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an annual grant of ^3000, to defray the cost of publishing translations
of books teaching the European sciences, and also standard works in
Sanskrit and Arabic. Dispensaries for the European and Yunani system
of medicine have likewise been established.

Revenue. — The revenue of Kashmir State was estimated in 1876 at
Rs. 8,075,782, or ^807,578. The whole of the land in the State is
considered to have been, time out of mind, the property of the ruler.
During the rule of the earlier Hindu Rajas, i.e. till about the beginning
of the 14th century A.D., one-sixth of the produce was paid to the State.
The Musalman Sultans, who succeeded, continued at first to collect at
the same rate. But they, and afterwards the Mughal Emperors of Delhi,
began gradually to make enhancements, which reached their climax
under the regime of the Duranis, by whose time half the produce in
the case of rice, the staple of the Province, had come to be regarded as
the rightful share of the ruler ; and even to this, additions were generally
made. The first Sikh Governor continued to levy the land revenue at
the previously existing heavy rates. Some of the extra cesses were,
however, reduced by his successor, General Mian Singh, about 1833.

Great frauds having been discovered in the superintendence of the
crops while growing, a rough assessment was made in the following way.
The grain, as it was cut, was tied up into little sheaves which a man
could grasp with his two hands, the fingers meeting. It was the
business of the village shakddr, or watcher of the crops, to see that all
the grain cut was so stored ; and the village patwdri, or accountant,
then had to number the sheaves in the different heaps. This being
done, respectable men, specially chosen for the purpose by the kdrddr or
governor, came round and took out of the heaps certain average sheaves,
which were threshed out in their presence, the produce weighed, and
the total out-turn of grain in the village thus estimated. By means of
the data so acquired, the total amount of grain due to the State from the


circle of villages under each kdrddr was estimated, and for that amount
the kdrddr was held responsible. This was the system uniformly
adopted in the case of the rice crop ; with other crops the process
varied slightly. If there was a general outcry against a particular
kdrddr, or if a neighbouring kdrddr offered to pay more for that parti-
cular circle of villages, he was turned out, and the one that offered more
put in his place.

This system continued in force till the year i860, when the valley
of Kashmir was divided into chaklas, each containing several kdrddr-
ships, and the collection of revenue in each chakld was farmed to the
chakldddr. In fixing the amounts of grain and money to be paid by
the farmer, the average amount collected during the previous five
years was taken as the basis, and some remissions were made in the
case of heavily taxed villages. The amount was fixed for three years,
the farmer being left to share with the zam'inddr the profits from exten-
sion of cultivation. In 1864-65, the crops failed extensively, and in
consequence the farming system broke down ; and next year the former
system of division was resorted to. In 1867, the farming system was
tried again, and leases fixed for a period of five years ; but latterly
it has been again abandoned, and the plan of taking the State share in
kind is at present in practice. There is, however, no settled system
throughout the country. A severe famine caused much suffering in

A great many works have appeared on the subject of Kashmir. The
earlier writers are the travellers Bernier, Jacquemont, Moorcroft,
Hugel. and others ; among later writers may be mentioned as of some
authority the works of Dr. W. T. Elmslie, Captain Bates, Dr. T. Ince,
and Mr. Drew.

Kashmor. — Taluk or Sub-division of the Upper Sind Frontier
District, Sind, Bombay Presidency; situated between lat. 28 6' 45" and
28° 48' n., and between long. 69 8' 30" and 69 52' e. In 1872
the area was returned at 782 square miles; villages, 15; population,
25,232. In 1881, the area was 862 square miles; villages, 35; popu-
lation, 43,832, namely, 25,035 males and 18,797 females, occupying
7557 houses. Hindus numbered 2770; Muhammadans, 39,980; Sikhs,
507; aboriginal tribes, 567; and Christians, 8. Revenue (1881-82),
£21,102, of which ,£20,374 was derived from imperial and ^7 28
from local sources. The taluk contains 1 civil and 2 criminal courts ;
police circles (thdnds), 2 ; regular police, 45 men -

Kashmor. — Chief town of Kashmor tdluk, Upper Sind Frontier
District, Sind; situated 2 miles from the Indus river, and 86 miles
north-north-east from Jacobabad. Lat. 2 8° 26' n., long. 69 36' e.
Population (1872) 956, consisting of 569 Musalmans (mostly of the
Kalwar tribe) and 387 Hindus (chiefly Lohanos). Kashmor has been


destroyed by floods five times within eighty years, but is now protected
by the Begari Bandh, or embankment. A canal, 4 miles long, con-
nects Kashmor with the Indus. Under the name of the Desert Canal,
the work is being extended 32 miles into the desert country west of
the town, and is expected to have a completed length of 90 miles.
The telegraph line passes through the place. Considerable trade in
grain. Manufactures, principally coarse cotton cloth, shoes, leather
work, and turned lacquered work. Station of a mukhtiydrkdr, subor-
dinate jail, Government English school, dispensary, post-office, military
outpost, and police station.

Kashpur. — Village in the north of Cachar District, Assam, among
the southern spurs of the Barel (Barail) range. The residence of the
Cachari Rajas during the greater part of the 18th century, when Hindu
influence first became powerful at their court.

Kasia (Kusindgara, ' The City of the Holy Grass '). — Village in
Padrauna tahsil, Gorakhpur District, North-Western Provinces; situated
on the crossing of two unmetalled roads, 37 miles east of Gorakhpur
town. The village contains a police station, post-office, dispensary, and
is also the station of a Joint-Magistrate. It, however, derives its chief
importance from its Buddhist associations and remains. Here Buddha
died about 550 B.C. ; and for over 1100 years Kusinagara was a place
of great importance and sanctity, and a centre of Buddhist pilgrimage.
It was visited by the Chinese pilgrims, Fa Hian in the 5th, and Hiuen
Tsiang in the 7th century. The latter informs us that Buddha died
in a sal forest more than half a mile from the city, at a short distance
from the Hiranyavati or Ajitavati river (the modern Little Gandak).
On the scene of his death were erected three large stupas, all standing
in Hiuen Tsiang's time, — the largest, 200 feet in height, having been
built by Asoka (250 B.C.). That monarch also erected here a pillar
describing the nirvana of Buddha, and a large vihdra or monastery,
with a recumbent statue of Buddha. The existing Buddhistic remains
lie south-west of the modern village of Kasia. They consist of a lofty
mound of solid brickwork styled Devisthan or Ramabhar-Bhawani,
sacred to the wife of Siva; an oblong-shaped mound with a brick
stupa; a colossal statue of Buddha seated under the sacred fig-tree
at Gaya; and a number of low grassy barrows regarded by General
Cunningham as tombs, although his excavations did not result in any
discovery of human remains. These are all the existing remains of
Kasia. Its many Buddhist shrines have either been effaced by the
floods of the Little Gandak, or destroyed to supply materials for more
modern buildings in neighbouring villages.

Kasiari. — Village in the Tamliik Sub-division of Midnapur District,
Bengal. Lat. 22 7' 25" n., long. S7 16' 20" e. Large trading village ;
also noted for its tasar silk cultivation and manufacture.


Kasijora. — Village in Midnapur District, Bengal. Lat. 22 17' 20"
N., long. 87° 22' 45" e. Inhabited by colonies of matmakers, who make
the finer qualities of maslandi mats, which are largely exported to
Calcutta as flooring mats for the houses of European residents.

K&simbdjZ&r (CossimMzdr). — Decayed town in Murshidabad District,
Bengal. Lat. 24 7' 40" N., long. 8S° 19' e. This town, the site of
which is now a swamp marked by a few ruins, may lay claim to a
historical interest even superior to that of the city of Murshidabad.
Long before the days of Murshid Kuli Khan, who founded and gave
his name to the latter city, the trade of Bengal was centred at Kasim-
bazar. The different European nations who traded to India had
factories here from very early times. The common name for the
Bhagirathi in English history down to the early years of the present
century was the Kasimbazar river ; and the triangular tract enclosed by
the Bhagirathi, Ganges, and Jalangi was known in the early days
of the Company as the island of Kasimbazar. The place is said to
derive its name from a legendary founder, Kasim Khan. Its history
cannot be traced back beyond the 17th century; but even when first
mentioned it appears as a place of great consequence. After Satgaon
had been ruined by the silting up of the Saraswati mouth, and before
Calcutta was founded, Kasimbazar was the great emporium.

An English commercial agent was first appointed to Kasimbazar
in 1658; and nine years later it was decided that the * Chief ' at this
place should be also a member of Council. In 1686, the factory at
Kasimbazar, in common with the other English factories in Bengal, was
confiscated by order of the Nawab Shaista Khan. It was restored a
year or two later, and at the close of the century had become the
leading English commercial agency in Bengal. In 168 1, Job Charnock,
the future founder of Calcutta, was Chief at Kasimbazar. In that
year, of ,£230,000 sent out by the East India Company as the 'invest-
ment' to Bengal, ,£140,000 was assigned to Kasimbazar. In 1763,
out of a total of £"400,000 required as ' advances for investment,'
Kasimbazar demanded ^90,000, or as much as any other two agencies,
excepting Calcutta. The filatures and machinery of the Company were
estimated to be worth 20 lakhs of rupees, or £200,000. According
to native tradition, the town was so studded with lofty buildings, that
the streets never saw the rays of the sun.

The factory of the Company at Kasimbazar owed much of its
wealth, and all its political importance, to its close neighbourhood
to the Muhammadan capital at Murshidabad. But, from the same
cause, it was liable to constant danger. It was a matter of common
occurrence for the Nawab to order out his troops to blockade the
walled factory, whenever he had any quarrel with the English
Council at Calcutta. In 1757, when the Nawab Siraj-ud-daula resolved


to drive the English out of Bengal, Kasimbazar felt the first effects of
his anger. The fortified factory was taken without resistance, and the
Englishmen, including Mr. Watts, the Resident, and Warren Hastings,
his assistant, were sent in close custody to Murshiddbad. After
the battle of Plassey, Kasimbazar regained its commercial import-
ance; but the political power formerly held by the Resident was
transferred to the English Agent at the court of the Nawib, who lived
at Murshidabad.

The decay of Kasimbazar dates from the beginning of the present
century, when its climate, which had previously been celebrated for
salubrity, underwent an unexplained change for the worse, so that the
margin of cultivation receded and wild beasts increased. In 1811,
Kasimbazar town is described as noted for its silk, hosiery, fiords, and
inimitable ivory work, while the surrounding country was ' a wilderness
inhabited only by beasts of prey.' In 18 13, the ruin of the town was
effected by a change in the course of the Bhagirathi, which suddenly
deserted its ancient bed, and instead of following its former bend to the
east, took a sweep to the west, and now flows 3 miles from the site of
the old town. The channel in front of the warehouses of Kasimbazar
became a pestiferous marsh, a malarious fever broke out, and the
place gradually became depopulated. The Company's filatures, how-
ever, continued to work, although the place had lost all its ancient
importance, and weaving only ceased when it became impossible to
compete with the cheaper cotton goods of Manchester. In 1829, a
Census returned the population of Kasimbazar at 3538. It is still
(1884) the seat of the wealthiest Hindu family of the District, repre-
sented by a noble and charitable lady, the Rani Swarnamayi, but
otherwise it is quite deserted. Ruins of huge buildings and broad
mounds of earth alone remain to attest its former grandeur. The
chief traces of European occupation now remaining are mouldering

Kasimkota. — Town in the Anakapalle taluk of Vizagapatam District,
Madras Presidency; 23 miles west of Vizagapatam town. Lat. 17° 39' 50"
n., long. 83 o' 10" e. Population (1871) 6218; (1881) 7078, namely,
3562 males and 3516 females, of whom 6703 are Hindus, 374
Muhammadans, and 1 Christian. Number of houses, 147 7- The
principal town of a ' modern proprietary estate,' and formerly a tahsili
station ; contains a good school. The estate is comprised of 8 villages,
and was assessed at the permanent settlement at ^1401. Kasimkota
was, in Musalman days, zfaitjddri of the Chicacole Circar; and after
the Northern Circars came into British hands, in 1768, it remained the
head-quarters of a division. When, in 1802, the Chicacole Circar was
transferred to Ganjam, Kasimkota remained attached to Vizagapatam.
It was here that Colonel Forde's troops made their rendezvous with



those of Vizianagaram, previous to the battle of Condore and the
taking of Masulipatam in i75 8_ 59-

Kasipur. — Western tahsil of the Tarai District, North - Western
Provinces ; consisting of a damp submontane tract, chiefly covered with
forest jungle or grassy savannahs, but containing a larger proportion of
cultivation than the remainder of the District. Area, 188 square miles,
of which 89 are cultivated. Population (1872) 71,423 ; (1881) 74,973.
namely, males 40,347, and females 34,626. Classified according to
religion, the population in the latter year consisted of— Hindus, 49> 26 3 >
Muhammadans, 25,670; Jains, 34; and 'others,' 6. Number of vil-
lages, 161, of which 122 had less than five hundred inhabitants. Land
revenue, ^9953 ; total Government revenue, ,£11,758; incidence of
Government revenue per acre, is. nd. The tahsil contains 1 criminal
court, and 2 police stations (thdnds) ; strength of regular police, 30
men; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 128.

Kasipur. — Town, municipality, and principal centre of population
in the Tarai District, North-Western Provinces, and head-quarters of
Kasipur tahsil ; situated in a marshy plain, overgrown with grass and
jungle; distant from Moradabad 31 miles. Lat. 29 13' n., long. 78
59' 50" e. Formerly the site of an ancient city, several large excava-
tions in the neighbourhood being attributed to the Pandava tutor,
Drona, one of the heroes of the Mahdbhdrata. These ruins have
been identified by General Cunningham with the capital of the Govisana
kingdom, visited in the 7th century a.d. by Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese
Buddhist pilgrim. At the close of the last century, Nandram, governor
of Kasipur, made himself independent ; and his nephew, Sib Sal, was
in possession of the pargand at the date of the British annexation in
1802. The present Raja of Kasipur, Shiuraj Singh, holds rank as a
special magistrate. It is a famous place of Hindu pilgrimage, having
several temples and a holy tank, where pilgrims bathe on their way to
Badrinath. Population in 1872, 13,113 ; in 1881, 14,667, namely, males
7555, and females 7 112. Classified according to religion, there were,
in the latter year — Hindus, 8477 ; and Muhammadans, 6190. Area of
town site, 761 acres. Municipal income in 1881-82, ,£924, of which
£744 was derived from taxation ; incidence of taxation, is. id. per head.
Well-built, handsome houses of the chief merchants. Brisk transit trade
from Kumaun and Chinese Tartary to the plains. Exports of grain ;
manufacture of coarse cotton cloth. Government charitable dispensary.
Kasipur. — Village, and site of Government factory, a northern
suburb of Calcutta. — See Cossipur.

Kasla Paginu Muwadu. — Petty State of the Koli group of
Pandu Mehwas in Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency. Area, ij
square mile. There are 5 shareholders. Estimated revenue in 1881,
£9 ; tribute of £6 is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda.


Kasmandi Kaldn. — Town in Lucknow District, Oudh ; situated 4
miles east of Malihabad town, and 3 miles west of the Giimti river.
Noted as having been the seat of the Hindu Raja Kans, who was over-
thrown by Sayyid Salar Masaud, the leader of the first Muhammadan
invasion into Oudh, 1030-31 a.d. Raja Kans was slain in the battle,
and there are numerous ruined tombs marking the burial-place of the
chiefs who fell. A small mound of fallen bricks is pointed out as the
ran-khamba or battle pillar. The present Musalman proprietor of the
place claims direct descent from the settlers left behind by Sayyid Salar.
Population (1869) 1990; (1881) 1809, namely, Hindus, 1061 ; and
Muhammadans, 748. The birthplace and residence of several Muham-
madans distinguished for learning and wealth. Government school,
with a branch girls' school ; post-office ; small market.

Kassia. — Town of Gorakhpur District, North-Western Provinces. —
See Kasia.

Kasta. — Pargana of Muhamdi tahsil, Kheri District, Oudh. The
north and west of the pargana comprises a considerable area of dense
jungle, which is let out rent-free under 5 forest grants. This tract
harbours herds of deer and other animals, which do much damage to
the crops of the cultivators who have settled in the vicinity for the sake
of grazing. The south of the parga?id is highly cultivated by Kiirmis.
Total area, 95 square miles (including 13 square miles of forest); cul-
tivated area, 39 square miles. Government land revenue, ^3871. Of
the 73 villages comprising the pargana, 62 are held by tdlukddrs, 4 by
independent proprietors, 2 are Government villages, and 5 are held rent-
free by forest grantees. Population (1869), Hindus, 29,556 ; Musalmans,
1733 ; total, 31,289; (1881), Hindus, 29,076; and Muhammadans,
2598; total, 31,674. Average density, 329 persons per square mile.

Kasta village is a small place of about 200 houses, and a population
of a little over 1000 persons, on the road from Lakhimpur to Mitauli ;
of no importance, and much decayed of late years.

Kasiir. — Tahsil of Lahore District, Punjab, occupying the southern
half of the eastern or Bari Doab portion of the District, and lying along
the banks of the Sutlej (Satlaj) ; situated between 30 54' 30" and 31
27' n. lat, and between 74 15' and 75° o' 30" e. long. Area, 794 square
miles. Population (1868) 197,667; (1882) 229,798, namely, males
124,783, and females 105,015; average density, 289 persons per
square mile. Classified according to religion, the population in 1881
consisted of — Muhammadans, 138,828; Hindus, 42,160 ; Sikhs, 48,136;
and 'others,' 674. Of the total assessed area, in 1878-79, of 508,060
acres, 352,514 acres were returned as under cultivation, of which
42,462 acres were irrigated from Government works, and 89,200 acres
by private individuals. The average annual area under the principal
crops for the five years 1877-78 to 1S81-S2 is thus returned : — wheat,


169,495 acres; gram, 68,526 acres ; jodr, 31,832 acres; moth, 16,046
acres; Indian corn, 13,357 acres; barley, 20,149 acres; cotton, 7130
acres; and rice, 2052 acres. Revenue of the tahsil, ^£22,684. The ad-
ministrative staff consists of 1 Assistant or extra-Assistant Commissioner,
1 tahsilddr, and 1 munsif. These officers preside over 3 civil and 2
criminal courts. For police purposes, the tahsil is divided in 5 police
circles (thdnds) ; strength of regular police, 137 men, besides 224 village
watchmen (chaiikiddrs).

Kasiir. — Town and municipality in Lahore District, Punjab, and
head-quarters of Kasiir tahsil; situated upon the north bank of the old
bed of the Beas (Bias), upon the Firozpur (Ferozepore) road, 34 miles
south-east of Lahore city. Lat. 31 6' 46" n., long. 74 30' 31" e. Tradi-
tion refers its origin to Kush, son of Rama, and brother of Loh or Lav,
the founder of Lahore. Certainly, a Rajput city seems to have occupied
the modern site before the earliest Muhammadan invasion ; but Kasiir
does not appear in history until late in the Musalman period, when it was
settled by a Pathan colony from the east of the Indus. These immigrants
entered the town in the reign either of Babar or of his grandson Akbar, and
founded a considerable principality, with territory on either side of the
Sutlej (Satlaj). When the Sikhs rose to power they experienced great
opposition from the Pathans of Kasiir ; and though the chiefs of the
Bhangi Confederacy stormed the town in 1763, and again in 1770, and
succeeded for a while in holding the entire principality, the Pathan
leaders re-established their independence in 1794, and resisted many
subsequent invasions. In 1807, however, Kutab-ud-din Khan, their
last chieftain, was forced to give way before Ran jit Singh, and retired
to his property at Mamdot, beyond the Sutlej. The town of Kasiir
was then incorporated with the Lahore monarchy. It consists of an
aggregation of fortified hamlets, standing on the upland bank, and over-
looking the alluvial valleys of the Beas and the Sutlej. The Afghan
element has now declined.

Kasiir is now the most important town in the District after Lahore.
It consists of twelve hamlets, four of which joined together form the
main town, while the others are scattered a short distance around.
Population (1868) 15,209. In 1881 it was 17,336, namely, males 8870,
and females 8466. Classified according to religion, the population in
1881 consisted of — Muhammadans, 13,852; Hindus, 3074; Sikhs,
242; and Jains, 168. Number of houses, 3830. The municipal
income of the town, which in 1875-76 amounted to ^"1218, had
by 1882-83 increased to ^2686 ; average incidence, 3s. ijd. per
head. The situation of the town affords considerable facilities for
drainage. The main streets are paved and furnished with central and
side drains, and a sufficient conservancy establishment is maintained.
The town is the centre of a local trade in country produce. The only


manufacture is leather, especially harness, for which the place has
a considerable reputation. An extra-Assistant Commissioner is sta-
tioned here in charge of the Sub-division. His court, the tahsili,
police station, school-house, dispensary, and dak bungalow are the
public buildings. Kasur is now connected with Lahore and Firoz
pur by the Raiwind-Firozpur branch of the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi
Railway. The town contains a school of industry founded by a former
Deputy Commissioner, and maintained out of local charities. It
chiefly produces rugs and carpets, in imitation of those of Persian

Katahra (or Katerd). — Town in Jhansi District, North-Western Pro-
vinces ; situated 30 miles from Jhansi town, and 15 from Mau (Mhow).
Population (1881) 4463. Station of the Great Trigonometrical Survey.
Local manufacture of pottery. Village school.

Katak (' The Fort'). — District, Sub-division, and city, Orissa. — See

Katakhal ( l New Cut').— Offshoot of the Dhaleswari river, in the
south of Cachar District, Assam ; said to have been formed by one of
the Cachari Rajas, who constructed an embankment across the main
channel of the Dhaleswari, about 25 miles above its junction with the
Barak. The Katakhal now carries off the greater part of the
stream, and is navigable by boats of 20 tons burthen all the year

Katal. — A peculiar geological formation of country covered with
thorn jungle, and extending over the east and north-east of Maldah
District, Bengal. This tract extends north-east and south-east from
the didrd or alluvial land, some six miles west of the Mahanadi
river, to the borders of Dinajpur. It contains no large forests, but
consists of a continuous waste of jungly high lands rising out of swamps.
These high lands are covered with a thorny tree jungle called kdtdl
(whence the tract takes its name). It is broken by narrow steep water-
courses called karis or ndlds, and is very thinly inhabited. The country

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 10 of 64)