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religious law as modified by local or tribal usage. The larger States
have procedure and penal codes based on those in use in British
India. To meet a particular class of land disputes, however, a special
court was established in 1873. This was the Rajasthanik Court, con-
stituted with the assent and at the cost of the chiefs. It decides,
under the presidency of a British officer, all disputes as to girds or
hereditary estates, between the chiefs and the bhdydds and mulgirdsids,
who are for the most part the kinsmen of the chiefs, or the descend-
ants of earlier holders who have been unlawfully or oppressively
deprived of their estates. It surveys and maps out the girdsid's
estate, fixes his miscellaneous dues, and defines his relation to his chief
by laying down the extent of his municipal and political obligations.
The term of the court's existence was fixed to expire in 1884; but as
at the close of 1883-84 there remained on the file 488 cases for
disposal, the chiefs have requested an extension of the term. The
court was originally established for three years; in 1876, by desire
of the chiefs, another five years were allowed to it; again, in 1881,
three years were added to its existence. In 1880-81, the court
decided 192 cases; 58 per cent, of them in favour of the girdsids
or claimants to the estates.

There is no general police in Kithiawar. The chiefs are bound by
stipulation to preserve order and indemnify loss through crime com-
mitted in their territory. Each State, however, may be said to have a
police of its own more or less organized. In 1882-83, the States main-
tained a force in the aggregate of 5819 foot and 1022 mounted men,
at a cost for the year of £"83,129. In that year 11,639 offences were
reported, and 12,836 persons were arrested, of whom 6641 were con-
victed and 5272 acquitted. Conviction is generally sought to be
secured through the agency of an informer. The daily average of
prisoners in Rajkot jail was 76. At the present time life and property
are as safe in Kathiawar as in the Districts of British India.

Communications. — The Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway, named after the
States by which it was constructed, is situated wholly within Kathiawar,
and is 193 miles in length: gross earnings for 1882-83, £"87,680;
net earnings, ,£35,460, representing a profit of 3J per cent, on the
original capital of £"885,000. The following stations are between



KA THIA WAR A GENC Y. 95

Bhaunagar and Wadhwan, the termini of the line : Ghadechi, Vartej,
Sihore, Songad, Sanashra, Dhola (Junction), Ujalvar, Ningala, Botad,
Kundi, Rampur, Chuda, and Limbdi. A branch line runs from Dhola
to Dhoraji, 121 miles, with 10 intermediate stations. Several new
lines of railway are in contemplation, the most important being from
Wadhwan to Rajkot and Navanagar, Jetpur to Junagarh and Verawal,
Dhoraji to Upleta and Katiyana, Chitral to Amreli, and Surgad to
Palitana.

The main roads of Kathiawar converge on Rajkot, the residence of
the Agent. New roads are built out of an annual grant of ^63 15,
collected from the chiefs. On works of public improvement, the
different States expended ,£245,000 during 1882-83.

Education has made rapid strides of late years. In 1858, there
were 29 schools and 1909 students, which in 1881 had grown to 599
schools with 33,000 scholars ; while at the Rajkumar College (with, in
1882, 35 pupils), and 3 high schools, the advantages of a liberal educa-
tion are enjoyed by many of the chiefs during their minority. The
amount spent by the chiefs on education during the year 1882-83,
exclusive of the cost of the Rajkumar College and girdsid school, was
^23,100. The total number of post-offices in the Province in 1882
was 132; and all the larger villages are supplied with letter-boxes.
83,401 persons were vaccinated in 1882.

Agriculture, Commerce, Trade, etc. — The Kathiawar region is a wealthy
one. The land, though not of extraordinary richness, is generally of fair
quality and is amply watered. The cotton annually exported supplies
one-sixth cf the total amount of cotton shipped from Bombay to
foreign countries, and a large import of bullion or grain is yearly
received by Kathiawar as part of the price. The total exports in
1882-83 were valued at ^3,71 1,230, and the total imports at ^2,179,090.
The export of cotton alone was more than ^3,000,000 in value, and had
doubled since 1880. The imports of grain vary according to the
season. The import of grain in 1882-83 was valued at ^285,000;
metals, timber, and sugar show an increase in the import. It is found
that the railway has absorbed a great portion of the export trade from
the smaller ports on the coast-line, and concentrated it at Wadhwan in
the north-east, and Bhaunagar in the south-east of the Province, while
the import trade on the contrary is drawn towards the minor ports. The
tribute in 1882, ^112,130, is but 3 per cent, on the value of the exports.
The numerous petty courts and their people form a large body
of rich resident landlords, spending their rents on their estates;
and the ministers, officials, and landholders, of various station and
wealth, contribute to impart a brisk vitality to the progress and general
wellbeing of the country. A large proportion of the public business of
Kathiawar is conducted by, and at the cost of, the native Darbars ; so



96 KA THIA WAR A GENCY.

that in a Province with nearly the area of Oudh and the population of
Ceylon, a Political Agent and 4 Assistants form the administrative staff.
The largest rivers are in course of being bridged; in the principal towns
municipal buildings and hospitals have been erected, tanks have been
excavated, and wells dug. The four chief States are Dhrangadra,
Navanagar, Junagarh, and Bhaunagar. Bhaunagar has taken the
lead in the material development of her resources, and is the first
State in India which constructed a railway at her own expense and
risk. The revenue survey in the State is now completed ; private
enterprise has established 5 steam cotton-press factories, and there
is a prosperous trade in timber. Native States in Kathiawar of
secondary importance are Morvi, Porbandar (deriving importance
from its fine seaport of the same name), Wadhwan, Limbdi, Gondal,
Jhinjuwara, and Wankaner. The chiefs of Morvi, Wadhwan, and
Gondal have experienced the benefits of a European tour.

The principal products of the country are cotton, bdjra, and jodr,
and in some parts sugar-cane, turmeric, and indigo, which latter
product might be more largely cultivated with advantage. The chief
handicrafts are gold and silver thread-making, weaving of silk and
brocades, the making of red powders, of fragrant oils, of perfumed
sticks and powder, of rose and other essences, inlaying ivory, and
carving sandal-wood. Horses, formerly of excellent repute, are bred
in large quantities, and sheep are plentiful in some parts, their wool
forming, together with cotton and grain, the chief articles of export.
The principal imports are cotton manufactures, metals, and sugar. Iron
is found in many parts of Barda and Halal. At Bakharla (a village
belonging to the Porbandar State) there are many iron-mines, but these
have been abandoned on account of want of fuel for smelting the ore.

The principal wild animals include the lion (found in the Gir range),
leopard, hunting cheetah, antelope, hog, hyaena, wolf, jackal, wild cat,
fox, porcupine, and smaller vermin.

The lion formerly abounded all over the Kathiawar peninsula and
Gujarat ; it even spread to Central India. It is now found only in the Gir
hill forest. Compared with the African lion, its mane is shorter, and its
colour lighter. The Gujarat lion is about the same size as the tiger,
somewhat heavier in bulk, but an inch or two shorter. He is as strong,
if not stronger than the tiger. He seeks the loneliest spot for his
mid-day sleep, and when disturbed, does not slink away like the
tiger, but walks or runs upright without any attempt to hide himself.
He avoids man more than either the tiger or the leopard, and never
lives near a village or hamlet. The lion is fond of his kind, and
moves in family parties, three generations being sometimes found in
one party. There are probably not more than a dozen lions left in the
Gir forest. These are strictly preserved.






KA THIR UR—KA THMA ND U. 9 7

The year 18 14-15 was called the 'Rat Year,' from the famine
produced by the ravages of this animal. Captain Le Grand Jacob
remarked of this pest : ' They appear suddenly in dense masses past all
counting, as if springing from the earth, about the harvest season.
Nothing can stop them — fires, ditches, and water have been tried in
vain ; they move along, a mighty host, eating up all that comes in their
way. All at once they vanish as if by magic, and for years not one is
to be seen ; they are about double the size of a common rat, and are of
a reddish sandy colour.'

Kathiawar has many notable antiquities, which have been fully
described by Mr. James Burgess, Archaeological Reporter to the Govern-
ment of Bombay, in his illustrated report. Besides the famous inscrip-
tion of Asoka already referred to, there are a number of rock-cut
Buddhist caves and temples at Junagarh, mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang
in the seventh century, and some fine Jain temples on Mount Girnar
and Palitana. At Ghumli, a former capital of the Jethwas, there are
extensive ruins.

The principal towns are Nawanagar, Bhaunagar, Junagarh, Rajkot
(the head-quarters of the Political Agent), Porbandar, and Mangrol.
The last two, as well as Verawal, are thriving seaports, with which, as
well as anchorages, Kathiawar appears to be well provided, a list of no
less than 60 having been compiled by the Superintendent of Indian
Marine Surveys. There are 14 lights along the coast.

Kathinir. — Town in Kotayam taluk or Sub-division of Malabar
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. n° 58' 40" n., long. 75 31' 54" e.
Population (1871) 3954; (1881)8177, namely, 3945 males and 4232
females; number of houses, 1251. Hindus numbered 7124; Muham-
madans, 1044 ; and Christians, 9. The head-quarters of the British
troops during the Kotiote rebellion (1796-1805).

Kathiwara— Guaranteed Thakurate or petty chiefship under the
Bhopawar or Bhil (Bheel) Agency, Central India. This small inde-
pendent chiefship is situated on the western frontier of the Central
India Agency, bordering Rewa Kantha, under the Presidency of
Bombay. It is bounded on the north by Ratanmal ; on the east
and south by Ali Rajpur ; and on the west by Chhota Udaipur. The
population, consisting of Bhils and Bhilalas, numbers about 500. Little
or no grain is grown, and the Bhils live by hunting, or by what they
purchase from Ali Rajpur with their wages as wood-cutters. The
original possessors of this country were Bhils ; but the ancestors of the
present Hindu chief, on being driven from Rajputana and Malwa,
took refuge in these hills, and eventually established their power over
the wild and ignorant inhabitants. The present (1883) chief is Thakur
Bahadur Singh. Revenue, about .£120.

Kathmandli.— Capital of Nepal State.— See Khatmandu.

vol. viii. G



9 8 KATHNA—KATIARI.

Kathna.— River ; rising in the Moti-ka-Tal in Shahjahanpur District,
North-Western Provinces (lat. 28 20' n., long. 8o° 21' e.), and flowing
in a south-easterly direction, it forms for some distance the boundary
between Shahjahanpur and Kheri Districts; it afterwards enters Oudh,
and, continuing its course south-east through Kheri and Sftapur Dis-
tricts, empties itself into the left bank of the Gumti in the latter
District in lat. 27 20' n., long. 8o° 27' e. Not navigable, but might
probably be made so for small boats.

Kathrota.— Petty State in the Sorath division of Kathiawar, Bombay
Presidency. Area, 1 square mile ; consists of 1 village, with 1 proprietor.
Estimated revenue in 1881, ^100 ; tribute of ^5, 4s. is paid to the
Gaekwar of Baroda. Kathrota village is about 1 5 miles west of Laka-
padar. Population (1872) 244 ; (1881) 59.

Katiari. — Pargana in Bilgram ta/isi/, Hardoi District, Oudh ;
bounded on the north by Pali pargana; on the east by Barwan and
Sandi pargana s; on the south and south-west by Bhojpur and Taligram
pargands of Farukhabad District, North-Western Provinces ; and on the
west by Khakhatmau and Paramnagar pargands of Farukhabad, from
which it is separated by the Ganges. Originally occupied by Thatheras,
Baihar Ahirs, and Dhanuks contemporaneously, and the ruined sites
of their forts and villages are visible in all directions. The displace-
ment of these early tribes was effected by conquest by Sombansis from
Sandi, under Kanh Randhir Singh; by Bachhils from Shahjahanpur,
under Udai and Tas ; and by Katiars from near Gwalior, under Rai Deo
Datt, ancestor in the thirteenth generation of the present head of the
Katiar clan, Raja Tilak Singh, son of the late Sir Hardeo Baksh. These
families still own the pargana, with the exception of two or three
villages.

Katiari is a fertile alluvial tract, intersected by streams and channels
which in flood-time connect the Ganges and Ramganga rivers. Its
fertility is due to the nearness of water to the surface, and to the
deposit of rich loam {see) brought down by the rivers, which in heavy
floods often varies from 6 inches to 2 feet in thickness. In such a
season, the extraordinary spring crops more than compensate for the
loss of the autumn crops drowned by the inundation. Area, 90 square
miles, of which 61 square miles, or 67-45 per cent, are cultivated. The
uncultivable area is returned at less than 1 1 per cent, of the whole.
Government land revenue, ^5880 ; average incidence, 3s. o|d. per
acre of cultivated area, or 2s. of-d. per acre of total area. Staple
products, wheat and barley, which occupy nearly half of the cultivated
area ; and barley and jodr, which take up another third. Of the 80
villages comprising the pargana, 58 J are owned by Katiar Rajputs,
12 by Sombansis, 5 by Bachils, 2 J by Bais, and 1 each by Gaurs and
Brahmans. Tenures are as follow: — Tdlukddri, 19 villages (the estate



KA TIG OR A— K A TOL.



99



of Raja Tilak Singh); imperfect pattiddri, 57; and zam'mddri, 4.
Population (1869) 35,164; (1881) 36,173, namely, males 20,099, and
females 16,074. Predominant castes — Brahmans, Rajputs, Chamars,
Kahars, Ahirs, Muraos. Government schools in 5 villages.

Katigora. — Village in the west of Cachar District, Assam ; on the
right or north bank of the Barak river, near its bifurcation into the
Surma and Kusiara branches. Lat. 24 53' n., long. 92 38' e. The
Government offices at Katigora consists of a tahsil, thdnd, coolie depot,
and hospital. There is also a forest toll and registering office at Sialtek,
about a mile from the village. On the opposite bank of the Barak, in
Sylhet District, is the old ruined fort of Badarpur, the site of which has
been recently cleared of jungle.

Katipara. — Village in Khulna District, Bengal; situated on the
banks of the Kabadak, 10 miles north of Chandkhali. Lat. 22 46' n.,
long. 89 54' e. This was one of the first spots of land reclaimed in
the Sundarbans. It contains a settlement of the Kdyasth or writer
caste ; the rest of the inhabitants are engaged in cultivation, either in
the neighbourhood or in the newer Sundarban clearings farther south.

Katjuri— River of Cuttack District, Orissa. A deltaic distributary
of the Mahanadi, which branches off from the main stream soon after
it enters Cuttack District. The Katjuri itself immediately divides into
two, of which the southern branch, under the name of the Koyaldiai,
passes into Puri District. The northern branch, which retains the
name of the Katjuri, throws off the Surua, which after a few miles
rejoins the parent stream. Lower down, the Katjuri throws off two
other minor distributaries, the Large and Little Devi, which unite after
a southerly course of about 20 miles, and fall into the Bay of Bengal in
Puri District under the name of the Devi. A cross stream connects
the Mahanadi with the Katjuri, which latter river ultimately falls into
the Bay of Bengal under the name of the Jotdar.

Katna.— River of Bhagalpur District, Bengal ; formed by the united
waters of the Talaba, Parwan, and Loran. It is a considerable stream,
navigable by boats of about 15 tons burden; and after a course of
about 12 miles, falls into the Tiljuga in Monghyr District, in lat. 25
34' n., long. 86° 46' 30" e.

KatOghan. — Village in Khaga tahsil, Fatehpur District, North-
western Provinces ; situated on the Grand Trunk Road, about 24 miles
from Fatehpur town and 4 from Khaga, in lat. 25 45' IO " N -> lon &-
8i°ii' 32" e. Population (1881) 2896, the prevailing class being
Lodhas. Encamping ground, police station, and large sardi (native inn).
Katol— North-western tahsil or revenue Sub-division in Nag pur
District, Central Provinces ; situated between lat. 21 9' and 21 31' n.,
and between long. 78 17' and 79 6' e. Area, 797 square miles, with
362 towns and villages; number of houses, 31, 49°- Population (1S72)



ioo KATOL TOWN—KATRA.

140,201 ; (1881) 147,336, namely, males 73>9°4> ar >d females 73,43 2 I
average density, 185 persons per square mile. The total adult agri-
culturists (male and female) numbered 209,568, or 38-9 per cent, of
the whole, the average area of cultivated and cultivable land being
6 acres for each. Of the total area of the tahsil (797 square miles),
73 square miles are held revenue free; while 724 square miles are
assessed for Government revenue, of which 447 square miles are culti-
vated, and 52 square miles are available for cultivation, the remainder
being uncultivable waste. Total amount of Government revenue,
including cesses and rates levied on land, ^2450, or an average of
is. 8jd. per cultivated acre ; amount of rent, including cesses, paid by
the cultivators, ,£30,618, or an average of 2s. i|-d. per cultivated acre.
The tahsil contains 3 civil and 2 criminal courts, with 12 police stations,
and a regular police force of 94 officers and men.

Katol. — Town in Nagpur District, Central Provinces, and head-
quarters of Katol tahsil ; built on an irregular site upon the left bank
of the Jam, 40 miles from Nagpur city. Lat. 21 16' 30" n., long. 78
38' e. The town contains an ancient temple to Bhawani, built, without
mortar, of layers of sandstone brought from a distance, and grotesquely
carved. A ruined fort overhangs the river. Population (1881) 4!37>
namely, Hindus, 3798; Muhammadans, 220; Jains, 42; and tribes
professing aboriginal faiths, 77. School building and market-place.

Katoria. — Petty State of the Gohelwar division of Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency. Area, 1 square mile ; consisting of 1 village, with 2
separate shareholders. Estimated revenue, ^200; tribute of ^19, 6s.
is payable to the Gaekwar of Baroda, and £2, 16s. to the Nawab of
Junagarh. Katoria village is about 6 miles from Sihor, and 1 \ miles
from Songarh station on the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway. Contains many
mango orchards. Population (1872) 394; (1881) 309.

KatOSan. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay
Presidency. Population (1872) 4550; estimated revenue, ^2500;
tribute of ^54, 8s. is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda. Number of
villages in the State, 29; area under tillage, 7797 acres. The State lies
north of the Viramgam Sub-division of Ahmadabad. The chief is a
Miikwana Koli, and holds the title of Thakur. He has no sanad or
patent authorizing adoption.

Katra. — Village in Allahabad District, North- Western Provinces ;
situated on a pass in the lower Kaimur range, on the metalled road
between Mirzapur and Rewa, distant from the former 63 miles south-
east. Lat. 24 51' n., long. 82 11' e. The road from Mirzapur rises
gradually by successive terraces, and follows the course of the little
river Sioti. The summit of the pass has an elevation of 12 19 feet
above sea-level.

Katra (or Akbarpur). — Town and head-quarters of a police circle



KATRA MEDNIGANJ—KATWA. 101

(thdnd) in Muzaffarpur District, Bengal ; situated on the west bank of
the Lakhandai river. Population (1872), Hindus, 1906; Muham-
madans, 302 ; total, 2208. Not separately returned in the Census
of 1 88 1. The police station is built on the ruins of an old mud fort
west of the village.

Katra Medniganj. — Town in Partabgarh (Pratapgarh) District,
Oudh; situated 2 miles from the Sdi river, and 4 from Bela town.
Population (1869) 2762; (1881) 2069, namely, Hindus, 1312, and
Muhammadans, 757. The village contains an immense masonry tank,
the largest in Oudh ; but it is useless, having been allowed to fall out
of repair. Seven Hindu and two Jain temples ; also five mosques.
Market; annual fair in the month of Kuar, attended by about 12,000
persons.

Kattywar. — Group of Native States, forming the larger part of the
peninsula of Gujarat (Guzerat) Province, Bombay Presidency. — See
Kathiawar.

Katua. — River in Bhagalpur District, Bengal. — See Parwan.

Katiimbar. — Tahsil or Sub-division of the southern division of
the Native State of Alwar (Ulwur), Rajputana. Area, 122 square miles.
Population (1881) 34,349. Revenue, ^14,548. There are 74 villages,
14 of them rent-free. Formerly a pargand or District under Jai Singh
(Siwai) of Jaipur (Jeypore). The Marathas retained the place till 1803.
The zaminddrs of this tahsil are remarkable for their agricultural
industry. No local trade of importance.

Katiimbar.— Town in Alwar (Ulwur) State, Rajputana; 60 miles
west of Agra, and 95 south of Delhi. Population (1881) 3234. Lat.
27 20' n., long. 77 3' e. Head-quarters of the Katiimbar tahsil.
Thornton describes it as a small town and fort, bombarded and laid in
ruins by the Maratha troops on the 29th October 1803, in their retreat
before Lord Lake's army. The British reached Katiimbar two days
afterwards, but found it had been abandoned that morning. The
pursuit was continued, the Marathas were overtaken the next day, and
totally defeated at Laswari. The town has been in existence nearly
800 years.

Katwa (Cutwa).— Sub-division of Bardwan District, Bengal; situated
between lat. 23 28' and 23 50' 15" n., and long. 87 49' and 88° 19'
30" e. Area, 352 square miles, with 528 villages or towns, and 50,996
houses. Population (1872) 234,753; (1881) 230,209, showing a
decrease of 4544 in nine years. Classified according to religion, there
were, in 1881— Hindus, 183,036, or 79-5 percent.; Muhammadans,
47,159, or 2o-o per cent. ; and Christians, 14; total, 230,209, namely,
108,830 males and 121,379 females. Proportion of males, 47*3 per
cent.; density of population, 654 persons per square mile; number of
villages, 1*50 per square mile; persons per village, 435; houses per



102 KATWA TOWN—KATYAR.

square mile, 163; persons per house, 4*5. This Sub-division, which
was constituted in January 1847, comprises the three police circles
(thdnds) of Katwa, Ketugram, and Mangalkot. In 1883 it contained
1 civil and 3 criminal courts ; with a regular police force numbering
66 men, and a village police of 2207 men.

Katwa {Cutwa). — Town, municipality, and head-quarters of Katwa
Sub-division, and of a police circle (thana) in Bardwan District, Bengal ;
situated at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and Ajai rivers. Lat. 23
38' 55" n., long. 88° 10' 40" e. Population (1872) 7963 ; (1881) 6820,
namely, Hindus, 5723; Muhammadans, 1085; and 'others,' 12. Area
of town site, 2730 acres. The municipality, including surrounding
villages, had a population in 1881 of 8620. Municipal income in
1882-83, ^575 ; average incidence of taxation, is. 2jd. per head.
Besides the usual Government courts and buildings, Katwa contains
an aided English school and a charitable dispensary. It is also one of
the principal seats of District trade, and the residence of many wealthy
native merchants.

Now a purely commercial town, Katwa was formerly considered
the key to Murshidabad. In the early part of the iSth century, the
neighbourhood suffered much from the Marathas, whose yearly raids
depopulated the villages along the banks of the river, and converted
the country into jangle. The old fort of Katwa, of which scarcely
a vestige now remains, was situated on a tongue of land at the
confluence of the Ajai and Bhagirathi, and is noted as the scene of
the defeat of the Marathas by All Vardi Khan. It was a mud building,
half a mile in circumference, and mounted 14 guns. Katwa is con-
sidered sacred by the Vaishnavs, as having been the place where their
apostle, Chaitanya, took upon himself the life of an ascetic.

A scheme for the construction of a light railway from Bardwan to



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