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sent the ruling family prisoners to Seringapatam, transported the in-
habitants in a body to people his capital, and enlisted the young boys
of the Bedar caste in his own battalions. The palegdr of Nidugal was
conquered by Haidar Ali at about the same time, though the family
survived to be finally extirpated by Tipii in 1792. They are said
to have been descended from a Rajput immigrant, to whom the
country was granted by the Vijayanagar sovereign in the 16th century.
The hill fort of Nidugal became their residence after they had been
driven from the plains by the Musalman Nawab of Sira. The Naya-
kanhatti family were chiefs of smaller note, whose territory had been
absorbed by the Chitaldrug palegdr before the days of Haidar Ali.
On the death of Tipii, in 1799, Chitaldriig was included in the
dominions of the resuscitated Hindu Raja of Mysore. The west and
south suffered during the disturbances ot 1830, which led to the inter-
vention of the Indian Government in 1831 ; and the entire State
remained under direct British administration until 1881. In March
1 88 1, Mysore State was restored to native rule, but the administration
after the British fashion by Divisions and Districts has not been
changed in any important feature.

Populatio?u — A khdna-sumdri, or house enumeration of the people, in
1853-54, returned a total of 289,495 persons. The regular Census of
187 1 ascertained the number to be 531,360, showing an increase of
more than 83 per cent, in the interval of eighteen years, if the earlier
estimate can be trusted. The Census of 1881, however, discloses
a great falling off in population. The number returned in 1881 is
376,310, or a decrease since 1871 of 155,050. This decrease is due
to the severe famine which afflicted Southern India in 1876-78. The
area of Chitaldrug, 4871 square miles, gives an average of 77 persons
per square mile, the lowest average in Mysore State. The most
densely-populated taluk in the District is Davangere. Classified
according to sex, the population is composed of 190,017 males and
[86,293 females; proportion of males, 50 per cent. The occupation
tables return 89,367 male adults as connected with agriculture, and
18,305 as composing the manufacturing and artisan classes. The


religious division of the people shows the following totals— Hindus,
362,502, or 97 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 13,665, or 3 percent. ; Chris-
tians, 143. Among Hindus, the Brahmans number 6905; the claimants
to the rank of Kshatriya or Rajput, 237 ; the Komatis, 3827 ; and the
Jains, 636. Of inferior castes, one of the most numerous is the
Bedar (62,214), hunters, whose chief was the former f alegar ot
Chitaldnig. The Lingayats, a trading class who have always been
influential in this part of the country, and have supplied several
families of petty palegdrs, number in Chitaldnig District 88,094 ;
Vakkaligars, agriculturists, 9873 ; Kunchigars, 21,052. Out-castes are
returned at 40,549, and wandering tribes at 6442. The chief feature
in this ethnical classification is the small proportion of the pure
Hindu castes, as compared with the rest of Mysore State. The
Muhammadans, who muster strongest in the taluk of Davangere, are
almost all of the Sunni sect. Out of the total of 143 Christians,
5 are Europeans and 28 Eurasians, leaving no for the native converts.
According to another principle of classification, there are 29 Protestants
and 114 Roman Catholics.

The District contains 1420 towns and villages, with 70,751 occupied
and 15,471 unoccupied houses. As compared with the area and the
population, these figures give the following averages : — Villages per
square mile, '29; houses per square mile, 177; persons per village,
265; persons per house, 5-32. The only place in the District
containing more than 5000 inhabitants is Davangere (6362), the
chief centre of trade and manufacture, and the residence of many
wealthy Lingayats. Other considerable centres are :— Harihar, where
a native regiment used formerly to be stationed, on the Tungabhadra
river, here crossed by a masonry bridge, erected at a cost of
,£35,000 ; Chitaldrug, the civil head-quarters of the District, but
abandoned as a military cantonment on account of its unhealthi-
ness; and Turvaxur. On the Jogimath, one of the highest hills
immediately south of Chitaldrug town, a teak plantation and sanitarium
have been formed.

Agriculture.- -The greater part of the food-supply is furnished by
' dry crops,' among which the following are the most important \—Ragi
(Cynosurus corocanus) ; jodr (Holcus sorghum) and navane (Panicum
italicum), two varieties of millet; and the pulses, kadali (Cicer
arietinum), togari (Cajanus indicus), and kurali (Dolichos uniflorus).
Rice is only grown in the river valleys. Cotton is extensively raised in
certain tracts, and in the south there are large groves of cocoa-nut palms.
In the east, the soil is so sterile, and the rainfall so small, that even ragi
requires to be regularly irrigated from wells. There are, altogether, 1795
tanks in the District, a comparatively small number for a District in
Mysore. Irrigation is the great want of Chitaldrug; without water


every crop is precarious. Since the beginning of the century, a project
has been under consideration for embanking the Vedavati river,
where it breaks through the central range of the District. The cost is
estimated at ;£i 50,000 ; and 50,000 acres in the fertile but unwatered
plain of Hiriyiir would thus be rendered productive. The following
irrigation works have been recently constructed — Dodderi tank feeder,
at a cost of ^3118, completed in 1881 ; and the Yalluk tank feeder,
completed in 1878 at a cost of ^1701. Out of the total area of
4871 square miles, 1256 are returned as under cultivation, 1761 as
cultivable, and 1854 as uncultivable. The area under rice is 19,017
acres; wheat, 7573; other food-grains, 612,558; oil-seeds, 13,398;
cotton, 16,365 ; vegetables, 1579; cocoa-nut palms, 8270 acres; areca-
nut palms, 4034; sugar-cane, 2058 acres. The returns of agricultural
stock show 5841 carts and 54,079 ploughs. But the chief wealth of
Chitaldriig District consists in its flocks and herds. The common
cattle of the villagers are of a small size ; but on the wide pasture-
grounds belonging to the amrit mahdl, or department for the
improvement of cattle breeds, graze some of the largest and finest
cattle in Southern India. The best cows and buffaloes are bred in
the neighbourhood of Chitaldriig town. The most valuable breeds
of sheep, on the other hand, are to be found in the north-west of the
District. The total number of cows and bullocks is returned at
213,090; of buffaloes, at 54,548; of sheep and goats, at 284,600.

Manufactures, etc. — The staple industries depend upon the local pro-
ductions of cotton, wool, and iron. The weaving of coarse cotton cloth
is carried on in all parts of the District, and several villages are known
for the special fineness or peculiar pattern of their work. Kamblis, or
woollen blankets, are also made everywhere, both white and black, as
well as checked. The size is generally 18 feet long by 6 feet wide, and
the price varies from 32s. to £4. Some are occasionally produced of
so delicate a texture that it is said they can be rolled up into a hollow
bamboo, and ^30 is asked for such a fancy article. The weaving of
silk is confined to a few localities. Iron-ore is largely smelted in the
central hill ranges ; the articles produced are agricultural implements
and weapons of steel. The manufacture of glass ornaments, such as
bangles, forms a speciality of the village of Mattod, in the Harihar
taluk, and in Malebeniir in the Davangere taluk. Coarse paper is
made from old sacking in the Dodderi taluk ; but both the glass and
paper industries have fallen much off in recent years.

The principal centre of trade is the thriving town of Davangere, in
the north-west of the District, where a large through traffic is conducted.
The areca-nut and pepper of the Malnad or hill country of West
Mysore are here exchanged for the piece-goods, hardware, salt, etc.,
imported from Madras, and the kamblis manufactured in the neigh-


bourhood. The merchants mostly belong to the Lingayat sect. The
most frequented religious fair is held at the sacred village of Nayakan-
hatti, in the Dodderi taluk, where 15,000 persons assemble annually.
Other religious festivals are held at the following places : — Kotegudda,
Kalledevarpura, Hiriyur, Maildevarapura, Nagalmadike, Murgi, and
Gurusiddapura. Weekly fairs take place at Davangere, Nayakanhatti,
Harihar, Budihal, and Huliyar. There are no railroads in the District.
The imperial roads have a total length of 191 miles, maintained at an
annual cost of ^3403; of District roads, there are 224 miles, which
cost annually ^1616. First-class dak bungalows for the use of travellers
are established at Bommankere, Chitaldrug, Harihar, and Hiriyur.

Admi?iistration. — In 1881-82, the total revenue of Chitaldrug
District, excluding forests, education, and public works, amounted to
,£79,767. The chief items were — land revenue, ^58,402 ; excise,
^"6171; mohtarfa or assessed taxes, ^4124. The District is
divided into 8 taluks or fiscal divisions, with 5 1 hoblis or minor fiscal
units. In 1881-82, the total number of estates on the register was
77,81 r, owned by 66,349 proprietors or coparceners. During 1874,
the average daily population of the District jail amounted to 27-82,
and of the taluk lock-ups to 11 -68; total, 39*50 (of whom 3*30 were
women), showing 1 person in jail to every 13,855 of the population.
In 1880, the District police force numbered 48 officers and 540
constables; total, 588 men of all ranks, maintained at an aggregate cost
of ^3392. These figures show one policeman to every 7 square miles
of area, or to every 639 persons of the population; the cost being
2^d. per head of population. The number of schools aided and in-
spected by Government in 1874 was 296, attended by 5847 pupils.
In addition, there were 221 unaided schools, with 2831 pupils. In
1 88 1, the Census Report returned 7134 boys and 167 girls as under
instruction; besides 14,843 males and 173 females able to read and
write, but not under instruction.

Medical Aspects.— The climate of Chitaldrug is characterized by a
drier heat than the rest of Mysore. The rainfall is considerably
less, and there are few forests or inequalities of surface to moderate
the radiation from the bare plain. In the western part, a cool breeze
from the west sometimes blows at night in the hot season. The mean
average temperature during the year is about 78J F., the hottest month
being April. The average rainfall at Chitaldrug town, calculated on
the twelve years ending 1881, amounts to only 25-32 inches. Nearly
one-half of this falls in the single month of October, at the season of
the breaking of the north-east monsoon. Certain parts of the District,
including the Hiriyur and Dodderi taluks, receive less than 10 inches in
the year; and if this supply fails, severe distress is inevitably occasioned.

The vital statistics of the District are far from trustworthy ; but it may


be mentioned that out of the total of 6134 deaths reported in 1881,
3981 were assigned to fevers, 346 to bowel complaints, 41 to small-pox,
and 28 to snake-bite and wild beasts. As throughout the greater part
of Mysore, outbreaks of cholera are rare. In 1880, the hospital and
dispensary at Chitaldrug town afforded aid to 8362 persons. [For
further information regarding Chitaldrug District, see the Gazetteer of
Mysore and Coorg, by L. Rice, Esq., vol. ii. pp. 450-504 (Bangalore,
1876); also the Census Report of Mysore, 1881 ; and the Administration
Reports for 1880 to 1883.]

Chitaldrug. — Taluk in Chitaldrug District, Mysore State. Area,
619 square miles; land revenue (1881-82), exclusive of water-rates,
^8124. A range of hills running north and south divides the taluk
into two almost equal portions. In the southern portion, the hills are
bold and striking. The western part of the taluk is best supplied
with water, and contains the Bhimasamudra tank, 3J miles long by 2
miles broad. Population (1881) 51,689, namely, males 25,888,
females 25,881. The Hindus number 49,168 ; Muhammadans, 2457 1
Christians, 64. The taluk contains (1883-84) 2 criminal courts;
number of police stations (thdnds), 11; regular police, 107 men;
village watchmen, 2707.

Chitaldrug (' Spotted castle,' or 'Umbrella rock'). — Chief town of
the District of Chitaldrug, Mysore State; 126 miles north-west of
Bangalore. Lat. 14 14' n., long. 76 26' e. Population (188 1) 4271.
The modern town stands at the north-east base of a cluster of hills,
covered with extensive fortifications. Many inscriptions have been
found of the Chalukya, Ballala, and Vijayanagar dynasties. Local
history commences with the family of the Chitaldrug palegdrs, who
trace back to the 15th century. Their hereditary title was Nayak, and
they claimed descent from the Bedar or Boya caste of hunters and
mountaineers. They gradually extended their power on ail sides until
they came into collision with Haidar Ali, who captured Chitaldrug in
1779, sent the last of the Nayaks prisoner to Seringapatam, and dis-
persed the Bedar population. The remains of the mud fort and palace
of the f alegars are still to be seen. Haidar Ali erected a formidable
stone fortress, within which his son Tipii built a palace, now used as
a court-house. In the city were also constructed immense granaries
and pits, for storing oil and ghi. Inside the fortifications are 14 temples,
of which the principal, dedicated to Huchangi-amma, has two storeys.
Water is conducted to all the streets from the Timmalnayakan tank.
The cantonments have been abandoned as a station for British troops,
on account of their unhealthiness. The weavers of Chitaldrug were
once celebrated, but only country blankets and coarse cotton cloth are
now made. In the neighbourhood of the town are several maths or
Hindu monasteries. The largest is the Murgi math, 3 miles to the


north-west, the residence of the chief guru or spiritual leader of the
Sivabhakts or Sivachars.

Chitalmari.— Village in Khulna District, Bengal j situated on the
banks of the Madhumati. The site of an annual fair held at the end
of March, lasting six days, and attended by about 4000 people daily.

Chitang. — River in Ambala (Umballa) and Karnal Districts, Pun-
jab ; rises in the plains a few miles south of the Saraswati (Sursati),
with which it runs parallel for a distance. Near Balchafiar the two
rivers apparently unite in the sands, but reappear in two distinct
channels farther down, the Chitang running parallel with the Jumna
(Jamuna), and then turning westward towards Hansi and Hissir. The
bed in this part of its course affords a channel for the Hissar branch of
the Western Jumna Canal. Traces of the deserted waterway are visible
as far as the Ghaggar, which it formerly joined some miles below
Bhatner ; but the stream is now entirely diverted into the canal. In
former days it lost itself in the sand, like others of the smaller Cis-
Sutlej rivers. Some authorities consider that the Chitang is an
artificial channel. Cultivation extends along its banks in a few
isolated patches, but for the most part a fringe of dense jungle lines
its course.

Chita Rewa. — River of the Central Provinces, rising in Chhindwara
District, and after a course of over 50 miles, falling into the Shakar,
about a mile above the railway bridge at Patlon in Narsinghpur
District. The coal, worked by the Narbada (Nerbudda) Mining
Company, appears in the gorge through which this river leaves the
Satpura table-land.

Chitarkot. — Hill and place of pilgrimage in Banda District, North-
western Provinces; distant 71 miles from Allahabad, and 42 miles
from Banda. The Paisuni river flows beneath its base, which has a
circumference of some 3 miles. A terrace runs round the hill-side,
upon which pilgrims perform the ceremony of circumambulation. In
former times, the hill was more frequented as a place of pilgrimage
than any other in Bundelkhand or Baghelkhand. It is said to have
attained its great sanctity in the Treta-yug, or the third of the Hindu
ages of the world, when it was visited by Rama during his wanderings
in the jungles. Thirty-three shrines, dedicated to various deities,
crown the surrounding hills or fringe the banks of the Paisuni. The
temple attendants hold the revenues of 39 villages within British
territory, besides several others in the adjoining Native States. Two
large fairs take place annually, on the occasion of the Rdm-ndmi and
Diwdli festivals, which formerly attracted from 30,000 to 45,000
visitors, but not more than 15,000 now attend. The alleged causes of
the falling off are that Rajas do not attend the festivals in such number,
or so frequently, as heretofore j and also that the Peshwa s family at


Kanvi, which was among its chief patrons, has become impoverished.
Thirty ghats, or bathing-places, along the banks of the river are held
by Brahman families, who levy dues upon the pilgrims. Tradition sets
down the total number of religious buildings at 360, a sacred number
of constant occurrence throughout Upper India.

Chitartala. — River of Cuttack District, Orissa. A branch of the
Mahanadi, which leaves the parent stream about 10 miles below the
point where it throws off the Birupa. After flowing a few miles, the
Chitartala bifurcates into the Chitartala and the Nun. These streams
re-unite after a course of about 20 miles ; and under the name of the
Nun, the united waters fall into the Mahanadi estuary a few miles from
the coast, and so into the Bay of Bengal. The Kendrapara Canal runs
along the north bank of the Chitartala to the point where the Nun
diverges to the northwards, whence it proceeds along the bank of the
latter river till it drops into tidal waters at Marsaghai, after a total length
of 42 J miles from Cuttack.

Chit-Pirozpur. — Town in Ballia District, North- Western Provinces.
— See Baragaon.

Chitor. — Town in Udaipur (Oodeypore) Native State, Rajputana.
Lat. (according to Thornton), 24 52' n., long. 74 41' e. Population
(1881) 6931, namely, Hindus, 5736; and Muhammadans, 1195. The
town is situated on the Nimach and Nasirabad road, 30 miles from the
former and 114 from the latter, and a station of the Holkar and Sindhia-
Nimach State Railway. It lies immediately at the foot of the western
slope of the hill, on which is situated the celebrated fort called Chitorgarh.
The town is nearly rectangular in form, and is defended by a wall con-
nected with the fort. The Gameri, an affluent of the Berach, flows to
the west, at a distance of 680 yards, and is spanned by a very solid old
masonry bridge of 9 arches, in good order, but without parapets. The
fort, Chitorgarh, stands on a long narrow hill, lying almost exactly north
and south. Its area is 693 acres ; extreme length from wall to wall
5735 y ar ds, and greatest width 836 yards; total length of the ramparts
12,113 yards. The nature of the hill itself is solid rock, gradually
sloping upwards from the plain, and more or less precipitous throughout
the whole extent at the top ; the stratification is nearly horizontal ; but
the dip is from the east and west towards the centre, and this form has
,been taken advantage of in forming tanks, of which there are 5 large
ones in the southern half of the fort. At the extreme south end is a
small round hill known as Chitoria, connected with the main hill by a
saddle-back; the distance between the edge of this hill and the southern
bastion is 150 yards, but the fort wall is 150 feet above it. The general
level of the country is little more than 1300 feet above the sea. The
height of the extreme northern end of the fort-wall is 1761 feet, and of
the extreme southern point 1819 feet. Of the three approaches to the


three main gates of the fort, the principal, from the city on the west,
ascends the hill gradually in a northern direction for about 1080 yards,
passing under two gateways ; the road then zig-zags for some 500 yards
more, passing under three more gateways, before it arrives at the main
gate of the fortress, known as the Ram Pol. The total length of the
ascent is 1595 yards, and the slope, which is nearly uniform throughout,
is about 1 in 15; the whole roadway is roughly paved. The second
gate, known as the Lakola, is at the extreme northern point of the fort,
and the ascent to it is by a small rugged pathway, little used. On the
eastern face is the third entrance, known as the Siiraj Pol ; the ascent
to it is about 750 yards in length, the latter half being paved. There
is an abundant supply of water inside the fort from tanks, 32 in
number ; and there is also a perennial spring from the lower part of the
precipice over the city, which appears to be excellent drinking water.
Though the soil inside the walls is very rocky, a great portion of the
northern half produces annual crops of jodr. In the centre are
a few wheat -fields irrigated from the tanks, but to the south it is
quite uncultivated. Little of pasturage is to be found inside the
walls. As a fortress the place possesses great advantages ; the hill
itself, averaging about 450 feet above the surrounding country, pre-
cipitous at the top, and the whole covered with dense dhao jungle,
forms in itself no slight obstacle ; and there is no commanding position
within the range of even modern artillery. This ancient fortress was
the capital of the country from a.d. 728, when Bapa Rawal, according
to tradition, wrested it from the then reigning chief, till 1568, when it
was finally deserted on its storm and capture by the Emperor Akbar.
The oldest monument now standing is the Khowasin Sthamba, a
remarkable square pillar 75 J feet in height, 30 feet in diameter at the
base, and 15 feet at the top, and covered with Jain figures. Tod
mentions a fragment of an inscription at its base bearing date a.d. 896;
and it may be accepted as the work of the 10th century. There are
also many Jain inscriptions still extant ; but the oldest noted by Tod
was dated 755. The entire top of the hill is covered with the ruins ot
temples, palaces, and reservoirs, all fully described by Tod. The chief
object of interest is the Khirat Khumb, the pillar erected in 1450 by
Rana Khiimbhu, to commemorate his defeat of the combined armies
of Malwa and Gujarat in 1439. This column is 122 feet in height;
the breadth of each face at the base is 35 feet, and at the summit,
immediately under the cupola, 17 \ feet. It stands on a terrace, 42
feet square, and has 9 distinct storeys, with openings at every face of
each storey. It is built chiefly of compact limestone and the quartz
rock on which it stands, and the whole is covered with architectural
ornaments and sculpture representing an immense variety of mytho-
logical subjects.


Chitra (' The Variegated] or ' Glancing Waters '). — River in Jessor
District, Bengal. In Rennel's Bengal Atlas, of the last century, this river
appears as an offshoot of the Nabaganga, at a point 3 miles from where
the latter river left the Matabhanga. At the present day, however, the
head of the Chitra is completely closed, partly by the silting up of the
Nabaganga, and partly by an artificial disconnection with it, by means
of an embankment which an indigo planter threw across the head of
the Chitra about forty-five years ago. The river flows through Jessor
in a south-south-easterly direction, past Kaliganj, Khajuri, Ghorakhali,
Naral, and Gobra, till it loses itself in the low marshy country in the
interior of the District. Navigable in a portion of its course by boats
of about 2 tons burthen from the commencement of the rains up to
December, but before the end of February closed to all but the smallest

Chitral. — The capital of a State of the same name in the Kunar or
Kashkar valley, Kashmir. Lat. 35° 55' n., long. 71 56' e. ; elevation,
5 200 feet ; 48 miles south-west from Mastuj, on the Kashkar river. The
soil of the valley is fertile, producing much grain and quantities of many
European fruits, as well as excellent grapes. According to tradition,
Chitral was the wine cellar of Afrasiab. The valley resembles
Kafaristan in physical features and coldness of climate. The men
of the valley are tall and well-made, and the women remarkable
for their beauty, bearing a strong resemblance in their physiognomy

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 51 of 56)