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of hot water gushes from the ground. Trap covers the greater part of
the District, resting in the south directly on the plutonic rocks, and in


the north on sandstone. It encloses an alluvial deposit, which at
Butaria to the east, and at Mislanwara to the south of Chhindwara, and
at other places, yields remains of the Eocene period. The soil is
generally black where it overlies the trap, and red where it rests on
sandstone or plutonic rocks. The only important mineral product of
Chhindwara is coal. The coal-field at Barkof, the oldest known in the
District, has been experimentally worked for some years ; but the high
cost of carriage has prevented success. It contains two seams, of which
the upper one alone has been explored. This will yield over 5 feet of
coal, with heating qualities equal to two-thirds of the best Welsh coal.
Four miles west of Sirgori, a fine seam occurs in the bed of the Pench
river ; but whether it extends to the north, beneath the trap in the river,
has not yet been ascertained. Coal has been found in many other
parts of the District ; but the places above named appear the most
likely to prove suitable for mining purposes. Wild beasts formerly
abounded in Chhindwara, but the persistent efforts of shikaris, who are
very numerous in this District, have greatly diminished their numbers
of late years. The tiger, the panther, and the bear occasionally
prove destructive to human life, while the hunting cheetah, the
wild dog, and the wolf are also met with. The crops suffer from the
ravages of the wild boar, and of many kinds of deer. The numerous
foxes and jackals keep down the small game in this District ; but there
are hares, partridges, and quails for the sportsman. In the cold season,
snipe, wild-fowl, and kidang visit Chhindwara, but the localities in
which they are found are very few. In the jdgir estates in the Satpura
Hills, the bison may also be found.

History. — The midland Gond kingdom of Deogarh had its capital in
this District. Its founder, Jatba, subverted the ancient Gauli power
above the ghats ; and his descendants continued to rule until the advent
of the Marathas. None of them, however, made any name in history
before Bakht Buland, who visited Delhi, and purchased the protection
of Aurangzeb by his timely conversion to the Muhammadan faith.
This prince showed energy, both within and without his kingdom.
He carried his arms southward beyond Nagpur, and made acquisitions
from Chanda and from Mandla ; while he invited settlers, both
Muhammadan and Hindu, from all quarters into the country which
he governed. The next Raja, Chand Sultan, resided principally at
Nagpur. On his death, the struggles which arose from a contested
succession were finally composed by the Marathas ; and by the middle
of the 1 8th century, the sovereignty of the Gond Rajas became
virtually extinct. The mountainous parts of the District have long
been occupied by petty Gond or Kurku chiefs, who owned a feudal
subjection, first to the Gond Rajas, and afterwards to the Marathas ;
and although the Gonds welcomed and supported Apa Sahib in his


opposition to the English in 1819, the British Government has con-
tinued the policy of allowing the petty Rajas to retain their lands and
rights as tributaries. On the death of Raghuji 111., the whole District
finally lapsed to the British Empire in 1854. Since then, in 1865,
the jdgir of Bariam-Pagara, and part of Pachmarhi, in the Mahadeo
Hills, with the magnificent forests of Bori and Denwa, have been
transferred to Hoshangabad District.

Population. — The population of Chhindwara District in 1872, after
allowing for subsequent transfers, was returned by the Census at
316,228. At the last enumeration in 1881, the Census disclosed a
total population of 372,899, or an increase of 56,671 (17*92 per cent.) in
the nine years ; this large increase, however, is in part nominal, being
attributable to better enumeration in the zaminddris. The details
of the Census of 1881 are as follows: — Total population, 372,899,
namely, males 186,168, and females 186,731, spread over an area of
3915 square miles, and living in 1833 villages and towns ; number of
occupied houses, 73,621; average density of population, 95 persons per
square mile ; villages per square mile, 0-47 ; houses per square mile,
i8'8; persons per house, 5-07. Classified according to religion, the
population consisted of — Hindus, 209,286; Kabirpanthis, 5528; Sat-
nanus, 6; Muhammadans, 11,298; Christians, 77; Jains, 1451; and
tribes professing aboriginal religions, 145,253. The aboriginal tribes,
including 7246 who have embraced other forms of religion, number
152,509 in all. Of these, 140,739 are Dravidian Gonds, and 10,561 of
the Kolarian tribe of Kiirkiis. Among Hindus, the Brahmans number
6765, and Rajputs 7574; the inferior Hindu castes above 5000 in
number being — Ahir, the most numerous caste in the District, herds-
men, etc., 27,378; Kiirmi, the principal cultivating caste, 24,078;
Mehra, weavers, and village watchmen, 23,616; Bhoer, an indus-
trious class of cultivators remarkable for their skill in irrigation,
12,691; Teli, oil-pressers, and traders, 12,210; Lodhis, landholders,
and cultivators, 8456 ; Katia, weavers, 6963 ; Mali, gardeners, 6625 ;
and Kalar, or spirit sellers, 5656. Of the two great Muhammadan
sects, 11,154 are returned as Sunnis, and 134 as Shias. Regarding
the occupations of the people, the Census Report classifies the male
population into the following six main divisions : — (1) Professional
class, including Government officials, 3951; (2) domestic servants,
etc., 613 ; (3) commercial class, including merchants, traders, carriers,
etc., 1843; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners,
92.559 ; (5) manufacturing, artisan, and other industrial classes, 19,579 ;
(6) indefinite and non-productive (comprising 1925 labourers and
65,698 unspecified, including children), 67,623. There are only 3
towns in Chhindwara District with a population exceeding 5000 — viz.
Chhindwara, the District head-quarters (population, 8220), Pand-


hurxa (7469), and MOHGAON (5180). Villages with from 1000 to
5000 inhabitants, 30; with from 200 to 1000, 506; with fewer than
200 inhabitants, 1294. The only municipalities are — Chhindwam,
Lodhi'khera, Mohgaon, Pandhurna, and Saosar, with a total popula-
tion of 29,792 — leaving 343,107 as forming the strictly rural popu-
lation. The total municipal income raised in the District in 1880-81
was ^1519, of which ^1257 was derived from taxation, or an average
of is. 2d. per head of the municipal population. The dialect generally
prevailing in the Balaghat or highland part of the District is a mixture
of Hindi and Marathi j but the Gonds and Kiirkus use languages of
their own.

Agriculture. — Of the total area of 3915 square miles, only 1304
were cultivated in 1881 ; and of the portion lying waste, 999 are re-
turned as cultivable ; 8 1 1 5 acres are irrigated, entirely by private enter-
prise. The area under the principal crops in 1881-82 is returned
as follow: — Rice, 11,317 acres; wheat, 95,429; o tner food-grains,
557,594; oil-seeds, 91,892; sugar-cane, 7598; cotton, 45>4°8 ; fibres,
406 ; tobacco, 767 ; vegetable, 1977. This acreage includes lands
growing two crops in the year. Cotton cultivation continues steadily
to increase. Potatoes were introduced in the beginning of the present
century, and supply a food much appreciated by the natives. They are
grown principally in the vicinity of Chhindwam, and the greater part
of the produce is exported to Kampthi (Kamptee). There are two
<n-eat harvests in the year— the kharif, gathered between September

and February, and the rabi, from February to the close of May. The
crops depend entirely upon the seasons, except in the Pandhurna
pargand below the ghats, where water lies near the surface. Manure
is always used in the plains, but as a rule the crops above the ghats
are not manured. Irrigation is practised for sugar-cane and garden
crops, and sometimes also for wheat. A system of rotation of
crops is observed, in which the cultivators show considerable skill.
The agricultural stock of the District is returned as follows :— Cows,
bullocks, and buffaloes, 240,287; horses, 176; ponies, 8912; donkeys,
981; sheep and goats, 31,822; pigs, 9819; ploughs, 51,235. The
rates of rent per acre for the different qualities of land are returned as
follows :— Land suitable for rice, 2s. ; wheat, 3s. 6d. ; inferior grains,
2s. 6d. ; cotton, is. 7d. ; oil-seeds, 9d. ; sugar-cane, 3s. Average pro-
duce per acre in lbs. :— Rice, 360 ; wheat, 400 5 inferior grains, 409 J
cotton, 60; raw sugar (giir), 400. Average price of produce per
cwt . :_ Rice, 6s. iod. ; wheat, 4s. 5 d - 5 cotton, £2, 14s. ; sugar, 13s. Sd.
The Census of 1881 showed a total of 6071 landed proprietors ; the
tenants numbered 111,005, of whom 15,347 had either absolute or
occupancy rights, while 69,719 were tenants-at-will or with unspecified
status, and 24,660 were employed in home cultivation. The average
vol. in. 2 c


area cultivated in 1881 by each head of the regular agricultural popu-
lation (170,407, or 4570 per cent, of the District population) was 9
acres ; the amount of Government revenue and local cesses levied from
the landholders was .£23,651 ; and the amount of rental, including
cesses, paid by the cultivators, was ,£38,674, or an average of is. 2jd.
per cultivated acre. The condition of the peasantry is fairly prosperous,
and, except in the town of Mohgaon, there are very few beggars. The
rate of wages per diem for skilled labour varies from is. to 2s. ; for un-
skilled labour from 3d. to od. The pargand of Khamarpani produces
the best breed of cattle for draught purposes. The cattle are white, with
no great bulk of body, and the dewlap is unusually large ; they appear
closely akin to the pure Gujarat breed, and are quite distinct from what
are locally called the Gond cattle, a smaller kind but famous as good

Commerce and Trade. — The weaving of cotton cloth constitutes the
only important manufacture in Chhindwara. In Lodhikhera and some
other places, excellent brass and copper utensils were formerly made, but
the industry has fallen off considerably of late years. The village markets
supply the means for carrying on trade within the District. The only
so-called imperial road, by which a little external traffic is carried on,
runs between Chhindwara and Nagpur, descending into the low country
by the Silawani ghat. The descent has been rendered easy ; but from
Ramakona to the limits of Chhindwara District, the line lies over a
very difficult country, chiefly consisting of black cotton-soil, cut up
incessantly by watercourses with deep channels and muddy beds.
The local roads are practicable during fine weather for wheeled
conveyances, except in the hilly country of the zaminddris, where
the natural difficulties are so great that the journey is rarely attempted
except by camels, pack-bullocks, or buffaloes. The imperial road has
dak bungalows at Chhindwara and Ramakona, and also station
bungalows for the Public Works Department at Borgaon and Umranala,
at Amrawala on the Narsinghpur road, and at Gonawari on the Pach-
marhi road. There are sardis at Chhindwara, Ramakona, Lodhikhera,
Sausar, Pandhurna, Amarwara, and Chaurai.

Adjninistration. — In 1854, Chhindwara was formed into a separate
District of the British Government of the Central Provinces. It is
administered by a Deputy Commissioner, with 1 Assistant and 2
tahsilddrs. Total revenue in 1881-82, ,£37,616; of which the land
revenue yielded ^2 2, 146. Total cost of District officials and police
of all kinds, .£8552. Number of civil and revenue judges of all sorts
within the District, 6 ; magistrates, 5. Maximum distance from any
village to the nearest court, 64 miles ; average distance, 29 miles.
Number of police, 383, costing ,£4461, being one policeman to every 10
square miles and to every 973 of the population. Daily average number


of convicts in jail in 1881, 7 3 "44, of whom 4-91 were females. The
number of Government or aided schools in the District in 1881 was
35, attended by 1842 pupils.

Medical Aspects. — The climate above the ghats is temperate and
healthy. In the cold season, frost is not uncommon. Before May,
the hot wind causes little annoyance, and during the rains the weather
is cool and agreeable. Average annual rainfall, 43*22 inches; rainfall
in 1881-82, 51-95 inches, or 873 inches above the average. The
number of deaths registered during the same year was 7733, of which
fevers caused 3678. Two charitable dispensaries during that year
afforded medical relief to 13,017 in-door and out-door patients. [For
further information regarding Chhindwara, see the Settlement Report of
the District, by W. Ramsay, C.S., 1867. Also the Central Provinces
Gazetteer, by Charles Grant, Esq., C.S. (second edition, Nagpur, 1870,
pp. 162-169); the Census Report of the Central Provinces for 1881 ;
and the Annual Administration Reports of these Provinces from 1880
to 1883.]

Chhindwara. — Sub-division or tahsil in the north of Chhindwara
District, Central Provinces. Area, 2827 square miles; number of villages,
1426; occupied houses, 50,953. Population (1881) 262,090, namely,
males 130,746, and females 131,344; average density of population,
9271 persons per square mile ; Government revenue and cesses levied
from the landholders, ;£i 2,821 ; rental, including cesses, paid by the
cultivators, ^22,495, or is. i^d. per cultivated acre. The tahsil con-
tains 4 civil and 4 criminal courts, with 14 police stations (t hands),
including outposts ; strength of regular police force, 133 men; village
watchmen (chauhiddrs), 822.

Chhindwara. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of
Chhindwara District, Central Provinces. Lat. 22 3' 30" n. ; long. 7 8°
59' e. Situated on a dry, gravelly soil, 2200 feet above sea-level,
and surrounded by ranges of low hills, with a belt of cultivated
fields and mango groves between. The supply of water is plentiful,
but that used for drinking comes from the wells outside the town.
Population (1881) 8220, namely, Hindus, 5777 ; Kabirpanthis, 162 ;
Muhammadans, 1757; Jains, 224; Christians, 57; aborigines, 243.
Municipal income (1881) ^712 ; rate of taxation, is. 8d. per head.
The station is in parts well wooded. It has a public garden,
District court-house, Commissioner's circuit house, jail, tahsili and
police station, charitable dispensary, Free Church mission, Anglo-
vernacular school, and sardi.

Chhipia. — Small village in Gonda District, Oudh. Lat. 22 3'
30" n. ; long. 78 59' o" e. Of no commercial importance, and only
noticeable for its handsome temple, erected in honour of a celebrated
Vishnuvite religious reformer in Western India, named Sahajanand,


who was born in this village about a century ago, and ultimately suc-
ceeded to the headship of the great Vishnuvite monastery at Junagarh.
His followers claim for him divine honours as an incarnation of
Krishna, and worship him under the title of Swami Narayan. His
descendants are still at the head of the sect. About thirty years ago,
the sect which he had founded in Gujarat determined to erect a
temple at his birthplace, the whole of the works of which are not yet
completed. The fane itself is entirely of stone and marble, imported
from Mirzapur and Jaipur (Jeypore). It is to be surrounded on three
sides by charitable buildings for the convenience of travellers and the
accommodation of the members of the order. The north side is
already finished, and consists of a row of double-storied brick houses,
with a fine wooden verandah, carved and painted. The unfinished
buildings to the front are broken by a handsome stone arch 20 feet
high, and closed by a strong iron door, imported from Gujarat. Behind
the temple is a large bazar, and two square brick houses, with turrets
at each corner, for the accommodation of the spiritual chiefs of the
order. Two large fairs are held here annually, on the occasion of
the Ram-nami festival, and at the full moon of Kartik. Throughout
the year, pilgrims of all classes of society, and from the most distant
parts of India, visit the birthplace of their deified leader.

Chhola. — Lofty range of the Himalayas, forming the eastern boun-
dary of Sikkim, and separating it from Bhutan and Tibet. It runs
south from the immense mountain of Dankia (23,176 feet), situated 50
miles east-north-east of Kanchanjanga, and is, throughout its length,
much higher than the parallel Singalila range, which forms the western
boundary between Sikkim and Nepal. The most northern pass is the
Tankra (16,000 feet), from the Lachung valley to the Ammochu valley.
Next in order towards the south is the well-known Chhola pass (14,500
feet). This pass is on the direct route from Tumlong, the winter
residence of the Sikkim Raja, to Chumbi, his summer residence in
Tibet. Seven miles south of the Chhola pass is the Jelep pass (14,400
feet), much frequented by Tibet traders with Darjiling, and connected
with that station by a good bridle road. South of the Jelep pass, the
range is a wilderness of forest.

Chhota Bhagirathi. — A branch of the Ganges in Maldah District,
Bengal. Only navigable during the rains, and almost dry in the hot
season. It is, however, the old bed of the great river itself, and is still
revered as at least equal in holiness to any other part of the Ganges.
The course of the Chhota Bhagirathi is first east and then south,
bordering for 13 miles the ruins of the city of Gaur. It eventually falls
into the Pagla or Pagli, a larger offshoot of the Ganges given off farther
down ; and before regaining the parent stream it encloses an extensive
island, 16 miles in length, forming the south part of Maldah District.


Chhota Nagpur. — Division or Commissionership, Bengal. — See
Chutia Nagpur.

Chhota Sinchula (or Tchi nebula). — Peak in the Sinchula or Tchin-
chula range, Jalpaiguri District, Bengal, separating British and Bhutan
territory. Elevation, 5695 feet above sea-level; distant about 7 miles
north of the military cantonment of Baxa.

Chhota Udaipur. — State under the Political Agency of Rewa
Kant ha, in the Province of Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency, lying
between 22 2' and 22 32' n. lat., and between 73 47' and 74 20' k.
long. Bounded north by the State of Baria, east by Ali Raj pur, south
by petty States in the Sankheri Mewas, and west by the territory of the
Gaekwar of Baroda. Estimated area, 873 square miles ; population
(18S1) 71,218, of whom 86 per cent, are Bhils or Kolis ; revenue,
;£i 6,000. The river Orsing runs through the State, dividing it into
two nearly equal portions ; the Narbada (Nerbudda) washes its southern
boundary for a few miles. The country is hilly, and overgrown with
forest. During the greater part of the year, the climate is damp and
unhealthy, and fever is prevalent. Cereals and timber are the chief
produce. There are no manufactures or mines. The principal exports
are timber and flowers of the mahud tree (Bassia latifolia). The family
of the chief are Chauhan Rajputs, who, when driven out of their former
territories by the advance of the Musalmans about the year a.d. 1244,
entered Gujarat, and took possession of Champaner city and fort. On
the capture of Champaner in 1484 by Muhammad Begar, they with-
drew to the wilder parts of their former possessions east of the city,
one branch of them founding the State of Baria, and the other the
State of Chhota Udaipur. In the disturbances of 1858, the chief
refused to hold any communication with Tantia Topi, one of the leaders
of the rebellion, and prepared to defend himself against any attempt to
enter his capital. It was when encamped before the town of Chhota
Udaipur that Tantia Topi was defeated by General Parke. The Chief
bears the title of Maharawal. His house follows the rule of primogeni-
ture, but holds no sanad of adoption. He is entitled to a salute of 9
guns, and maintains a military force of 320 undisciplined men, who are
employed for police and revenue purposes. He has power to try his
own subjects only for capital offences. A tribute of ^1014 is yearly
payable to the Gaekwar of Baroda, the amount being collected by the
British Government. The family moved at one time to Mohan, a most
advantageous position for commanding the passes, and built a fort
there. Hence the State is sometimes called Mohan. But this place, as
the capital, was given up for Chhota Udaipur. It was probably in con-
sequence of the defenceless position of the latter town, that the chiefs
became tributary to the Gaekwar. The political control has since 1S22
been transferred to the British Government. The main route from


Malwa to Baroda and the sea passes through the territory. There are
ii schools in the State, with an average daily attendance of 348 pupils.
On account of the maladministration of the late Chief, a system of joint
administration has been introduced as a temporary measure by the
British Government, and an administrator appointed to aid the Chief in
carrying out necessary reforms.

Chhota Udaipur. — Principal town of the State of Chhota Udaipur,
in Gujarat, Bombay Presidency; situated on the main road from Baroda
to Mhau (Mhow), about 50 miles east of Baroda, 115 miles west of
Mhow, 105 miles south-east of Ahmadabad, and no miles north-east of
Surat; in 22 20' n. lat., and 74° 1' e. long.

Chhuikadan (or Kondka). — Petty State in the Central Provinces.
— See Kondka.

Chhuikadan. — Principal village in Kondka or Chhuikadan chief-
ship, attached to Raipur District, Central Provinces. Population (1881)
2148, namely, Hindus, 1897; Kabfrpanthis, 116; and Muhammadans,
135. The chief's residence is a substantial stone building, standing in
a fortified square.

Chhliri. — Estate in the north-east of Bilaspur District, Central
Provinces. Area, 320 square miles, of which 27,907 acres are cultivated,
and 48,538 acres cultivable; 134 villages; 5644 occupied houses;
population (1881) 16,088, namely, males 8139, and females 7949 ;
average density of the population, 50*27 persons per square mile. The
chief is a Kunwar.

Chibramau. — Tali si I and town in Farukhabad District, North-
western Provinces. — See Chhibramau.

Chibu. — Ta/foz/ofBanda District, North- Western Provinces. — ,SV<?Mau.

Chicacole (Chikakol, Srikdkulam). — Taluk of Ganjam District,
Madras Presidency. Area, 402 square miles; houses, 39,005 ; population
(1881) 200,419, namely, 97,895 males and 102,524 females. Number
of villages, 301, including 3 towns. Formerly the central division of
the ancient Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms of Kalinga (Kielingkia of
Hwen Thsang), and containing the capital of the Mughal ' circar '
(sarkdr) of Chicacole. Down to a.d. 1568, it was part of the territory
of the Gajapati Rajas of Orissa ; but shortly after the overthrow of that
sovereignty, in the year mentioned, by the invasion of the Muhammadan
general of Bengal, the whole of the sarkdrs as far as Chicacole came
under the Kutab-Shahi rule, and their governors resided in the town.
But it was not until 1724 that Hindu influence finally succumbed,
when Asaf Jah, the great Viceroy of the Deccan, and the first Nizam-
ul-Mulk, took actual possession, collected the revenue, and appointed
a civil and military establishment. With the rest of the 'Northern
Circars,' it was assigned by the Nizam to the French in 1753, and to
the British in 1766. Under Muhammadan rule, Chicacole was divided


into the three divisions of Ichapur, Kasimkota, and Chicacole. The
last two, on British occupation, became parts of Vizagapatam District,
the demesne lands ' Chikakor-havili ' being leased to the Raja of
Vizianagaram till 1787, when they came under direct administration.
In 1802, Chicacole was transferred to Ganjam. North of the town of
Chicacole, the country is open, level, and well watered, studded with
groves and marked by stretches of rice lands ; to the south, the soil
is dry and rocky, bearing traces of iron and interspersed with granite
boulders. Land revenue (1883), ^45,344. The taluk contains 1 civil
and 3 criminal courts, with 6 police stations {tkdnds) \ strength of
police force, 93 men.

Chicacole (C/i/kakal, Srikdkulam). — Town in the Chicacole taluk,
Ganjam District, Madras Presidency ; situated 4 miles from the sea on

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 48 of 56)