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the Languliya or Nagavali river (here bridged), and on the Grand Trunk
Road, 567 miles north-east of Madras. Lat. 18 17' 25" n., long.
8 3° 5 6 ' 2 S" E - '» houses, 3008 ; population (1881) 16,355, namely, 15,087
Hindus, 1184 Muhammadans, and 84 Christians and ' others.' Twenty
per cent, of the population are traders ; and eight per cent muslin-
weavers, the manufactures of Chicacole rivalling in delicacy of texture
those of Dacca or Ami. The municipal revenue averages ^"702
per annum, the incidence of taxation being about iod. per head of
the rateable population. For many years considered an important
military station; for a time (in 1815), the civil head-quarters of the
District ; and, until 1865, the sessions station of the District judge. As
the head-quarters of the taluk, it now contains subordinate revenue,
judicial, and magisterial establishments ; jail, dispensary, post and tele-
graph offices, schools, and hospital. Most of the public buildings are
situated within the ditch of the old fort, to the south of which lies the
native town, a straggling, cramped collection of houses, but containing
many mosques — notably that of Sher Muhammad Khan (1641), the
Faujddr or military governor of the Kutab Shahi dynasty of Golkonda —
to bear witness to the importance of the old city under its Muhammadan
rulers. In 1 791, Chicacole was nearly depopulated by famine, and it again
suffered severely from scarcity in 1866. In 1876, a flood threatened it
with utter destruction, and swept away six arches of the Langulya
bridge. The native names of the place are (Hindu) Srikdkulam ; and
(Muhammadan) Mahfiiz Bandar, after the small port so called at the
mouth of the river,— Mahfiiz Khan being the son of the celebrated
Faujddr of Chicacole, named Anwaruddin Khan, afterwards Xawab of
Arcot. It was also once called Giilchanabad, the ' happy rose-garden.'
The name Chicacole (Srikdkulam) has been erroneously derived from
slkka, a seal, and kolna, to open, as the letter-bags from Golkonda to
the « Northern Circars ' used to be opened here for distribution.—-^
' Northern Circars.'


Chicacole {Chikakol, Srikdkulam). — River in Madras Presidency. —
See Languliya.

Chichali. — Mountains in the Punjab. — See Maidani.

Chichgarh. — Extensive but poor estate or zcuninddri, near the south-
eastern borders of Bhandara District, Central Provinces. Population
(1881) 9954, namely, males 5037, and females 4917. The population
consists chiefly of Halbas (to which caste the chief belongs), Gonds,
and Goalas; area, 237 square miles, of which only 12 are cultivated;
69 villages. The forests abound in valuable timber, especially teak.
Each of the two chief villages, Chichgarh and Palandiir, are Govern-
ment police outposts, and the former possesses an indigenous school.
One of the main District roads passes through this chiefship by a
formidable pass near Chichgarh, more than 3 miles in length, bordered
by dense bamboo jungle. At the foot of the pass the chief has dug a
well and built a sardi.

Chichli. — Town in Gadarwara taftsil, Narsinghpur District, Central
Provinces. Population (1S81) 2219, namely, Hindus, 1827; Muham-
madans, 260; tribes professing aboriginal religions, 132. Manufacture
of brass utensils.

Chikadandi. — Town in head-quarters Sub-division, Chittagong Dis-
trict, Bengal. Population (1881) 5829, namely, 2679 males and 3150

Chikakol. — Taluk and town, Ganjam District, Madras Presidency.
— See Chicacole.

Chikalda. — Village and sanitarium in the Melghat taluk, Ellichpur
District, Berar; situated in lat. 21 24' n., and long. 77 22' e., on a
plateau (about 5 miles in length and three-quarters of a mile broad)
3664 feet above the sea; distant about a mile and a half from Gawilgarh
fort, and about 20 miles from Ellichpur. The usual road from the
latter place winds up the western side of the Gawilgarh Hill ; but a
new line, giving easier access to the sanitarium, has been laid out and
is in course of completion. The ascent is for the most part easy,
and is made on horseback. Supplies and baggage are brought up by
bullocks or camels. Chikalda has been a favourite Berar sanitarium
since 1839, when the first bungalows were built on the plateau. The
climate is equable, cool, and bracing; mean temperature, 71° F., vary-
ing from 59 in the coldest to 83 in the hottest months. The scenery
is beautiful, and the vegetation luxuriant and varied in character —
roses, clematis, orchids, ferns, and lilies succeeding each other with the
changing seasons. Excellent potatoes are grown, and the tea-plant
'flourishes; coffee of fine quality has also been successfully grown in
one of the private gardens. Till the completion of the new road above
alluded to, carts can only reach Chikalda via Ghatong, a distance of 30


Chikati. — Estate in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. Number
of houses, 11,913; population (1881) 40,684, of whom all but 36 arc-
Hindus. One of the early sovereigns of Orissa is said to have granted
this estate to a sirdar, who built a fort at Chikati a.d. 881. The
villages of the estate are irrigated from the Balinda river. Chief place,

Chikballapur.— Taluk in Kolar District, Mysore State. Area, 379
square miles. Population (188 1) 49,050, namely, males 24,362, and
females 24,688. Hindus numbered 47,283 ; Muhammadans, 1565;
and Christians, 202. The taluk contains the old forts of Nandidnig
and Kalavaradrug. In 1883-84 it yielded a revenue of ^11,406.
Number of criminal courts, 2, with 6 thdnds or police circles ; strength
of regular police, 57 men ; besides 295 village watchmen {chaukiddrs).

Chikballapur.— Town in Kolar District, Mysore State, and head-
quarters of Chikballapur taluk ; 36 miles by road north-west of Kolar.
Lat. 13 26' 10" n., long. 77 46' 21" e. Population (1881) 9133,
namely, Hindus, 8306; Muhammadans, 781; and Christians, 46.
The fort was erected about 1479 bv Malla Baire Cauda, the youngest
of the band of refugees of the Morasu Wokkal tribe, who founded
the Palegar dynasty throughout Mysore during the 14th century. His
descendants extended their dominions, and maintained their inde-
pendence against the rising power of the Hindu Raja of Mysore.
Haidar Ali, however, in 1761 captured both Chikballapur and the hill
fort of Nandidnig (Nundydroog), and sent the last of the Gaudas
prisoner to Coimbatore.

Chik Devaraj Sagar— Small canal, and scene of a fair in Mysore
District, Mysore State. — See Chunchankatte.

Chikhli (Chikoli).— Petty Bhil (Bheel) State of Khandesh District,
Bombay Presidency ; situated between the Tapti river and the Satpura
range. Estimated population (1881) 1444, of whom 737 are males
and 707 females, all Bhils. Their language is a mixture of Gujarathi,
Marathi, and Hindustani. Near the Tapti, the soil is good ; but the
greater part of the State is overgrown with jungle, and is consequently
very unhealthy. The revenue is about .£500 from land and grazing
rents, and ^300 assigned by Government as a hereditary allowance in
lieu of black-mail formerly levied by an ancestor of the present chief.
This allowance was discontinued in the time of Rdm Singh, as he was
found incompetent to manage the police, for whose maintenance it was
mainly intended. The Wasawa, or ruler, of Chikhli is one of the
principal Mewasi chiefs.

Chikhli.— Taluk of Buldana District, Berar. Area, 1009 square
miles; contains 1 town and 272 villages. Population (1SS1) 140,011,
namely, 71,595 males and 68,416 females, or 138*76 persons per
square mile. Area occupied by cultivators, 465^ 94 acres. Chief town,


Chikhli; population (1881) 4396. The total revenue of the taluk, in
1883-84, amounted to ^34,858, of which .£28,748 was derived from
the land-tax. Number of civil courts, 2 ; criminal courts, 6; police
stations {thdnds\ 5; strength of regular police, 223 men; village
watchmen, 299.

Chikhli.— Sub-division of Surat District, Bombay Presidency. Area,
167 square miles; number of villages, 62. Population (1881) 60,147,
namely, 30,346 males and 29,801 females. Hindus number 33,201 ;
Muhammadans, 5409; 'others,' 21,537. The Sub-division consists of
two parts — raised plateaux with intervening belts of low-lying land. The
elevated tracts are seamed by rocky watercourses ; the soil, being poor
and shallow, is cultivated only in patches, and yields little but grass
and brushwood. The low-lying lands between these raised plateaux
contain a very fertile soil, yielding superior crops of grain, sugar-cane,
and fruit. Watered by the Ambika, Kaveri, Kharera, and Auranga
rivers, which flow through the Sub-division from east to west. Of
74,292 acres, the total area of cultivable land, 38,497 acres were in
18 73-74 fallow or under grass, and 35,795 acres actually under culti-
vation. Cereal crops occupied 26,845 acres; pulses, 8413 acres; oil-
seeds, 5692 acres; fibres, 236 acres; and miscellaneous, 11 79 acres.
These figures include lands bearing two crops in the year. The total
assessment on Government land fixed at the time of the Settlement
(1864) was ,£29,297, or an average of 6s. 4d. per acre, varying from
2s. 6|d. per acre for 'dry' crops to 14s. n£d. for rice land, and
17s. 8J& an acre for garden land. These rates remain in force till
1893-94. At the time of Settlement, the Sub-division contained 5994
distinct holdings, with an average area of nearly 16J acres, each pay-
ing an average rental of £5, 7 s. 2 Jd. ; the area per head of the agri-
cultural population is a little over 3 J acres, paying an average rent of
£i, 3s. 5 id. The Sub-division contained in 1884, 2 criminal courts
and 1 police station (thdnd)\ strength of regular police force, 37 men,
besides 523 village watchmen (chaukiddrs).

Chikhli.— Town in Surat District, Bombay Presidency, and head-
quarters of Chikhli Sub-division ; situated in lat. 20 46' n., long. 73 9' e.
A small town of less than 5000 inhabitants, and of no importance
except as the head-quarters of the Sub-division. Besides the usual
Government revenue courts and police offices, Chikhli contains a
post-office and dispensary.

Chikmagallir— Taluk in Kadur District, Mysore Native State.
Area,4i2 square miles. Population (1881) 87,712, namely,males 43,358,
and females 25,881. Hindus number 82,990 ; Muhammadans, 4405 ;
and Christians, 317. Land revenue (1874-75), exclusive of water-
rates, ;£i 2,082, or 6s. 8d. per cultivated acre. The surface includes
fertile valleys watered by perennial streams, and forest-clad mountains,


on the slopes of which coffee is grown. The taluk contains i criminal
court, and 9 police stations (thdnds) ; strength of regular police, 90
men, besides 257 village watchmen (chaukiddrs).

Chikmagalur ('Town of the Younger Daughter'). — Chief town of
Kadur District, Mysore Native State ; 130 miles west-north-west of
Bangalore. Lat. 13° 18' 15" n., long. 75 49' 20" 1;. Population (187 1)
2027, including 65 Muhammadans and 82 Christians. No later
details of population are available. The head - quarters of Kadur
District were removed from Kadur town to Chikmagalur in 1865,
and the new station has since greatly increased in prosperity. The
main bazar is a wide thoroughfare 2 miles long, and the weekly
fair on Wednesdays is attended by 3000 people. The wants of the
neighbouring coffee plantations have led to the settlement of several
Musalman traders. A wide belt of trees has been planted, to ward
off the prevailing east winds. The country round is composed of the
fertile black cotton-soil. Head-quarters of Chikmagalur taluk.

Chiknayakanhalli — T&luk in Tumkiir District, Mysore Native
State. Area, 355 square miles. Population (1 881) 33,128, namely, males
16,136, and females 16,993. Hindus number 32,590; Muham-
madans, 528 ; and Christians, 10. Land revenue (1881-82), exclusive
of water-rates, ^"7250, or 3s. 7d. per cultivated acre. Total revenue,
;£i 1,850. The taluk is intersected in the north by a chain of low,
bare hills, to the east of which the country is hilly and jungly, while to
the west and south it is fertile and well cultivated. Principal export
trade, cocoa-nut and areca-nut. The taluk contains 2 criminal courts,
with 8 police stations {thdnds) ; strength of regular police, 7 1 men,
besides 160 village watchmen (chaukiddrs).

Chiknayakanhalli. — Town in Tumkiir District, Mysore Native
State, and head-quarters of Chiknayakanhalli taluk ; 40 miles west-
north-west from Tumkiir town. Lat. 13° 25' 10" x., long. 76 39' 40" e.
Population (1881) 3553, including 225 Muhammadans; municipal
revenue (1874-75), £60 ; rate of taxation, 3d. per head. Founded by
Chikka Nayaka, a chief of the Hagalva house; plundered in 179 1 by
the Maratha general, Parasu Ram Bhao, while on his way to join Lord
Cornwallis before Seringapatam, and said to have yielded a booty of
,£50,000, which the leading men, under torture, were forced to bring
out from the hiding-places where it had been concealed. Now a
prosperous place, surrounded by groves of cocoa-nut and areca palms.
Coarse cotton cloths, white and coloured, are manufactured. Many of
the inhabitants are engaged in the carrying trade. There are 7 well-
endowed temples.

Chikori.— Sub-division of Belgaum District, Bombay Presidency.
Area, 840 square miles; contains 212 villages, of which 158 are
Government and 57 alienated. Population (188 1) 245,614 persons,


or 124,349 males and 121,265 females. Hindus number 206,507;
Muhammadans, 17,067; 'others/ 22,040. The Sub-division contains
1 civil and 4 criminal courts, with 1 2 thdnds or police stations ;
strength of regular police, 85 men ; village watchmen (chaukiddrs),

Chikori. — Head -quarters town of the Chikori Sub-division in
Belgaum District, Bombay Presidency, lying 42 miles north - north-
east of Belgaum, in lat. 16 26' n., and long. 74 38' e. Population
(1881) 6184, according to the District authorities, but not returned in
the list of towns above 5000 inhabitants given in the Census Report.
Chikori is a considerable entrepot of trade between the interior and
the coast, with which it has ready communication by a road from
Nipani over the Phonda Ghat. Ordinary cotton goods are manufac-
tured chiefly for local use. Sub-judge's court and post-office.

Chilambaram (Chedambaram or Chittambaram). — Taluk or Sub-
division in the South Arcot District, Madras Presidency. Area,
254,425 acres (393 square miles), of which 192,830 acres are culti-
vated ; population (1881) 265,250, namely, 248,224 Hindus, 11,557
Muhammadans (all Sunnis), 5467 Christians (chiefly Roman Catholics),
and 2 'others;' distributed in 2 towns and 428 villages, and occupying
38,130 houses. Chief towns, Chilambaram and Porto Novo.
Land revenue demand in 1882-83,^66,332. In the same year, the
Sub-division contained 1 civil and 2 criminal courts, with 12 police
stations (thdnds), and a police force numbering 118 men.

Chilambaram (or, more correctly, Chittambalam, 'the atmosphere of
wisdom ').— Town and head-quarters of Chilambaram taluk, South Arcot
District, Madras Presidency ; 7 miles from the coast and 25 miles south
ofCuddalore. Lat. n° 24' 9" n., long. 79 44' 7 "e. Houses,4 3 65. Popu-
lation (1881) 19,837, namely, 18,583 Hindus, 1154 Muhammadans,
and 100 Christians. As the head-quarters of the taluk, it contains
subordinate revenue, judicial, and police establishments ; post-office,
travellers' bungalow, etc. The weaving of silk and cotton cloth occupies
27 per cent, of the total adult population. In December, a great fair is
held, attracting from 50,000 to 60,000 pilgrims and traders. Municipal
revenue (1881-82) ^1324; incidence of taxation, about 2s. per
head of the rateable population. During the wars of the Karnatic,
Chilambaram was considered a point of considerable strategical import-
ance. In 1749, the ill-fated expedition under Captain Cope, against
Devikota, made a stand here in its retreat ; and here, in the following
year, the armies of Murari Rao and Muzaffar Jang first met. In 1753,
the British garrison was compelled to evacuate Chilambaram by the
French, and the muster of the French and Maratha forces for the
campaign of the following year was held at this town. An attempt by
the British to take the place in 1759 failed. In 1760, the French


surrendered it to Haidar Alt', who strengthened the fortifications and
garrisoned the town ; and when Sir Eyre Coote attacked Chilambaram
in 1 781, he was driven off with loss.

But it is for its temples, held in the highest reverence throughout
Southern India and Ceylon, that Chilambaram is chiefly celebrated.
The principal of these is the Sabhanaiken Kovil or Kanak Sabha
(golden shrine), sacred to Siva and his wife Parvati. Tradition
asserts that the earliest portions of this splendid structure were
built by Hiranya Varna Chakrasti, ' the golden-coloured king,' who
was here cured of leprosy ; and as this name occurs in the Chronicles
of Kashmir as that of a king who conquered Ceylon, some writers
are of opinion that this temple is really the work of a Kashmir
prince of the 5th century. He is said to have brought 3000
Brahmans with him from the north ; and to this day the temple belongs
to some 250 families of a peculiar sect of Brahmans called Dikshatars.

The management of the pagoda may be described as a domestic
hierarchy. All the male married members of the Dikshatar caste or
sect, no matter of what age, have equal shares in its control, and a
single dissentient voice prevents the execution of any project. As soon
as a boy is married, generally as soon after the age of five as possible,
he enters into all the privileges of a managing director. They only
marry among themselves, never with any other class of Brahmans, and
they say that there are no members of their sect in any other part of
India. In 1878, there were 253 married members who managed the
institution, 20 of whom are always on duty at a time for a period of
20 days, which it takes to perform the complete ceremonial tour at
the different shrines in the temple, where daily puja or offerings are
made. On ordinary occasions, the daily .offerings of rice and money
are the property of the 20 Dikshatars on duty \ but on occasions of
festival, or other special ceremonials, when the offerings are unusually
large, the proceeds are equally divided among the whole body of
managers. All the Dikshatars in turn visit the whole of Southern
India, from Madras to Cape Comorin, to collect alms and offerings,
each individual retaining the proceeds of his own collection. No Dik-
shatar will visit a house where he knows that another of the sect has
already been, although in a single village there may be half a dozen
collecting alms from their different constituents at the same time. The
right of performing the ceremonies for a particular family descends
among the Dikshatars from father to son, and even to the widow if
there is no son.

In the 8th century, Pandya Vachakka defeated the Banddhas of Ceylon
in an attempt upon the temple; and between the 10th and 1 7th centuries,
the Chola and Chera Rajas made many additions to the building. It
now covers 39 acres of ground. Two walls, each 30 feet in height,


surround it ; and at each of the four corners stands a solid gopuram or
pyramid 122 feet in height, faced with granite blocks 40 feet in length
and 5 feet thick, covered with copper. The principal court, called * the
hall of a thousand pillars ' (though really containing only 936), presents
a magnificent appearance. In the centre is the shrine of Parvati, a
most beautiful building, containing a golden canopy, with superb
fringes of bullion ; and also the sanctuary, a copper-roofed enclosure,
remarkable for its ugliness. Opposite to it stands the Miratha Sabha,
pronounced by some writers the most perfect gem of art in Southern
India. Besides these there are other sabhas, or halls ; a Vishnu
temple ; a Pillyar temple, containing the largest belly-god in India ; a
remarkable tank, the Sivaganga or Hemapashkarani (golden tank), 50
yards square and 40 feet across, surrounded on all sides with spacious
flights of steps ; and four excellent wells, one of them built of granite
rings placed one on the other, each ring cut from a single block. To
appreciate the labour bestowed upon this extraordinary temple, it must
be remembered that the greater part of it is of granite — with many
monoliths 40 feet high, and over 1000 pillars (all monoliths, and none
less than 26 feet in height) — and that the nearest quarry is 40 miles
distant. Besides the temple, there is nothing remarkable in the town,
except the large number of chattrams, or native rest-houses (about 70),
with which it abounds. The largest is said to be capable of holding
800 or 900 persons.

Chilianwala. — Village in Phalian tahsil, Gujrat District, Punjab,
lying 5 miles from the eastern bank of the Jehlam (Jhelum); distant
from Lahore 85 miles north-west, in lat. 32 39' 46" n., long. 73 38'
52" e. Celebrated as the site of a sanguinary battle in the second Sikh
War. Lord Gough, after marching several days from the Chenab, came
in sight of the enemy near Chilianwala on the afternoon of the 13th
January 1849. While his men were engaged in taking ground for an
encampment, a few shots from the Sikh horse artillery fell within his
lines. The General thereupon gave the order for an immediate
attack ; and our forces moved rapidly forward through the thick jungle,
in the face of masked batteries, which again and again opened a flank
fire upon their unguarded line. Beaten back time after time, they still
advanced upon the unseen enemy, until at last, by some misapprehen-
sion, a regiment of cavalry began to retreat in a somewhat disorderly
manner. Although by this time our troops had taken some 15 or 16 of
the enemy's guns, and our artillery had swept the Sikh line from end to
end, the unfortunate panic amongst the cavalry, the loss of almost an
entire British regiment (the 24th), and the approach of darkness com-
bined to prevent our continuing the action. The Sikhs remained in
possession of more than one British gun, besides holding some of our
colours. At the end of the engagement, the British troops maintained


their position, and the enemy retreated during the night. Our
temporary loss of prestige was fully retrieved by the decisive battle of
Gujrat, a month later, which placed the whole Punjab in the power
of Lord Gough. An obelisk, erected upon the spot, commemorates
the British officers and men who lost their lives upon the field, which is
known to the people of the neighbourhood as Katalgarh, or the ' house
of slaughter.' Chilianwala is identified by General Cunningham with the
battle-field of Alexander and Porus after the passage of the river Jehlam.
Chilka Lake. — A shallow inland sea, situated in the south-east
corner of Puri District, Orissa, and in the extreme south extending
into the Madras District of Ganjam. Lat. 19° 28' to 19° 56' 15" n.,
long. 85 ° 9' to 85 ° 38' 15" e. A long sandy ridge, in places little
more than 200 yards wide, separates it from the Bay of Bengal. On
the west and south it is walled in by lofty hills ; while to the north-
ward it loses itself in endless shallows, sedgy banks, and islands just
peeping above the surface, formed year by year from the silt which the
rivers bring down. A single narrow mouth, cut through the sandy
ridge, connects it with the sea. The lake spreads out into a pear-
shaped expanse of water 44 miles long, of which the northern half has
a mean breadth of about 20 miles, while the southern half tapers into
an irregularly-curved point, barely averaging 5 miles wide. Smallest
area, 344 square miles in the dry weather, increasing to about 450
during the rainy season. Average depth, from 3 to 5 feet, scarcely
anywhere exceeding 6 feet. The bed of the lake is a very few feet
below the high-water level of the sea, although in some parts it is
slightly below low-water mark. The distant inner portion of the lake
keeps about 2 feet higher than the exterior ocean at all stages of the
tide. The narrow tidal stream, which rushes through the neck con-
necting the lake with the sea, suffices to keep the water distinctly salt
during the dry months from December to June. But once the rains
have set in, and the rivers come pouring down upon its northern
extremity, the sea-water is gradually driven out, and the Chilka passes
through various stages of brackishness until it becomes a fresh-water

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 49 of 56)