drained town, with a thriving appearance, and contain-
ing several fine brick-built houses. Besides the usual tahsili courts
and offices, it contains an imperial post-office, first-class police
station, dispensary, native inn, boys' and girls' schools, five or six
temples or mosques, etc. Seven unmetalled roads connect the town
with the surrounding country. A considerable trade in sugar and
srain is carried on at markets which are held twice a week. The local
manufactures comprise earthenware pipe-bowls (chilam) and jugs
(sarahi), and the weaving of cotton cloth.

Chandpur. — Seaside village at the mouth of the Hugh', Midnapur
District, Bengal ; a few miles higher up than Birkul, and 14 miles from
Contai, with which it is connected by a fair-weather road. This place
and Birkul are favourably situated for watering-places and sanitaria
for Calcutta during the hot summer months, and a fine travellers'
bungalow has been constructed. Chandpur lies a short distance
inland, well raised above inundation level, and with a fine turf lawn
half a mile long by 300 yards broad, on almost any part of which
excellent water is to be got by digging. The sea is visible from this
raised lawn ; and below is a beach of firm, hard sand, stretching for


miles on either side. Water carnage is available almost to the very
spot ; and during the summer months there is a cool sea-breeze, day
and night.

Chandra. — River in Kangra District, Punjab, and one of the
principal headwaters of the Chenab. Rises in Lahiil, from the side of
a huge snow-bed, more than 16,000 feet above the sea, on the south-
eastern slopes of the Bara Lacha Pass. Becomes unfordable a mile
below its source. Flows south-eastward for 55 miles, when it sweeps
round the base of the Mid-Himalayas, until it is joined by the Bhaga
river at Tandi, after a course of 115 miles, in lat. 32° 33' x., and long.
77° 1' E. For the first 75 miles, the valley of the Chandra is entirely
uninhabited, the bare hills sloping down to its bed and hemming it in
with broken cliffs. Their sides, however, yield a scanty pasturage for
sheep and goats during the summer months. Near the Palamo Pass,
the river expands into a lake three-quarters of a mile in length.
Permanent habitations first occur near Koksar, at the foot of the
Rohtang Pass. From this point the Chandra enters a wider valley,
dotted with villages and cultivated fields. On the southern side, how-
ever, the mountains overhang its bed in precipitous masses, a cliff
above Ghondla rising to a sheer height of 11,000 feet from the water's
edge. After its junction with the Bhaga, at Tandi, the united stream
bears the name of Chenab. The fall on the Chandra from its source
to Tandi averages 65 feet per mile.

Chandra.— Parga?ni in Sitapur District, Oudh, lying between the
Giimti river on the west and the Kathna on the east, both rivers
meeting at Dudhuaman in the extreme south; bounded on the north
by Kheri District. This pargana was held successively by the Bais,
Ahirs, Sayyids, and Gaurs; the latter acquiring it about 200 years ago,
under a chieftain named Kiri Mall, whose descendants still hold 130
out of the total number of 150 villages. Area, 129 square miles, of
which 91 J are cultivated. The average incidence of the Government
land revenue is is. nfd. per acre of cultivated area, is. 6|d. per acre
of cultivable area, or is. 5d. per acre of total area. The cause of this
low rate is the poorness of the soil. Population (1881) 34,874,
namely, males 18,986, and females 15,888.

Chandra Drona. — Hill range, Kadur District, Mysore State.— See
Baba Budan.

Chandragiri (' Moon-hUP). — Taluk of North Arcot District,
Madras Presidency. Area, 548 square miles, containing 2 towns and
135 villages. Houses, 17,650; population (1881) 93,151, namely,47,o9o
males and 46,061 females. The most northerly tdluk of the District,
adjoining Cuddapah. The Eastern Ghats run through the north,
while the Karvaitnagar hills occupy most of the south of the tdluk.
Indeed, the entire tract may be said to consist of hills, more or less


bare or rocky, and of narrow valleys rich with the alluvial soil brought
down from the hills. Its physical characteristics render it one of the
most fertile divisions of North Arcot, the water-level being always high
and the scrub jungle on the hills affording abundance of leaf manure.
The Chandragiri Telugu cultivators are probably the best in the
District, hard-working, and fond of high farming. Extensive and
valuable forests cover about 300 square miles, but these have only
recently been brought under a proper system of conservancy. The
land revenue demand in 1882-83 amounted to ^8166. In the same-
year, the taluk contained 2 criminal courts, being subject in civil
matters to the jurisdiction of the munsifs court at Tripati. Number
of police stations {t hands), 10; strength of police force, 104 men.

Chandragiri. — Town in the Chandragiri idluk. North Arcot
District, Madras Presidency; situated on the right bank of the
Suvarnamukhi river, 16 miles south of the Tripati railway station,
in lat. 13 35' 15" n., and long. 79 21' 30" e. Population (1881)
4193, namely, 381 1 Hindus and 382 Muhammadans. As the head-
quarters of the taluk, it contains the usual sub -divisional public
offices, jail, post-office, etc. Historically, Chandragiri presents much
of interest, having been, after the defeat of Talikot in 1564, the resi-
dence of the Rajas of Vijayanagar. The fort, built about 15 10, fell
in 1646 into the power of the Golconda chief, from whom it was
wrested, a century later, by the Nawab of Arcot. In 1758 it was held
by Nawab Abdul Wahab Khan, who in virtue of its possession assumed
the protection of the sacred town of Tripati. In 1782, Haidar All
compelled the fort to surrender, and it remained subject to Mysore
until the treaty of Seringapatam in 1792. It is built on a huge
granite rock rising about 600 feet above the surrounding country,
and, both from its site and fortifications, must in former times have
been impregnable by storm. Its chief interest lies in the fact that here
was signed, in 1640, the original treaty granting to the East India
Company the site of Fort St. George or Madras. The modern town
of Chandragiri is neatly built, to the east of the hill on which stands
the fort. The old town, which in former times must have been very
extensive, has almost disappeared, and its site converted into fertile
fields. The surrounding country is very productive, and the scenery
charming. Interesting archaeological remains are found, consisting of
deserted temples, grand tanks, and fine carved mantappains.

Chandragiri (or Puiswinni). — River in South Kanara District,
Madras Presidency; rises (lat. 12 27' n., long. 75° 40' e.) in the
Western Ghats near Sampaji, and, after a westerly course of 65 miles,
enters the sea 2 miles south of Cassergode, in lat. 12 29' n., long.
75 1' 6" e. When in flood, the stream is utilized for floating down
the timber cut on the Ghats, but, except for about 15 miles above its


mouth, it is not at other seasons navigable. A fort, situated on
its left bank, commands this portion of the river. The Chandragiri
forms the northern boundary between the Malayalam and Tuluvu
countries ; and the traditions of the people forbid any Nair woman to
cross it.

Chandraguna. — Village and head - quarters of a police station
(thdnd) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bengal; situated on the river
Karnaphuli. Administrative head-quarters of the District until 1868,
when they were transferred to Rangamati. Considerable river traffic
in timber and hill products, rice, salt, spices, piece-goods, cattle, tobacco,
etc. Revenue toll station.

Chandra-gutti (' 'Moon-obscuring'). — Projecting peak of the Western
Ghats, in Shimoga District, Mysore State; 2836 feet above sea-level.
Lat. 1 4 27' o" n., long. 74 58' 25" e. Formerly a fortified stronghold
of a series of local chieftains. On the summit is a temple dedicated to
Renuka, the mother of Parasu Rama. The village at the eastern base
has a population (1881) of 809.

Chandrakona. — Mountains in Mysore State. — See Baba Bud an.
Chandrakona. — Town and head-quarters of a police circle (thdnd)
in Midnapur District, Bengal. Lat 22 44 20" N., long. 87 33' 20" e.
The site of a factory in the time of the East India Company, with a
large weaving population, most of whom, upon the withdrawal of the
Company from their commercial concerns, were forced to give up their
hereditary occupation and take to agriculture. It still contains many
weaving families, who produce cotton fabrics of superior quality ; and
is also a large trading centre. Population (1881) 11,801 Hindus, 456
Muhammadans— total, 12,257, namely, 6059 males and 6198 females;
area of town site, 3840 acres; municipal income (1881-82) .£353.

Chandranagar (or Chundernagore). — French town and settlement
in Hiigli District, Bengal. — See Chandarnagar.

Chandranath. — Village in Chittagong District, Bengal. Lat. 22
37' 55" n., long. 91 43' 40" e. Situated on Sitakund Hill, and a
frequented place of pilgrimage. — See Sitakund.

Chandrapur (with Padmapur). — Estate or zaminddrl in Sambalpur
District, Central Provinces. Formed in i860 from two Government
pargands. Certain landholders having joined the Surendra Sa rebellion
in 1858, their estates, worth about ^300 per annum, were confiscated
and granted to Rai Riip Singh, a Rajput, at that time a Deputy Collector
in the District. On the amnesty, these estates were restored at the
petition of their former owners ; and as the Government revenue from
Chandrapur and Padmapur then amounted to ^755, Major Impey,
the Deputy Commissioner, recommended that, to compensate Rai
Rup Singh, these pargands should be made over to him for 40 years,
subject to a fixed payment of ^413. Both extend along the Mahanadi


river ; Padmapur about 40 miles north-west of Sambalpur, and Chandra-
pur 20 miles farther westward, with a portion of Raigarh State between
them. Chandrapur-r/////- Padmapur contained in 1881 an area of 300
square miles, and 248 villages, with 1283 occupied and 361 un-
occupied houses; total population, 66,589, namely, males 33,061, and
females 33,528; average density of population, 222 per square mile.
This estate, lying along the left bank of the Mahanadi, is situated
in the north-west corner of the District. Padmapur pargand forms
a compact estate, well wooded and watered, with a fertile soil,
yielding good crops of rice, cotton, oil-seeds, sugar-cane, and a little
frhar. Chandrapur is a straggling detached pargand, well watered
throughout, but without any forests, and with a soil in some parts sandy,
and in others black clay. The crops raised are rice, sugar-cane, and

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 43 of 56)