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Katwa by a private syndicate has been approved by Government, and
the necessary steps have been taken for starting the undertaking.
Up to the end of the year 1883-84, however, the concessionaires had
not succeeded in raising the necessary capital, and as late as January
1885 no commencement had been made of the work.

Katyar— Village in Guni taluk of Tando Sub-division, Haidarabad
(Hyderabad) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency ; situated eleven miles
west of Tando Muhammad Khan, and twenty miles from Haidarabad
city. The head-quarters of a tappaddr. Population (1881) under 2000.
The Musalmans are chiefly landed proprietors, cultivators, weavers,
dyers, and saddle-cloth makers. The Hindus are traders, goldsmiths,
and cultivators. Trade and manufactures unimportant, consisting
mainly of cloth, grain, ghi, mats, and saddle-cloths. Good staging
bungalow (travellers' rest-house). The village dates from the time of
the Kalhora dynasty.



KA UNDHA—KA URIYA. 103

Kaundha. — Town in Hardoi District, Oudh ; situated on the Shah-
abad road, 5 miles north-west of Hardoi town. An agricultural
village, inhabited chiefly by Chamar Gaurs, whose ancestors dis-
possessed the Thatheras in the latter days of the Kanauj kingdom.
These Gaurs have always had a bad reputation for turbulence and
refractoriness. On one occasion, during the native government, their
village was burned in retaliation for their having murdered the son of
a Musalman chakldddr. Even at the present day, their one redeeming
quality is said to be that they are not addicted to female infanticide.
Population (1869) 2186; (1881) 1737. Bi-weekly market. Govern-
ment school.

Kauniya\ — Village and station on the Northern Bengal State Rail-
way, in Rangpur District, Bengal ; situated on the right bank of the
Tfsta river. Considerable exports of jute and tobacco.

Kauriala (also called Karndli). — River, rising in Tibet, not far from
one of the sources of the Sutlej (Satlaj), in lat. 30 43' n., and long. 8o°
47' e. After leaving Tibet through the Takla Khar, or Yari Pass, it
flows through Nepal generally in a south - easterly direction till it
emerges from the lower range of the Himalayas, through a deep, pic-
turesque gorge, known as the Shisha Pani, ' crystal waters.' The stream
here is about 300 yards broad and of great depth, with a slow current,
closely shut in by precipitous mountains, 2500 feet high. A little
below Shisha Pani, the channel widens, with a steeper and rockier
descent, causing magnificent rapids nearly half a mile broad. Lower
down, the river divides into two, the western branch retaining the
name of Kauriala, the eastern being called the Girwa. A few years
ago, the latter was a mere stream, but its volume has gradually in-
creased till now it is considerably larger than the Kauriala. They are
both rapid rivers, with pebbly beds, and fords which an elephant can
generally cross without difficulty. Eighteen miles from its point of
exit from the hills, it enters British territory at the point where it
receives the Mohan ; and marks the boundary between the Oudh Dis-
tricts of Kheri and Bahraich. In its course it receives as tributaries
on the west bank its former offshoot, the Girwa ; and on the east, the
Chauka and Sarda, or Sarju. From the point of confluence with the
latter stream, the united rivers become the Gogra ; and under this
name it ultimately falls into the Ganges on its left bank, in lat. 25°
46' n., long. 84 40' e., a little above Dinapore. The Kauriala is
navigable by large boats of about 1 7 tons burden beyond the limits of
British territory. The principal river trade is the export of grain, and
of timber, ginger, pepper, wax, g/11, and catechu from Nepal. Gold-
washing is carried on by a caste called after their occupation Sonahis.
Fish are abundant.

Kauriya.— Zaminddri estate in Raipur tahsil, Raipur District, Central



io 4 KA URIYA—KA VALE-DURGA.

Provinces ; about 80 miles east of Raipur town, on the Sambalpur
road. Area (188 1 ), 113 square miles ; number of villages, 113; houses,
3199. Population, 11,000, namely, males 5926, and females 5074;
average density of population, 22*4 persons per square mile. The
land is poor and mostly waste, and the quit-rent nominal. The chief
is a Gond.

Kauriya. — Large agricultural village in Gadawara tahsil, Narsingh-
pur District, Central Provinces ; on the high - road from Jabalpur
(Jubbulpore) to Bombay, about 3 miles east of Gadawara. Lat. 22
55' 3°" N -> l° n g- 78° 33' e. Important for the large cotton sales
transacted in January and February. The manufactures are insigni-
ficant. Population (1877) 3167 ; (1881) 3295, namely, Hindus, 2978;
Muhammadans, 126; Jains, 6; persons professing aboriginal religions,
185. The inhabitants are chiefly agriculturists. The Raja of Gangai
is the superior proprietor of Kauriya, which has a good town school.

Kavai. — Town in Chirakkal taluk, Malabar District, Madras Presi-
dency. Lat. io° 56' n., long. 75 58' e. Population (1881) 6605 ;
number of houses, 999. The north frontier town of Malabar, situated
on an island a few miles from Mount Delly. There is a ruined French
redoubt here.

Kavale-durga. — Tdluk or Sub-division of Shimoga District, Mysore
State. Area, about 276 square miles, with 1022 villages and towns.
Population (1881) 56,561, namely, 31,221 males and 25,340 females.
Hindus numbered 54,890; Muhammadans, 1479; and Christians,
192.

The most southern Sub-division of the District. The Tunga river
enters it from the south, and flows through it from west to east, receiving
a number of minor tributaries, all of which are used for irrigation,
though not formed into large tanks, or diverted by anicuts. The
tract is hilly, especially the west, and is covered with splendid forest.
The chief heights are Kavale-durga, Kabbinada-gudda, and Kundada-
gudda, the last being a conspicuous point. From Kabbinada-gudda,
ironstone of a superior quality is obtained, the iron made from which
the natives hold to be as good as steel. The principal productions
are areca-nut, pepper, cardamoms, rice, and coffee. Sugar-cane is also
grown to a small extent. Coffee was introduced in 1847, an d the
cultivation has gradually increased. The only manufactures are
stone jugs at Kavale-durga town, and silver cups at Tirtha-halli. The
cultivated area is estimated at about 162 square miles; cultivable,
52 square miles; and uncultivable, 62 square miles. The revenue is
returned at ,£43,767. In 1884, the Sub-division contained 1 criminal
court, 9 police circles {thdn&s), and a regular police force of 52 men.

Kavale-durga (' Guarding Hill-fort'). — Hill in Shimoga District,
Mysore State ; crowned by ruined fortifications, 3058 feet above the



KA VALI—KA VERIPAK. 105

sea. Lat. 13° 43' 53" n., long. 75 9' 20" e. By local tradition it is
identified with the Kamyakavana of the Mahdbhdrata. Subsequently
it was called Bhuvana-giri, and was a stronghold of the Ikkeri chiefs.
The old town, formerly head-quarters of the taluk of the same name,
lies to the west of the hill.

Kavali. — Taluk or Sub-division of Nellore District, Madras Presi-
dency. Lat. 1 4 40' to 1 5 5' N., long. 79 40' to 8o° 10' e. Area, 521
square miles. Population (1881) 72,913, namely, 36,565 males and
36,348 females, occupying 13,837 houses, in 79 villages. Number
of persons per square mile, 140 nearly. Hindus numbered 69,680 ;
Muhammadans, 3147; and Christians, 86. Land revenue, ,£i7>5 8 9-
The taluk contains the following places with over two but under five
thousand inhabitants :— Kavali (4927, dwelling in 909 houses) ; Chinna
Annalooryepinapi (4108, in 754 houses) ; Brahma-nakraka (3284, in
705 houses); Tummalapenta (2963, in 591 houses); Zaladanki (2874,
in 585 houses); and Mangamur (21 14, in 486 houses). Water-
supply uncertain. Indigo and rice are the staples. Weaving carried
on to a considerable extent. There were in 1883 within the taluk 1
civil and 2 criminal courts ; police stations, 8 ; regular police, 63 men.^
Kavali.— Town in Nellore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 14°
55' n., long. 8o° 3' E. ; 142 miles from Madras. Population (1881)
4927, namely, 2500 males and 2427 females; number of houses,
909. Hindus numbered 4510; Muhammadans, 408; and Christians, 9.
Police lines ; school ; travellers' bungalow.

Kavandappadi (Koundapaddi). — Town in Bhawani taluk or Sub-
division, Coimbatore, Madras Presidency. Lat. n° 23' n., long. 77
42' e. Population ( 1 871) 6898; (1881) 4286, of whom all but five
are Hindus; number of houses, 1012.

Kaveri. — River of Madras. —See Cauvery.

Kaveripak.— Town in Walajah taluk or Sub-division, North Arcot
District, Madras Presidency; 10 miles east of Arcot. Lat. 12 54' n.,
long. 79 30' e. Population (1871) 5711 ; (1881) 5478, namely, 2680
males and 2798 females, occupying 863 houses. Hindus numbered
5248; and Muhammadans, 230. Notable for its irrigation tank, one
of the finest in Southern India, which supplies water to about 6000
acres of rice land in 23 villages, and produces an average annual
revenue of ^3300. The tank is enclosed by a band or embank-
ment four miles long. It is fed by a channel from the Palar, and
in its surplus weir are the head -waters of the Cortelliar, which
supplies Madras city with drinking water. The nominal area of
cultivable land under this tank is about 40,000 acres, but deposits
of silt have greatly impaired its efficiency. Wild duck and other water-
fowl are abundant. Clive here gained a complete victory over the
French in 1752. The battle was fought in the moonlight. The fort



1 06 KA VERIPA TAM—KA WARD HA.

of Kaveripak, close to the town, was held by French and English in
turn during the wars of the Karnatic. The name of the town means
' a dam over the Kaveri ' (Cauvery).

Kaveripatam {Cauveripatam). — Town in Krishnagiri fd/uk, Salem
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12 25' n., long. 7 8° 16' e. Popu-
lation (1871) 4410 ; (1881) 3886, namely, 1846 males and 2040 females;
number of houses, 735. Hindus numbered 3581 ; and Muhammadans,
305. An irregularly built place on the right bank of the Pennar, with
a considerable trade in oil-seeds, grain, woven goods, and cattle. The
fort, which commands the pass of Palakod, was taken by the English
in 1767, and almost immediately recaptured by Haidar All, who
strengthened the works, and used them as a support in the following
campaign, until his withdrawal above the Ghats, when Colonel Wood
again captured the place. In 1790, Kaveripatam was Colonel Maxwell's
head-quarters before advancing against Tipii Sultan.

Kaveripuram. — Town in Bhawani taluk or Sub-division, Coim-
batore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. n° 55' n., long. 77 47' e.
Population (187 1) 6532 ; (1881) 441 1; number of houses, 849. Hindus
numbered 3899; Christians, 460; and Muhammadans, 52. Formerly
a fort of some importance, as it stands at the mouth of one of the
passes from Mysore, and was an outpost of Tirumala Nayak of Madura,
against the inroads of the Kartars. In 1768 it was captured by Colonel
Wood ; the following year, after a most spirited defence by Captain
Faisan, it was retaken by Haidar Ali. The fort and pass were points
of strategic importance throughout the Mysore wars, the pass being
much used for convoys in the final struggle.

Kavite. — Town in Berhampur taluk or Sub-division, Ganjam
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 19 35' 30" n., long. 84 35' e.
Population (1S71) 4267; (1881) 4574, namely, 2227 males and 2347
females, occupying 841 houses. All but two were Hindus.

Kawardha. — Petty State attached to Bilaspur District, Central Pro-
vinces ; situated between lat. 21 51' and 22 29' n., and between long.
8i° 3' and 8i° 40' e. Area (1881), 887 square miles; number of
towns or villages, 389 ; houses, 28,369. Population (1872) 75,462 ;
(1881) 86,362, namely, males 42,706, and females 43,656 ; average
density of population, 97 persons per square mile.

The western part consists of a network of hills known as the Chilpi
range, along the base of which spreads the valuable portion of the
estate. Much of the soil is excellent, and produces fine crops of
cotton. Rice, wheat, and oil-seeds are also grown ; and the forest
produce, consisting of lac, resin, gum, and mahud flowers, is of some
value. Many of the villages are surrounded by unbroken sheets of
cultivation, and contain comfortable and thriving communities. Esti-
mated gross annual revenue, ^6800; tribute of ^1600 is payable to



KA WARDHA—KA YAL.



107



the British Government. Owing to complaints which had been made
for several years of maladministration and oppression by the chief,
Kawardha State is now (1884) temporarily under direct Government
administration.

Kawardha. — Chief town of the Kawardha chiefship, Bilaspur
District, Central Provinces, situated at the foot of the Saletekri range,
60 miles west of Bilaspur town. Lat. 22 i' n., long. 8i° 15' e.
Population (1872)6590; (1881) 5685, namely Hindus, 413-1; Kabir-
panthis, 348; Satnamis, 330; Muhammadans, 456; aboriginal reli-
gions, 420. A considerable trade takes place here in cotton and
lac. The houses are mostly tiled, a rare feature in Chhattisgarh, and
here and there stand prominently forward some imposing structures
of masonry. The most important of these is the residence of the
chief, containing several double-storied blocks, from the roof of which
the town has a good appearance. The high priest of the Kabirpanthi
sect also lives here, and his presence attracts devotees from all parts of
India.

Kaw-ka-dwiit. — Village in the Bilin (Bhileng) Kyaik-hto township,
Shwe-gyin District, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. The village
is on the high-road from Bilin to Kyaik-hto, where it crosses the Thai-
hpyu river. Population (1877) 1333; (1881) 1443, chiefly agriculturists
and fishermen ; number of houses, 233. Local revenue, ^26. Police
station ; cattle market in the dry season twice a week.

Kaw-ka-reit. — Head-quarters of the Haung - tharaw township,
Amherst District, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. A straggling
village on both banks of a small stream of the same name, here
spanned by a wooden bridge. Population (1876) 2135; (1881) 2146.
Weekly cattle market.

Kayal (the Coil of Marco Polo). — Ancient port in Tenkarai
Sub-division, Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency. Known as Kail
or Koil, it was long a famous coast town. Marco Polo landed
here, and describes it as belonging to Ashar, the eldest of five
brothers who reigned in the Maabar or Malabar and Tinnevelli
regions. Rashid-ud-din, a contemporary of Polo, also mentions it as
a Malabar port. Abdurrazak names it as ' a place situated opposite
the island of Serendib, otherwise called Ceylon.' Nicholas Conti calls
it Cahila, the site of a pearl fishery. Vasco da Gama, writing the word
Caell, notices that with a Kafir (Christian) people, it had a Muham-
madan king. Bishop Caldwell, deriving the name from Kayal, a
lagoon or backwater, places Marco Polo's Call on the Tamraparni river,
half-way between Korkai village and the sea, at an insignificant place
now called Old Kayal (Palaya Kayal). Korkai he identifies with the
' Kolkoi emporium ' of Ptolemy. Korkai, now five miles inland, was
originally on the coast. As the silt accumulated in the sea near the



108 KA YALPATNAM—KAZIPARA.

mouth of the river, or as the line of the coast rose, or from both causes,
Korkai was found at length to be too far inland for the convenience of
a sea-borne trade. Kayal, the Cail of Marco Polo, rose in its stead on
the sea-shore, and attained to still greater dimensions. Kayal has in
its turn sunk to a petty village inhabited partly by Muhammadans and
partly by Roman Catholics. Population (1881) 944. For two or
three miles north of the present village of Kayal, and a mile and a half
inland as far as Maramangalam village, the whole plain is covered
with broken tiles, remnants of Arabian and other pottery and China
porcelain.

Kayalpatnam (or Coilpatani). — Town and port in Tenkarai taluk
or Sub-division, Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 33'
30" n., and long. 78 10' e. j 18 miles south of Tuticorin. Population
(1871) 11,197; (1881) 11,806, namely, 4519 males and 7287 females.
Hindus numbered 4170; Muhammadans, 7445; and Christians, 191 ;
number of houses, 2792. The seaborne trade, which is carried on by
Labbays, is estimated at ^20,000, chiefly in pearls and precious
stones ; rice and cocoa-nuts from Ceylon ; timber and areca-nuts from
Travancore ; and palmyra jagari (crude sugar). Large salt manufac-
ture. The port was formerly of importance, but has now been super-
seded by Tuticorin. Kayalpatnam was supposed to have been probably
the ancient Cail of Marco Polo. But Bishop Caldwell's interesting
and conclusive investigations fix the site of Cail about 8 miles to the
north-west. — See Kayal.

Kayan (or Ken). — River of Central India. — See Ken.
Kayenkolam (Quilon). — Seaport on the backwater of the same
name, Travancore State, Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 53' 28" n., long.
76° 36' 59" e. ; containing about 3000 inhabitants. This old town was
formerly the capital of an independent State, Quilon ; and is near the
supposed site of the ancient Nel Kynda. In 829 a. d., the Syrian Church
was founded here. Captured by the Dutch in 1661. In 1745, the Raja
submitted to Travancore ; and fifteen years later, the State was finally
absorbed by its more powerful neighbour. — See Quilon.

Kazipara. —Village in the Barasat Sub-division, District of the
Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal ; situated about \\ mile from Barasat
town, and included within the Barasat municipality. Lat. 22 43' 45"
n., long. 88° 33' e. The site of a large annual fair held in December
or January, in honour of a famous Musalman saint, Pir Ekdil Sahib,
which is attended by Hindus as well as Muhammadans. About 300
acres of land are held by Muhammadan priests for the maintenance
of the mosque, and the due performance of religious services. An
account of the legend connected with the saint, and of the miracles
performed by him, is given in the Statistical Account of Bengal^ vol. i.
pp. no, in. »



KEDAR GANGA— KEDGEREE. 109

Kedar Ganga. — Mountain torrent in Garhwal State, North-Western
Provinces. According to Thornton, it rises in a snow-clad rocky gorge,
in lat. 30 54' n., long. 79 5' e., and, after a rapid north-westerly
course of 10 or 12 miles, falls into the Bhagirathf, on the left side,
just below Gangotri, in lat. 30 59' N., long. 7 8° 59' e. It is subject
to sudden floods from the melting of the snow, and therefore varies
greatly in breadth and volume from time to time.

Kedar Kanta — Mountain peak in Garhwal State, North-Western
Provinces. Thornton states that this is the highest summit in the
Himalayan range which separates the head-waters of the Jumna and the
Tons. Lat. 31 1' n., long. 7 8° 14' e. The mountain slopes gently
upward on every side, so that the ascent can be easily performed from
any quarter. Beds of white saccharoid limestone form the base ; the
summit consists of micaceous schist. Forests of oak, pine, yew, horse
chestnut, and rhododendron clothe the shoulders ; but the greater
vegetation abruptly ceases at an elevation of 10,000 feet, leaving the
remainder of its height clad only with grasses and alpine plants.
Jacquemont found the summit free from snow at the end of May.
Kedar Kanta formed a station in the Great Trigonometrical Survey
of the Himalayas. Elevation above sea-level, 12,541 feet.

Kedarnath.— Famous temple and place of pilgrimage in Garhwal
District, North-Western Provinces. Lat. 30 44' 10" n., long. 79 5'
50" e. ; lying immediately below the snowy peak of Mahapanth, at an
elevation of more than 11,000 feet above sea-level, and only second
in sanctity to the sister shrine of Badrinath. It marks the spot
where an incarnation of Sadashiu or Siva, after fighting his numerous
battles, attempted to dive into the earth, to escape his pursuers, the
Pandavas, but left his lower limbs above the surface in the shape of
a holy rock, the remaining portions of his body being distributed else-
where. Close to the temple rises a precipice known as Bhairab Jhamp,
where devotees formerly committed suicide by flinging themselves
from the summit ; but the British Government suppressed this practice
shortly after annexation. With Kedarnath are included the temples of
Kalpeswar, Madhya-rriaheshwar, Tunganath, and Rudranath, the whole
forming the Panch Kedar, a famous round of pilgrimage, containing
the scattered portions of Siva's body. The Rawal or chief priest is always
of the Jangam caste from Mysore. He does not officiate at Kedar
itself, but at the branch temples of Gapt, Kashi, and Ukimath, his
adopted son or chela taking the present shrine in charge. Immense
numbers of pilgrims annually visit Kedarnath.

Kedgeree {Khejiri).— Village in Midnapur District, Bengal ; situated
on the right bank of the Hugli river, near its mouth. Lat. 21 53' N.,
long. 88° e. Close by is an old English burial-ground, dating from
the times when vessels of any draught did not come up to Calcutta,



1 1 o KEDIWARI—KELADL

but anchored near the mouth of the river or at Diamond Harbour.
Kedgeree was formerly a telegraph station, which has now been removed
to the opposite side of the Hiigli.

Kediwari. — One of the mouths by which the Indus empties itself
into the sea. Lat. 24 2 n., long. 6f 21' E. Formerly the main
channel of the river, with a depth of from 16 to 18 feet, and navigable
by large boats and Government river steamers; but since 1845,
the Hajamro, which in that year was only suited for the passage of
small boats during floods, has gradually increased in volume, till it has
taken the place of the Kediwari, and is now the largest of the Indus
mouths.

Keitha (Kaiiha).— Village in Rath tahsil, Hamirpur District, North-
western Provinces ; lying on the road from Rath to Jaitpur, 56 miles
south-west of Hamirpur town. Lat. 25 31' n., long. 79 36' e. Popu-
lation (1881) 1309. Occupied from 1812 to 1828 as a cantonment for
British troops, but abandoned on account of the restoration of good
order in the Native States after the British occupation of Bundelkhand.
The English cemetery still exists, as well as the remains of a few
military buildings. Police outpost ; good encamping ground.

Kekri. — Municipal town in Ajmere, Rajputdna. Distant from
Ajmere city 50 miles. Population (1876) 4885 ; (1881) 61 19, namely,
3081 males and 3038 females. Hindus numbered 493 2 ; Muham-
madans, 913 ; and Jains, 274. Formerly a thriving commercial town,
but of late years declining in importance. Municipal income (1880-81),
£622; expenditure, ^496. Water-supply scarce and bad. Head-
quarters of a Deputy Magistrate. Post-office and dispensary.

Keladi. — Village in Sagar taluk, Shimoga District, Mysore State,
Southern India. Lat. 14 13' 10" n., long. 75 3' 41" e. Population
(1871) 1064; (1881) 1249. Cradle of a family of local chieftains or
palegars, who rose to power in the 16th century, and successively
removed their capital to Ikkeri and Bednur or Nagar. The principal
building now standing is a large, plain temple to Rameswara and Vira-
bhadra. While two brothers were ploughing a field, the ploughshare
of one of them struck against a buried caldron, which contained
treasure. Afraid to disturb it, he dreamt that it was desirable to offer
a human sacrifice. On hearing this, their two slaves volunteered to be
victims on condition that their memory should be preserved. Two
mounds are still pointed out as the scene of these human sacrifices.
"With the accession of the wealth thus obtained, the brothers raised a
small force and began to subdue the neighbouring villages. But they
were seized and sent to Vijayanagar, and there put into custody.
Hearing that a palegdr had rebelled, they sought permission to be
allowed to punish him. In this they succeeded ; and as a reward were
confirmed in the possession of the places they had captured.



KELAPUR—KELSI. 1 1 1

Kelapur. — Tdlukoi Wiin District, Berar. Area, 1079 square miles ;
contains 275 villages, with 14,737 occupied and 936 unoccupied
houses. Population (1881) 78,814, namely, 40,1 94 males and 38,620
females, or 73 persons per square mile. Villages per square mile, 0*25 ;
houses per square mile, 14-5; persons per house, 5-4. Hindus num-
bered 53,181; Muhammadans, 2402; Jains, 168; aboriginal tribes,
23,006; Sikhs, 56; and Christian, 1. Area occupied by cultivators,
248,941 acres ; number of persons engaged in agriculture, 55,060.
Total assessed area, 481 square miles; total assessment, ^7672 ; local



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