William Wilson Hunter.

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shows traces of having been at one time occupied by a consider-
able population, which is reported to have been swept away by
pestilence. Many tanks are to be seen, some of them of grand propor-
tions, and scattered over a wide area. The ruins of the magnificent
Muhammadan city of Panduah or Peruah, which succeeded a Hindu
city of that name, are situated in the wildest and most dangerous
portion of this jungle, known as the Peruah kdtdl. In former times
there were probably many villages on these high lands; but at the
present day there are merely a few miserable huts, inhabited by
aboriginal or semi-aboriginal tribes, who mainly subsist by hunting or
fishing, and raise a few crops by the rudest mode of tillage. Settle-
ments have been recently formed by Santals in various portions of this


tract, notably in the Peruah kdtdl, where extensive clearances are being
made in these long impenetrable jungles.

Katalgarh. — Town in Kumaun District, North- Western Provinces |
on the road from Pithoragarh to Champawat, 4 miles north of the latter
place. Lat. 29 24' n., long. 8o° 5' e. An old fort, garrisoned by
Gurkha troops during the war of 18 14.

Katangi. — Zaminddri or estate in Bilaspur District, Central Pro-
vinces ; containing 41 villages, with an area of 57 square miles, of which
about 11,000 acres are cultivated, and about 15,000 acres are cultivable
waste. The tract consists of an open plain of average soil, bordered
on one side by the Mahanadi river, and on the other by the Sonakhan
hills. Population (1882) 15,845, namely, males 7751, and females
8094; average density, 278 persons per square mile. Number of
houses, 4120. The chief is a Gond ; and Katangi village, where
he resides, contains a small but nourishing community of traders
and weavers, and has a weekly market. Lat. 21 46' 30" n., long. 79

51' E.

Katangi. — A State forest, chiefly of teak, in Betiil District, Central
Provinces ; covering about 1 70 square miles, and stretching from
Katanga village on the Tapti to the river Ganjal.

Katangi. — A large but decaying village in Jabalpur (Jubbulpore)
District, Central Provinces ; situated at the foot of the Bhanrer Hills
on the north bank of the Hiran, 22 miles north-west of Jabalpur city,
on the road to Sagar (Saugor). Lat. 23 26' 30" n., long. 79 50' e.
Population (1881) 3505, namely, Hindus, 2582 ; Muhammadans, 757;
Jains, 163 ; and aboriginal tribes, 3. The inhabitants are mostly agricul-
turists, and among them many Muhammadans, said to be descended
from the soldiers of Akbar and Aurangzeb, both of whom encamped
near the town. Katangi used to be famous for the manufacture of
gun-barrels, which were largely exported. It contains a large tank and
the remains of some mosques, and has a Government school.

Katas. — Holy fountain in the Pind Dadan Khan tahsil of Jehlam
(Jhelum) District, Punjab ; and, after Kuru-kshetra and Jawala-mukhi,
the most frequented place of pilgrimage in the Province. Lat. 32 ° 43'
30" n., long. 7 2 59' 30" e. Siva being inconsolably grieved for the
loss of his wife Sati, the daughter of Daksha, 'rained tears from his
eyes,' and so produced the two sacred pools of Pushkara, near Ajmere,
and Kataksha or Katas, in the Sind Sagar Doab. The pool is partly
artificial, being formed by the enlargement of a natural basin in the bed
of the Ganiya Nala. Just above it, stretches a strong masonry wall
which once dammed up the stream, so as to enclose a large lake ; but
the water now escapes through the interstices and broken masses of the

Katas lies on the north side of the Salt Range, 16 miles from


Pind Dadan Khan, and 18 from Chakwal ; elevation above sea-
level, over 2000 feet. Walls, towers, and brick ruins crown the
surrounding heights, while a fort once stood upon the neighbouring
hillock of Kotera. Below these remains, an enclosure contains the
ruined Sat Ghdra or seven temples, with another group, which General
Cunningham ascertained to be twelve in number. The latter resemble
in their general style the Kashmir order of architecture, characterized
by dentils, trefoil arches, fluted pillars, and pointed roofs. Although the
details cannot now be accurately discriminated, enough remains to
prove with considerable certainty that the buildings belong to the
Karkota and Varmma periods, from 625 to 939 a.d., during which
epoch the Salt Range formed part of the Kashmir dominions. Popular
tradition assigns the origin of the seven temples to the Pandava
brethren, who are said to have lived at Katas during a portion of their
twelve years' wanderings. The temples have suffered much from restora-
tion and repairs, the whole wall of the central shrine being now hidden
by a thick coat of plaster, the gift of Ghulab Singh. General Cunning-
ham inclines to believe that Katas may be identified with the capital of
the Sinhapur kingdom, visited in the 7th century a.d. by Hiuen Tsiang,
the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim. Some of the existing remains may
possibly date back to the Buddhist period. Katas, as it exists at
present, consists of a large square-shaped pool, set among rocks and
apparently welling up from a spring in the dry bed. Round this pool
a little Hindu colony of Brahmans and fakirs has arisen, who quarrel
over the offerings of the pilgrims. A large fair is held here at the
beginning of the hot weather.

Katera. — Town in Jhansi District, North-Western Provinces. — See

Kathi. — Petty Mehwas State in the Taloda Sub-division of Khandesh
District, Bombay Presidency ; estimated area, about 300 square miles.
The population in 1881 was returned at 10,223. Kathi is situated in the
north-west corner of the Taloda Sub-division. It consists of a succes-
sion of narrow valleys separated by ridges of lofty, irregular, and forest-
clad hills of the Satpura range ; difficult of access on all sides. Two
routes are practicable for bullocks and horses, one from the south-
west, from Kukarmunda village, across the Imli pass ; and the other
from the east, from Dhadgaon village of Akrani pargand. In the low-
lying villages the soil is good, yielding rice and pulse. The forest
products are timber, mahud flower, honey, and wax. The chief has
no patent allowing adoption, and in point of succession his family
follows the rule of primogeniture. The present chief, a Hindu Bhi'l,
claiming Rajput origin, is a minor, and the State is under British
management. Estimated revenue in 1882, ^2230; tribute of ^£13
is paid to the British Government.


Kathiawar (or Surdshtrd). — The peninsula or western portion of the
Province of Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency, situated between
2o° 41' and 23 8' N. lat., and between 68° 56' and 72 20' e. long.

A square peninsula, standing boldly out into the Arabian Sea
between the smaller projection of Cutch (Kachchh) and the straight
line of the Gujarat coast. Its physical features suggest that it may
once have been an island or a group of islands of volcanic origin.
On the south and west Kathiawar is bounded by the Arabian Sea ;
on the north by the Gulf and Runn of Cutch ; on the east by the
Sabarmati river and the Gulf of Cambay. It was known to the
Greeks and Romans under the name of %avpaa-Tpi)vq ; the Muhamma-
dans called it by the Prakritized name of Sorath, and to this day a
large division in the south-west, 100 miles in length, still retains that
name. Another tract, quite as large, to the east of the centre, how-
ever, has long been known as Kathiawar, from having been overrun
by the Kdthis, who entered the peninsula from Cutch, in the 13th and
14th centuries ; in the 15th, the whole tribe was driven out of Cutch,
and in that and in the following century conquered a considerable
territory. The Marathas, who came into contact with them in their
forays, and were sometimes successfully repelled by them, extended the
name of Kathiawar to the whole Province, and from them we have
come to apply it in a similar wide sense ; but by Bnihmans and the
natives generally it is still spoken of as Surashtra.

The extreme length of the peninsula is about 220 miles, its greatest
breadth about 165 miles, its area about 23,300 square miles, and
its population (1881) about 2,500,000; estimated yearly revenue,
^1,530,000. Of these totals, about 1320 square miles, 148,000
people, and ,£10,900 of revenue belong to the Gaekwar ; about 1100
square miles, 160,000 people, and ^£26,600 of revenue belong to
Ahmadabad District; about 7 square miles, 12,636 people, and
^3800 of revenue belong to the Portuguese possession of Diu ; while
the remainder is the territory forming the Political Agency of Kathia-
war, described in the following article.

Kathiawar. — A Political Agency subordinate to the Government
of Bombay, established in 1822, having under its control 187 separate
States, great and small, whose chiefs have divided among themselves
the greater portion of the peninsula of Kathiawar. Of the 187 States,
13 pay no tribute, 105 are tributary to the British Government, 79 to
the Gaekwar of Baroda, w T hile 134 pay also a tribute to the Nawab of
Junagarh. Area, 20,559 square miles. Population (1881) 2,343,899.

Kathiawar Agency is divided for administrative purposes into four
prd?its or divisions, — Jhalawar, Halal, Sorath, and Gohelwar, — but
the old territorial prdnts are ten, namely, Jhalawar, in the north,
containing about 50 States ; Machhukantha, west of Jhalawar ; Halal, in


the north-west, embracing 26 States ; Okhamandal, in the extreme west,
belonging to Baroda ; Barda or Jethwar, along the south-west coast ;
Sorath, in the south ; Babriawar, a hilly tract in the south-east ;
Kathiawar, a large district near the middle ; Undsarviya, situated along
the Satriinji river ; and Gohelwar, in the east, along the shore of the
Gulf of Cambay, so named from the Gohel Rajputs, who are the
ruling race in it. In this last-named division is situated the Gogha
or Gogo Sub-division of Ahmadabad District. Municipalities have
been instituted in many of the chief towns of the Province, and muni-
cipal funds are yearly voted by the States for education, vaccination,
roads, and other public purposes.

Physical Aspects. — Generally speaking, the surface of Kathiawar
is undulating, with low ranges of hills running in very irregular direc-
tions. With the exception of the Thanga and Mandav hills, in the west
of Jhalawar, and some unimportant hills in Halal, the northern portion
of the country is flat ; but in the south, from near Gogha, the Gir range
runs nearly parallel with the coast, and at a distance of about 20 miles
from it, along the north of Babriawar and Sorath, to the neighbourhood
of Girnar. Opposite this latter mountain is the solitary Osam Hill,
and still farther west is the Barda group, between Halal and Barda,
running about 20 miles north and south from Ghumli to Rana-
wao. The Girnar clump of mountains is an important granitic mass,
the highest peak of which rises to 3500 feet in height. The principal
river is the Bhadar, which rises in the Mandav hills, and, flowing south-
west, falls into the sea at Navi-Bandar, in Barda, after a course of
about 115 miles, everywhere marked by highly cultivated lands border-
ins: its course. From the same hills rises another Bhadar, known
as the Sukha Bhadar, flowing eastward into the Gulf of Cambay.
Other rivers are the Aji, Machhu, Bhogawa, and Satriinji, the latter
remarkable for wild and romantic scenery.

Four of the old races, the Jethwas, Churasamas, Solankis, and Walas,
still existing as proprietors of the soil, exercised sovereignty in the
country prior to the immigration of the Jhalas, Jarejas, Parmars, Kathis,
Gohels, Jats, Muhammadans, and Marathas, between whom the country
is now chiefly portioned out. As each of the important States in Kathia-
war is treated in a separate article, a brief notice must here suffice for
the group as a whole.

There are important wooded tracts in Kathiawar, besides the Gir
with its 1500 square miles of forest, but insufficient attention is devoted
to them by the chiefs. In Wankaner and the Panchal, however, lands
have been set aside for the growth of timber, and in Bhaunagar, Morvi,
Gondal, and Manavadar, babul plantations have been formed. Palms,
mangoes, and casuarinas have been specially planted and cared for in
Bhaunagar ; trunk and feeder roads are being gradually planted with


trees along their entire length ; and several minor estates and villages
are paying attention to forest conservancy.

History. — At a very early period, Surashtra was doubtless brought
under the influence of Brahmanical civilisation, and, from its position
on the coast, it was most accessible to influences from the west The
edicts of Asoka (265-229 b.c.) were inscribed by that monarch on a
huge granite boulder between Junagarh and Girnar. The Saraostos of
Strabo is not improbably identical with Surashtra ; and if so, the penin-
sula was included in the conquests of the Indo-Scythian kings {circa 190
and 144 B.C.). Its shores were well known to the Alexandrian merchants
of the 1st and 2nd centuries, but there is considerable difficulty in
identifying the places mentioned.

Of the early history of the country we have but scanty notice. It
was probably governed by Satraps under Asoka and the great Maurya
kings. For about three centuries, from the 1st century B.C. to
the 3rd a.d., the local dynasty of the Sah kings ruled in Surashtra.
After the Sahs come the Guptas of Kanauj, who apparently governed by
senapaiis or viceroys. The later senapatis became kings of Surashtra,
who placed their lieutenants at Valabhi-nagar (identified with the buried
city at Wala, 18 miles north-west of Bhaunagar). When the Guptas
were dethroned by foreign invaders, the Valabhi kings, whose dynasty
was founded by Bhattarka, a Gupta commander, extended their sway
over Kutch, Lat-desa (Surat, Broach, Kheda, and parts of Baroda
territory), and Malwa (480 a.d.). It was in the reign of Dhruvasena 11.
(632-640) that the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang visited Falapi
(Valabhi?) and Sulach'a (Surashtra), the inhabitants of which, he says,
are indifferent and not given to learning, but profit by the proximity of
the sea, and engage much in trade and barter. The people he described
as numerous and wealthy, and takes note of the many convents estab-
lished for the benefit of recluses engaged in the contemplative piety of

How Valabhi fell is not known, but possibly it was subverted by
Muhammadan invaders from Sind. The seat of government was then
moved farther north, beyond the borders of Kathiawar, and remained
at Anhilwara from 746 to 1297 a.d., during which time various petty
kingdoms arose, and the Jethwas became a powerful tribe in the west
of Surashtra. Anhilwara was sacked by the Muhammadans in 1194,
and finally conquered in 1297. The Jhalas are said to have been
settled in Northern Kathiawar by the Anhilwara kings. The Gohels
(now in Eastern Kathiawar) came from the north in the 13th century,
retreating before the tide of Muhammadan conquest, and conquering for
themselves new seats in the decadence of Anhilwara. The Jarejas and
the Kathis came into Kathiawar from the west through Kutch. The
sack of Somndth, in Southern Kathiawar, by Mahmiid of Ghazni in


1024, and the capture of Anhilwara in 1194, were the prelude to occa-
sional Muhammadan invasions of Kathiawar. In 1394, Zafar Khan
destroyed the temple of Somnath. He was the father of the first of
the Muhammadan kings of Gujarat, who reigned in prosperity from
1403 to 1535, and in decadence to 1573, when Gujarat was conquered
by Akbar. The Ahmadabad kings subjected the tributary chiefs of
Kathiawar ; they carefully fostered commerce, and developed the ports
of Mangrol, Verawal, Diu, Gogo, and Cambay.

About 1528, the coast was threatened by the Portuguese. Bahadur,
defeated by Babar's son Humayun, sought safety in Diu, and
afterwards permitted the Portuguese adventurers to build a factory,
which they turned into a fort, after having treacherously killed
Bahadur (1536). The island and fort of Diu are still a Portuguese
possession. Gujarat, after its conquest by Akbar in 1573, was ruled
by Viceroys from the Court of Delhi, until the Marathas supplanted
the imperial power. In 1705, the Marathas entered Gujarat, and
by 1760 had firmly established their rule; but the following half-
century was a time of little ease for the tributaries in Kathiawar, and
petty wars were frequent. During the latter part of the eighteenth
century, according to Musalman and Maratha custom, the Gaekwar,
partly for himself and partly for his over-lord the Peshwa, sent yearly
a revenue - collecting army (mulk-giri) to collect contributions from
the chiefs of Western and Northern Gujarat. As this annual armed
expedition caused much waste and confusion, the British Government
agreed to associate itself with the Gaekwar in recovering the Maratha
tribute from the Kathiawar States.

In 1803, some of the weaker tdlukdars applied to the British
Resident at Baroda for protection, offering to cede their territory to
the Company. They were then independent of the Peshwa and
Gaekwar, with the exception of being bound to furnish contributions.
In 1807, the forces of the Company and the Gaekwar advanced into
Kathiawar, and the chiefs entered into engagements to pay a fixed
tribute to their over-lords, and to keep the peace towards each other,
and maintain order within their own limits. In return, they were
secured from the visitations of the mulk-giri force, which used to
appear at harvest-time, and in default of payment ravaged the crops
and fired the villages. Internal warfare and resistance to the supreme
authority were ended in 1807-08 by the settlements effected by
Colonel Walker ; one great feature of which was that the tributes were
fixed, and the work of collection was undertaken by the British
Government, which also acquired the Peshwa's rights in the Province
after the treaty of Poona in 1818. In 1820, the Gaekwar agreed to
have his share collected and paid by the British Government.

Since 1822, the sole supreme power in Kathiawar has been vested


in the Political Agent, subordinate to the Government of Bombay.
In 1 83 1, a chief criminal court was established, with a British officer as
president, to try criminals whom the local authorities themselves could
not deal with.

In 1863, the States were arranged into seven classes, with varying
civil and criminal powers. This classification was introduced in pur-
suance of reforms suggested by Mr. Kinloch Forbes, Acting Political
Agent, who had drawn attention in i860 to the need of reform in the
relations of the British Government with the administration of the
chiefs. A re-organization of the administrative system was accordingly
introduced in 1863, on the recommendation of Colonel Keatinge.
Chiefs of the first and second class exercise plenary jurisdiction, both
civil and criminal ; the judicial powers of the lesser chiefs are graded
in a diminishing scale, the residuary jurisdiction being vested in four
British political officers, each superintending a group of States, and each
residing in a division with the civil powers of a District judge, and the
criminal powers of a District magistrate. They commit to the sessions
of the Political Agent's criminal court at Rajkot. Civil and criminal
appeals lie from the Political Assistants to the Political Agent. (See
Administration.) The Political Agent controls the whole system.
As a rule, no appeal lies from the decision of a chief; but on
presumption of mal-administration, his proceedings may be called for
and reviewed.

Population. — The enumeration made in 1872 returned the population
of the Province at 2,318,642, of whom 1,224,467 were males, and
1,094,175 were females. The Census of February 17, 1881, gave
the following figures — total population, 2,343,899; namely, males,
1,218,803; females, 1,125,096. There was therefore in the period of
nine years, between 1872 and 1881, a small increase of 25,257, or some-
thing over one per cent. The Census of 1881 returned the area at
20,559 square miles; number of towns, 41; villages, 4127; occupied
houses, 479,435 ; unoccupied houses, 185,646. The density of popula-
tion was 114 persons to the square mile ; number of towns and villages
per square mile, o'2 ; houses per village, 115 ; houses per square mile,
32-3 ; persons per house, 4*8.

Of the 4168 towns and villages in Kathiawar, 1272 contained a
population of less than two hundred; 1591 between two and five
hundred; 887 from five hundred to one thousand; 296 from one
to two thousand; 56 from two to three thousand; 29 from three to
five thousand; 22 from five to ten thousand; 8 from ten to fifteen
thousand ; 4 from fifteen to twenty thousand ; and 3 from twenty to
fifty thousand.

Classified according to religion, the population is distributed as
follows: — Hindus, 1,942,658, or 82*9 per cent, of the whole; Muham-


madans, 303,537, or 12-9 per cent.; Jains, 96,141, or 4 per cent;
Christians, 605; Parsfs, 489; Jews, 145; and ' others,' 324. Among
the Hindus, Brahmans number 146,629; Rajputs, 129,018; Darzis,
tailor and calico - vendor caste, 29,352; Kiinbis, or cultivators,
316,838; Koli's, also cultivators, 330,840; Kumbhars, potters, who
make the village earthenware, now being gradually superseded by
workers in brass, 85,118; Lohars, blacksmiths, 26,178; Mhars, menial
classes, 123,666; Sonars, goldsmiths, 16,502; Sutars, carpenters,
26,738; Napits, barbers, 29,991; Lohanas, 54,968; and many castes
few in point of numbers, but representing the minor artisans and
labourers in the Kathiawar village. The Muhammadans (of whom
256,238 are Sunnis and 47,254 Shias) are divided into the following
tribes: — Baluchi's, 109; Pathans, 7681; Sayyids, 18,656; Shaikhs,
42,187; Sindhis, 32,524; and 'others,' 202,380.

The occupations of the male adult population are sub-divided by the
Census under six main groups : — (1) Professional class, including State
officials of every kind and members of the learned professions, 52,445 ;
(2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, 9144; (3) com-
mercial class, including bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 43>4°4 ; (4)
agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 435,221; (5)
industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 176,073; (6)
indefinite and non-productive class, comprising general labourers, male
children, and persons of unspecified occupation, 502,516.

Admi?iistration. — Before 1863, except for the criminal court of the
Political Agent established in 1831 to aid the darbdrs of the several
States in the trial of great crimes, interference with the judicial admini-
stration of the territories was diplomatic not magisterial; and the
criminal jurisdiction of the first and second class chiefs only was
defined. In 1863, however, the country underwent an important
change. The jurisdiction of all the chiefs was classified and defined ;
that of chiefs of the first and second class was made plenary ;
that of lesser chiefs was graded in a diminishing scale. Four Political
Assistants, resident in the four divisions of Kathiawar, now exercise
residuary jurisdiction with large civil and criminal powers. They
commit to the criminal court of the Political Agent, to whom also
civil and criminal appeals lie. Each Assistant has a subordinate who
resides at the head-quarters of the prdnt or division, and has sub-
ordinate civil and criminal powers.

In each division are several sub-divisional thdndddrs, holding petty
magisterial powers over a circle of villages contiguous to their station
or thdnd. These thdndddrs administer 134 taluks out of the whole
187 territorial divisions of Kathiawar; they have certain powers of
general administration as well as judicial authority. But as the larger
principalities occupy more than 15,000 of the 20,599 square miles in


the country, the Agency through its Assistants, sub-Assistants, and
thdndddrs, cannot be called upon to administer more than one-fourth
of the entire area. There are 20 thdnds in the Province/ The
tdlukddrs are poor, ignorant, and in debt, and have only the semblance
of authority. Inter - tdlukddr relations are characterized by petty
squabbles, small jealousies, and endless sub-division of the estates.

The law administered by the darbdri tribunals of the States is the
customary law of the Province, viz. the Hindu and Muhammadan

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 11 of 64)