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taneously, one from Cachar under General Bouchier, the other from


Chittagong under General Brownlow. The operations of these columns,
extending over a period of five months, were entirely successful; the
captives were recovered, and the offending tribes tendered their sub-
mission, and were required to pay a heavy fine for their unprovoked
attacks. Since that date, no disturbance has taken place within British
territory, although intertribal affrays have occurred beyond the frontier.
The Hill Tracts were separated from the Regulation District of Chitta-
gong in i860.

Population. — According to the Census of 1881, the Chittagong
Hill Tracts contain a population of 101,597 persons, spread over an
area of 5419 square miles, and inhabiting 15,003 houses. The
average density of the population is 1875 P er square mile, and the
average number of houses, 277 per square mile. Classified according
to sex, the number of males is 56,546, and of females, 45,051. The
great majority of the population are either Chakmas or Maghs (more cor-
rectly, Kyoungtha), both of which races profess the Buddhist religion, and
are about equally divided in number. These two Buddhist tribes together
number 73,970, or 72*8 per cent, of the population. The remainder
consist of 7292 Muhammadans, 20,285 Hindus, and 50 Christians,
including 1 unspecified. The tribes inhabiting the District are divided
into two classes — (1) the Kyoungtha, or 'Children of the River,' who
are of Arakanese origin, speak the ancient Arakan dialect, and follow
the Buddhist religion and customs ; and (2) the Toungtha, or ' Children
of the Hills,' who are either aborigines or of mixed origin, speak
different dialects, and are more purely savages than the Kyoungtha.
The Kyoungtha (or Jumia Maghs, as they are also called) are sub-divided
into 15 clans ; they all dwell in village communities, having a rodjd
or village head, through whom they pay revenue. The villages to the
south of the Karnaphuli river are subject to a chief called the Bohmong,
who lives at Bandarban, on the Sangu river ; while those to the north
of the Karnaphuli acknowledge the supremacy of the Mong Raja.
Their spoken language is a dialect of Arakanese ; the written character
is the same as the Burmese. The Chakmas form numerically the
largest tribe in the District. Although the majority of them do not
speak Arakanese, Captain Lewin classes them with the Kyoungtha
on account of the similarity of their habits. The name is sometimes
spelt Tsakma or Tsak, or, in Burmese, Thek. Mr. Hodgson believes
that they are of aboriginal descent. The tribe is divided into 40
clans, each presided over by an hereditary diwdn or head-man, who
decides disputes, etc. Although the Chakmas profess the Buddhist
faith, they are, in consequence of their constant contact with Bengalis,
gradually evincing a tendency towards Hinduism. In one point they
differ from all the other hill tribes, — they are very averse to changing
the sites of their villages, which are kept from generation to generation



at one place. The Toungtha tribes, or ' Children of the Hills,' con-
sist of the Tipperahs, Mrungs, Kumis, Mros, and Khyengs, all
tributary and entirely under British control ; the Bangis and Pankhos,
who, although paying no revenue, are subject to our influence ; and
the Lushais or Kukis, and the Shendus, who are entirely independent.
These tribes are in every respect wilder than the Kyoungtha, and less
amenable to civilisation. Their villages are generally situated on lofty
hills, and are difficult of access. Their clothing is extremely scanty,
and their women do not hold so high a position as those of the
Kyoungtha tribes. ' They worship the natural elements, and have vague
and undefined ideas of some divine power which overshadows all.'
Detailed accounts of the manners and customs of each of the tribes
of the District will be found in Captain Lewin's valuable work already
referred to.

There are no towns of any importance in the District. The largest
village is Bandarban, the residence of the Bohmong, which has a
population of about 2000. The village of Rangamati, the head-quarters
of the District, had, in 1881, a population of only 792. Apart from
the military police force, the Government servants, and a few Bengali
shopkeepers, the whole population is agricultural.

Agriculture. — Rice is the staple crop of the District. It is sown in
April or May, and reaped in August, September, or October, according
to the kind of crop. There are fourteen principal varieties, with
numerous sub-divisions, differing more or less in colour and size of the
grain and husk. The method of cultivation is that known as jum,
which has been well described by Captain Lewin, from whose book,
already referred to, the following account is condensed. In April, a
convenient piece of forest land is fixed upon, generally on a hill-side.
This is cleared by cutting away the undergrowth and denuding the
larger trees of their lower branches. The fallen jungle is then allowed
to dry in the sun, and in May it is fired. If it has thoroughly dried,
and no rain has fallen since the jum was cut, this firing reduces all
but the large forest trees to ashes, and burns the soil to the depth
of an inch or two. The charred trees and logs previously cut down
remain lying about the ground, and have to be dragged off the jum.
They are piled up all round, and form, with the addition of brush-
wood, a sort of fence to keep out wild animals. Nothing now remains
to be done, until the gathering of heavy clouds and the grumbling of
thunder herald the approach of the rains. Then all is activity ; and
the jum is planted with the mixed seeds of cotton, rice, melons,
pumpkins, yams, and a little Indian corn. If, shortly afterwards, or
better still, during the process of sowing, rain falls, a good harvest may
be expected. The jums, which are always in clusters, are carefully
watched to protect them from wild hog and deer, which would other-


wise play havoc among the young rice ; and the crops must be kept
clear of weeds by hand labour. The first to ripen is Indian corn,
about the end of July ; next melons, of two or three sorts ; afterwards
vegetables of all kinds ; and in September, the rice and other grain.
In October, the cotton crop is gathered, and this ends the harvest.
The rice, having been cut, is beaten from the ear in the jum ; it is
afterwards rolled up in rough, straw-covered bales, and carried to the
village granary. The crops grown for export are cotton, tobacco, tea,
and potatoes. During the last few years, attempts have been made to
introduce plough cultivation, but with little success. In order to put
a stop to the extortion of money-lenders, who charged exorbitant rates
of usury for advances to the hillmen, the Government sanctioned
advances without interest, the amount not to exceed the money to be
expended on local works during the following season. The advances
are repaid by labour ; and under this system the price of the labour of
the hillmen during November, December, and January may be esti-
mated at 7§d. a day. During the cultivating season, local labour is
not obtainable even at the rate of 2s. a day, and coolies from Chitta-
gong District have to be engaged, whose average daily wage is 6 jd.
each. The price of rice in 1870 was 6s. 3d. per cwt. for the best,
and 4s. i^d. per cwt. for the common description. Paddy sold in
that year at is. od. per cwt. for the best, and is. 4d. per cwt. for the
coarser quality. Prices vary much in different parts of the District.
In order that the jum mode of cultivation may be successful, the
cultivator must move every year to a fresh piece of jungle land, so
that tenures, properly so called, only exist where the indigenous system
of cultivation has been abandoned. Land tenures are, indeed, found
within the boundaries of the Chittagong Hill Tracts ; but with the
exception of forest and grass land settlements, they are merely
extensions of those in the Regulation District of Chittagong, and
only differ from them in that they now lie beyond the Collector's

Pigs, deer, monkeys, and birds are very destructive to the
crops, which require to be watched day and night. Armies of
rats occasionally overrun the District, and commit great havoc ;
they eat both standing corn and the grain in the houses of the
hill people, and disappear from the Hill Tracts as suddenly as they
come. In 1881-82, an irruption of these pests devastated the country
both beyond the frontier, and within the British territories of the Hill
Tracts, to such an extent as to cause famine, and to necessitate
Government relief in the shape of advances of money and grain.
Loss of crops from flood is scarcely possible in this hilly country, but
cotton is sometimes injured by a too heavy rainfall, especially when
this occurs at the beginning of the rainy season.


Commerce and Trade, etc. — The chief imports of the Chittagong
Hill Tracts are rice and salt; and the more valuable exports, raw
cotton and India rubber. The imports in 1 880-81 were — paddy, or
unhusked rice, 1642 tons : rice, 596 tons; and salt, 255 tons ; exports

raw cotton, 3993 tons ; and india rubber, 9 tons. The chief markets

are at Kasalang, Rangamati, Chandraguna, and Demagiri, on the
Karnaphuli river ; Malchari, on the Chengri ; Bandarban, on the
Sangu ; and Tipperah Bazar and Grish Chandra Bazar, on the Pheni
river. The roads in the Hill Tracts are mere footpaths ; and even
where they have been made of considerable width, there is so little
traffic that the jungle has again sprung up and left only enough clear
space to enable persons to walk in single file.

Administration. — In 1846-47, the whole revenue of the Hill Tracts

consisted of the capitation tax, amounting to £ 11 80 ; and it was not

until 1866-67 that any attempt was made to improve the revenue. In

that year it amounted to £3394, while the total expenditure was

£8440. In 1870-71, the revenue amounted to £4206, and the

expenditure to £14.332- By 1874-75, the total revenue had increased

(owing mainly to the collection of river-tolls having been made over

to the Forest Department) to £12,799; while the expenditure was

^19,404, of which £14,804 was on account of the military police

maintained for the protection of the frontier, leaving only £4600 for

all other expenses of administration. In 1881-82, the total revenue

amounted to ,£12,763, or £36 less than in 1S74-75. But in 1874-75,

£10,244 represented the revenue from river-tolls and forest produce,

leaving only £2555 for the remaining items, such as capitation and

land tax, and other miscellaneous sources of income. In 1881-82,

the revenue from river tolls and forest produce was £7720, the decrease

beino- caused by reductions in the rates of tolls ; while the other sources

of revenue, mentioned above, amounted to £5043, or nearly double

what it was in 1874-75. On the other hand, the expenditure has

risen from £i9,4°4 i n l8 74"75 to £ 2 3> IQI m 1S81-S2, the increase

being mainly due to the enhanced cost of maintenance of the frontier

force, which amounted to £19,668 in 18S1-S2. The machinery for

the protection of person and property in the Chittagong Hill Tracts,

although called by the name of police, is for the most part a military

force, trained and expensively armed so as to serve as a protection to

the District against raids from the tribes farther east. The police

employed purely on civil duties numbered in 1S81-82, 109 men of

all ranks ; while the frontier or semi-military police numbers 539 of all

ranks. Both forces are embodied under Act v. of 186 r, but the latter

are subject to the provisions of a special Regulation (hi. of 1881),

which provides penalties for offences of a military character. There is

no jail in the Hill Tracts ; convicts being sent to Chittagong town.


Two Government schools were established in the District, in 1875, at
Rangamati and Mdnikchari. They are both boarding-schools ; and
although free tuition, together with the payment of all ordinary ex-
penses, is offered in order to induce the most promising boys to attend,
the greatest difficulty is experienced in getting the hill people to send
their sons.

Medical Aspects.— The climate of the Hill Tracts is cool, and to
natives healthy, though the reverse is the case with strangers. The
most unhealthy month is September, at the close of the rains, and fever
of a bad type is then very prevalent. Cholera in an epidemic form
occurred in 1881-82, and it is believed caused the death of over 4000
persons. [For further information regarding the Chittagong Hill Tracts,
see the Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. vi. pp. 1-106 (London: Triibner
& Co., 1876). Also Report on the Hill Tracts of Chittagong and the
Dwellers therein, by Captain T. H. Lewin (Calcutta, 1869); the Bengal
Census Report for 1881 ; and the Annual Administration Reports of
Bengal from 1880 to 1883.]

Chitta Pahar. — Mountain range in Rawal Pindi District, Punjab,
having the general form of a wedge or triangle, whose base rests upon
the left bank of the Indus, near the town of Nara, while its apex
stretches to the Margala Pass, about 50 miles to the eastward. The
broadest portion has a depth of some 1 2 miles. The range derives its
name from the white nummulitic limestone of which it is composed.
Here and there patches of acacia or wild olive clothe its rugged sides,
but over the main portion a coarse grass forms the only vegetation. No
rivers of any importance rise upon its slopes, the western end being
drained by gorges which debouch directly into the Indus, while ravines
on the northern and southern declivities carry off the surface water into
minor streams on either side. The separate hills assume most fantastic
shapes, being furrowed by broad glens, and interspersed with conical
hillocks; while the dark red or purple colour of the soil contrasts
strongly with the white or blue-grey tint of the underlying rock. No
human habitations exist upon the range ; lime is produced in consider-
able quantities from quarries on its side.

Chittawadigi.— Town in Bellary District, Madras Presidency. Lat.
15 17' n., long. 76 47' 16" e. Population (1881) 3759, namely, 2890
Hindus, 853 Muhammadans, and 16 Christians. Situated 2 miles
from Hospet, and the same distance from the Tungabhadra river. The
chief market for the western taluks of the District, and for goods im-
ported from the Nizam's Dominions. The town, which contains three
or four good streets, is the residence of many of the leading merchants
of Hospet. The Bela channel runs through the middle of the

Chittivalasa.— Town in Yizagapatam District, Madras Presidency.


Lat. 1 7 56' 20" N., long. 83 29' 30" e. Houses, 381. Population
(1881) 18 1 9. Situated on the road from Bimlipatam to Vizianagaram
and Chicacole, the Chittivalasa and Gosthani rivers being here bridged.
Large jute factory and travellers' bungalow.

Chittivalasa (or Bimlipatam). — River in Vizagapatam District,
Madras Presidency, rising in lat. 18 16' n., long. 83 6' e., at the foot
of the Golconda Hill, and, after a south-easterly course of 58 miles
(during which it passes Gopalapalli, Jami, and other towns), flowing
into the sea at Bimlipatam. At the town of Chittivalasa, a few miles
from its mouth, it is bridged for the Trunk road.

Chittlir. — Taluk or Sub-division of North Arcot District, Madras
Presidency; area, 671 square miles, containing 1 town and 460 villages.
Houses, 30,227. Population (1881) 171,907, namely, 86,779 males
and 85,128 females. Chittur is the most central taluk in North
Arcot. It consists of a plain, broken by a large number of naked
rocky hills rising abruptly from the surrounding country, and covered
with enormous granite boulders. Watered by four streams, the Chittur,
Venkatagiri, Aragunda, and Airala, all tributaries of the Poini river,
which only contain water in the rainy season. The soil is good,
being generally a red clay mixed with sand and fertilized by vegetable
matter and detritus brought down from the hills. The peasantry
mostly belong to Telugu castes, and are painstaking, industrial culti-
vators. The ordinary ' wet ' crops are rice and sugar-cane ; the ' dry '
crops being ragi y kambu, and c/wlam, with horse gram on the poorer
soils. Iron was formerly largely smelted in several villages, but this
industry has greatly declined of late years. The other minerals
comprise lime and building stone, and a soft soapstone. Land revenue
demand in 1882-83, ,£19,377. The taluk contains 1 civil and 3
criminal courts, with 8 police stations (thdnds) ; strength of police
force, 81 men.

Chittlir ('Little ToTvn 1 ). — Town in North Arcot District, Madras
Presidency, and head-quarters of North Arcot District and of Chittur
taluk. Lat. 1 3 13' 20" n., long. 79 8' 10" e. Houses, 891. Popu-
lation (1881) 5809, namely, 4720 Hindus, 1026 Muhammadans, and 63
Christians. Situated in the valley of the Poini river, 18 miles north of
the Vellore railway station, and 100 miles by road from Madras. Being
the head-quarters of the District administration, it contains the courts
of the Judge and Collector, with their subordinate establishments,
District jail, police station, school, dispensary, etc. Besides the public
offices, the town possesses an English church with a native mission chapel
attached to it, and a Roman Catholic chapel. Chittur was a military
station until 1874, but is now, except as the official centre, of no
importance. Formerly a private estate of the Arcot family, and in 1781
occupied by the British troops under Sir Eyre Coote. Civil disturbances



necessitated in 1804 the realization of the revenue by means of a military

Chittlir. — Town in the State of Cochin, Madras Presidency. Lat.
io° 42' 30" n., long. 76 44' e. Population (1875) 11,103, chiefly
Nairs, Vallalas, and weavers. No later statistics of population are
available. Being the head-quarters of the taluk, it contains one of
the Raja's palaces and the native official establishments. The Brahmans
inhabit a quarter by themselves.

Chitwail (ChitiveluJ. — Town in Palampet taluk, Cuddapah District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 14 10' 30" n., long. 79 24' 29" e. Houses,
540. Population (1881) 2774, namely, 2471 Hindus and 303 Muham-
madans. Formerly the capital of a petty kingdom, the Palegar of
Chitwal being one of the chief Hindu lieutenants of the Vijayanagar
kings on the western side of the Ghats ; and till 1802, when the Palegar
was dispossessed and pensioned by the British, the head-quarters of an
estate (polliem) of the same name.

Chobari. — Petty State in North Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency ;
consisting of 3 villages, with 2 independent tribute-payers. Estimated
revenue in 188 1, ,£521 ; tribute is payable of ^15, 8s. to the British
Government, and ^4, 10s. to Junagarh.

Chok. — Petty State in Undsarviya, Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency ;
consisting of 2 villages, with 2 independent tribute-payers. Estimated
revenue in 1881, ^680 ; tribute is payable of ^39, 8s. to the Gaekwar
of Baroda, and £2, 6s. to Junagarh.

Chokahatu {'Place of Mourning' 1 ). — Village in the Tamar pargand,
in the south-east of Lohardaga District, Bengal. It takes its name from
a large burial-ground, covering an area of 7 acres, and containing more
than 7000 tombs, which is still used by the Mundas of Chokahatu, and
9 surrounding villages.

Chokampati. — Estate in Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency,
lying between 8° 5S' and 9 10' n. lat, and between 77 23' and 77
32' e. long. Formerly of considerable importance, but now split up
into 18 sub-holdings. The chief town, Chokampati, situated in lat.
90 8' n., long. 77° 24' 20" e., contains 1327 houses, with (1S81) 5945
inhabitants, almost all Hindus.

Chola (Choda ; in Asoka's inscriptions, Chora; the Chorai of
Ptolemy; Choliya of Hwen Thsang ; and Sara of Pliny). — An ancient
division of Dravida, conterminous, roughly, with the Tamil country
north of the Kaveri (Cauvery) river, and having its capital near the site
of the modern Trichinopoli. In the nth century, the Chola kings
conquered the neighbouring kingdom of the Pandiyans, and overran
the whole country down to Cape Comorin, becoming the paramount
power of the south, and giving princes to Telingana. They also con-
quered the Kongu country (or Eastern Chora, as it seems to have then


been). The tradition as to the common origin of the three kingdoms
of Chola, Chera, and Pandya (see Chera) is borne out by the fact that
the language of the Cholas never differed from that of the Pandyas, and
but little from that of Chera, as appears from the Indo-Syrian and
Jewish inscriptions of the 8th century. By whatever local or dynastic
names they called themselves — whether Cholas, Cheras, or Pandyas —
they continued to be called Dravidas, and the language they spoke was
everywhere known as Dravida or Tamil. The modern term Coromandel
is by some writers believed to be a corruption of Cholamandalam,
'the realm of the Cholas.' The Chola kingdom rose to its greatest
height of prosperity under the great king, Kulottunga i. (a.d.
1064-1113). It was finally destroyed by the Muhammadan inroad of
1 3 10. — See Chera.

Chopda. — Sub-division and town, Khandesh District, Bombay
Presidency. — See Chopra.

Chope. — Small coal-field situated in the valley of the Mohani river,
Hazaribagh District, Bengal ; about 8 miles in a direct line a little north
of west from Hazaribagh town. Elevation, about 2000 feet above the
sea. This coal-field, which takes its name from the principal village in
the vicinity, is the smallest known in India, covering an area of only
three-quarters of a square mile. The coal is consequently very limited
in quantity, and, as it is also of poor quality, the field is of little value.
It is approached from Hazaribagh by a road which, for the most part,
passes over alluvium, but in its vicinity there are occasional outcrops
of metamorphic rocks, some of which are accompanied by extremely
rich deposits of iron.— fe Hazaribagh District.

Chopra (Chopda). — Sub-division of Khandesh District, Bombay Presi-
dency. Area, 368 square miles ; contains 1 town and 91 villages. Popu-
lation (1881) 59,835, namely, males 30,321, and females 29,514. Hindus
number 51,660; Muhammadans, 5378; 'others,' 2797. The Sub-
division consists of two valleys formed by a spur of the Satpura ranges,
that run across it obliquely from east to west. The southern valley
is a part of the rich north Tapti plain, and follows the course of that
river. The northern or inner valley, known as the Dhauli fara/i, is a
broken and hilly country, unsurveyed, covered with dense forest, in-
habited by a wild tribe of Bhils, and infested by wild beasts. The
southern or Tapti valley is fairly well supplied with well water, but
none of the streams are suited for irrigation. The chief rivers are the
Tapti, which forms the southern boundary of the Sub-division for ^^
miles, and its tributaries, the Aner and the Guli. The prevailing soil
is a rich, black, alluvial clay, resting on a yellowish subsoil. The total
area surveyed is 295 square miles, or 248,800 acres. Of this, in 1878-79,
113,274 acres were under tillage, namely, 66,977 acres under cereals,
3605 acres under pulses, 7521 acres under oil-seeds, 33,816 acres


under fibres, and 1355 acres under miscellaneous crops. In 1856-57,
the year of Settlement, 5217 separate holdings were returned, with an
average area of 19*46 acres, each paying an average rental of £2, 13s. id.
Divided among the agricultural population, these holdings would repre-
sent an average of 7*66 acres for each person, paying an average rental
of ;£i, os. iofd. Distributed among the total population, the average
area would be 2-94 acres, and the average land tax, 8s. o|d. per
head. Total land revenue realizable in 1883, ^17,942. The Sub-
division contained in the same year, 2 criminal courts, with 1 police
station (thdud) ; strength of regular police, 39 men ; village watchmen
(chaukiddrs), 115.

Chopra (Chopda). — Chief town of Chopra Sub-division in Khan-
desh District, Bombay Presidency ; 8 miles from the right bank of
the river Tapti, 51 miles north-east of Dhulia, and 32 north-west of
Bhusawal ; in 21 15' 15" n. lat., and 75 20' 25" e. long. Chopra is

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 54 of 56)