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cesses paid on land, ^569. In 1884, the taluk contained 1 civil and
1 criminal court ; police stations (t/idnds), 8 ; regular police, 76 men ;
village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 82.

Keljhai*. — Village' in Wardha tahsil, Wardha District, Central Pro-
vinces ; about 16 miles north-east of Wardha" town, on the old Nagpur
and Bombay high-road. Lat. 20 51' n., long. 7 8° 51' e. Said to occupy
the site of the ancient city of Chakranagar, which was preyed upon by
a demon as related in the sacred book Bhdrat. In the gateway of
what remains of a well-built fort, stands a famous image of Ganapati,
in whose honour a yearly fair is held on the fifth day of Magna Suddha,
or about the end of January.

Kelod (Kelwad). — Town in Katol tahsil, Nagpur District, Central
Provinces ; at the foot of the Satpura Hills, about 7 miles north of
Saoner, on the main road to Chhindwara. Lat. 21 27' 30" n., long.
78° 55' e. Population (1881) 4481, namely, Hindus, 3994; Muham-
madans, 376 ; Jains, 86; aboriginal religions, 25. The chief industry
of the place consists of the manufacture of excellent brass and copper
vessels, which are exported as far as Amraoti and Raipur. Kelod also
produces rough glass ornaments. Several firms of Marwari money-
dealers have been long established, but their business is merely local.
The town has a school, police buildings, and a market-place. According
to tradition, Kelod was founded 14 generations ago by the ancestors of
the present mdlguzdr and desmukh, at the same time that a neighbouring
Gauli chief formed the extensive tank at Jatghar, near the town. The
fort, now almost in ruins, was probably built in the early Maratha period.

Kelsi.— Creek on the coast-line of Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presi-
dency ; lies midway between the ports of Bankot and Suvarndurg. The
entrance of the creek is narrow and difficult. Along the southern
bank are a long spit of sand and a salt-marsh. The creek is navig-
able by small canoes for a distance of ten miles. The waters abound
in fish.

Kelsi. — Port in Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency ; situated 64
miles north by west of Ratnagiri town, and 3 miles south-east of Bankot.
Betel-nut is the chief article of export. Lat. 17° 55' N.,' long. 73 6' e.
Average annual value of trade during the five years ending 1S81-82


returned as follows: — Imports, ^4704; exports, ^2572. A yearly
fair is held, attended by about 25,000 people. Population in 1872,
3291. Not returned separately in the Census Report of 1881. For
customs purposes Kelsi is grouped with two other ports, Bankot and
Harnai, under the Suvarndurg division.

Kelva (or Kelve, Kelve-Mahim). — Port in the Mahim Sub-division of
Thana District, Bombay Presidency. — See Mahim.

Ken (or Kayan ; the Kar?idvati of Sanskrit, and Kainas of the
Greeks). — River of the North-Western Provinces ; rises in the Native
State of Bhopal, on the north-western slopes of the Vindhya mountains,
and, flowing in a general northerly direction, past the town of Banda,
falls into the Jumna a few miles below Pailanf. Its source, in lat. 23
54' n., long. 8o° 13' e., has an elevation of 1700 feet above sea-level.
After a course of about 35 miles, it falls in a cataract over the brow of
the Bandair range, at Pipariya ghat. It then takes a westerly direction,
and, flowing parallel to the base of the mountains, receives the waters of
the Patna and the Sunar on its left bank. Traversing the Native State
of Panna, it enters Banda District at the village of Bilharka (lat. 25 ° 8'
n., long. 8o° 25' e.), and is there joined by its affluents, the Koil,
Gawain, and Chandrawal. After a total course of 230 miles, it falls
into the Jumna, on the right bank, near Chilla (lat. 25 47' x.,long. 8c°

33' E -)-

Numerous rapids and cataracts interrupt the bed of the Ken, and
the channel is too much blocked by rocks to allow of navigation.
Small craft of light burden, however, proceed in the rainy season from
the Jumna as far up as the town of Banda, a distance of 35 miles. Fish
abound ; and beautiful quartz or basalt pebbles, found in the bed, are
in great request for the manufacture of ornaments. The natives con-
sider the water unwholesome. In time of flood, the volume of water at
Kharauni amounts to 450,000 cubic feet per second ; at Banda, to
500,000 cubic feet The Ken flows in a deep and well-defined bed,
scoured out to a great width through the yielding clay of Bundelkhand
by the flood-water. It is nowhere fordable in the rainy season. A system
of irrigation canals, drawing their supplies from the Ken and the Bagain,
is now (1884) under consideration. The project consists in damming up
the cold-weather supply of the river by erecting a weir at Kharauni,
where it forces its way across a natural granite barrier, through an
outlying spur of the Vindhya range. The proposed capacity of the
canal will be 350 cubic feet of water per second, 300 of which will
be drawn from the Ken, and 50 from the Bagain. The length of the
main line will extend to about 50 miles, with a system of distributaries
commanding a gross area of about 1000 square miles. Estimated
cost, ;£i33>3°9-

Kenchengudda. — Town in the Bellary Sub-division of Bellary


District, Madras Presidency ; situated on the banks of the Tungabhadra.
Lat 15° 36' N., long. 76 54' 10" E. Population (187 1) 1041 ; (1881)
998 ; number of houses, 209. Hindus numbered 898 ; and Muham-
madans, 100. The town is now almost in ruins, but was the head-
quarters of one of the principal palayams or military zamindaris in
former times. An old palace in the ruins has a long Hali Kanarese
inscription on the ceiling of one of its chambers.

Kenda. — Zaminddri estate in Bilaspur tahsil, Bilaspur District,
Central Provinces, adjoining the Lapha estate. Area, 298 square miles,
of which less than 14,000 acres are cultivated ; the hilly portion
contains some fine sal forests, and much lac is exported to Mirzapur.
Number of villages, 79 ; houses, 3358. Population (18S1) 12,252,
namely, males 6421, and females 5831. The chief is a Kunwar.

Kendrapara. — Sub-division of Cuttack District, Orissa. Area,
1424 square miles, with 4400 villages and 99,127 houses. Popu-
lation (1881), males 283,571, and females 291,541; total, 575,112.
Classified according to religion, there were — Hindus, 564,619;
Muhammadans, 9852; Sikhs, 8; Christians, 174; and 'others,'
459. Average density of population, 404 persons per square mile ;
villages per square mile, 3 ; persons per village, 131 ; houses per square
mile, 75 ; inmates per house, 5*8. This Sub-division, which was con-
stituted in January 1859, comprises the 4 police circles of Kendrapara,
Patamundai, Tirtol, and Aul. In 1883 it contained 1 magisterial court,
a regular police force 106 strong, and a village watch numbering 11 14

Kendrapara. — Town, municipality, and head-quarters of Kendrapara
Sub-division, and of a police circle, Cuttack District, Orissa ; situated a
few miles north of the Chitartala branch of the Mahanadi. Lat. 20 29'
55" n., long. 86° 27' 35" e. Population (1872) 13,268; (1881) 15,696,
namely, males 7616, and females 8080. Classified according to
religion, the population in 1881 consisted of — Hindus, 14,033;
Muhammadans, 1658; 'others,' 5. Area of town site, 2880 acres.
In 1883-84, the municipal revenue was ^"494, of which ^421 was
derived from taxation ; average incidence of taxation, 6|d. During
the Maratha rule, a magistrate (faujddr) was stationed here for the
purpose of checking the depredations of the Raja of Kujang, who had
for centuries preyed upon the surrounding country.

Kendrapara Canal. — A branch of the Orissa Canal System. It
starts from the right flank of the Birupa weir, and proceeds along the
north and west bank of the Mahanadi, and of its distributaries the
Chitartala and the Nun, in a due easterly direction for 42J miles, to
Marsaghai, in tidal waters, 23 miles from False Point. This canal was
opened in May 1869. A branch canal, 40 miles in length, taking off
from the north or left bank of the Kendrapara Canal, passing along the



north bank of the Birupa and Brahmani, and falling into the latter river
at Patamundai near the Dhamra estuary, has just been completed. An
extension of the Kendrapara Canal, from Marsaghai towards the sea-
coast, for a distance of 15 miles, was sanctioned in 1872-73, in order to
improve the communication with False Point harbour, and was opened
to the Jambu channel near the seaboard in July 1881. The Kendrapara
Canal proper is designed to irrigate 385 square miles ; but as less than
two-thirds of this area will require simultaneous irrigation, the canal
only carries water for 234 square miles, or 150,000 acres. The
Patamundai branch canal is intended to irrigate 113,000 acres. The
extension from Marsaghai towards False Point is intended for navigation
only. The head lock of the Kendrapara Canal, at the Birupa weir, is
100 feet from sill to sill, and 17 feet wide. The sills are 59-5 feet
above sea-level, and the gates iSh f eet m height. The canal is divided
into 7 reaches, with a width at water-line varying from 75 to 160 feet,
a uniform depth of 7 feet, a fall ranging from o to 6 inches per mile,
and a minimum capacity of discharge varying in the different reaches
from 340 to 740 cubic feet per second in the dry season, and up to
2000 in the rains. The total fall of the canal from its head to its out-
fall at Marsaghai is 64 feet, the levels being adjusted by means of 8
locks, the last of which is a tidal lock at Marsaghai, with a fall of 10
feet, the upper sill being 6 feet above mean sea-level, and the lower sill
4 feet below. At low-water spring tide there is always 3 J feet of water
on the lower sill. At Mutri, in the 37 th mile, is an escape or waste
weir capable of discharging 360 cubic feet per second. Six syphon
culverts have been led underneath the canal, and 4 traffic bridges, in
addition to the lock bridges, have been constructed across it. — See also
Mahanadi River.

KendulL — Village in Birbhiim District, Bengal ; situated on the north
bank of the Ajai. Lat. 23 s^' 3°" N -> lor| g- 8 7° 2 &' 1 S" E - Birthplace
of Jayadeva, a disciple of the Vishnuvite reformer Chaitanya and
Sanskrit poet, the author of the celebrated Gita Govinda, 2, Sanskrit
poem in praise of Krishna. An annual fair in honour of Jayadeva is
held in the village on the last day of Magh (the commencement of
February), and is attended by upwards of 50,000 persons.

Kengeri (or Ten-geri, 'Southern Street'). — Village in the Bangalore
Sub-division of Bangalore District, Mysore State, Southern India ;
9 miles south-west of Bangalore city. Lat. 12 54' n., long. 77 2 e.
Population (1871) 2155; (1881) 1819. The town was destroyed
by Tipii Sultan to prevent its sheltering the forces of Lord Cornwallis.
In 1866, an Italian gentleman, Signor De Vecchi, attempted, with
the assistance of Government, to revive sericulture in this neigh-
bourhood. He imported cartoons of silkworm eggs from Japan, and
established a steam filature at Kengeri, where the delicate process


of winding was performed by female orphans from the Bangalore
convent, under the superintendence of native nuns. But a severe
drought proved fatal to the imported worms, and though the stock
was twice replenished, the industry fell for a time into its former
state of depression. It is, however, fast reviving, not only here, but
throughout Bangalore District.

Keobrang. — Pass in Bashahr State, Punjab, over a ridge forming
the boundary between Kunawar and Chinese territory. Lat. 31 36' n.,
long. 7 8° 54' e. Thornton states that the pass lies within the Chinese
boundary, but that the severity of the climate prevents their estab-
lishing an outpost on the spot, so that Europeans have repeatedly
visited it. It has been found free from snow at the end of July.
Elevation above sea-level, 18,313 feet.

Keonthal {Kiunthal) — -One of the Punjab Hill States, under the
political superintendence of the Government of the Punjab ; lies around
Simla Station, between lat. 30 55' 30" and 31 6' n., and between
long. 77 10' and 77 25' e. Area, 116 square miles; number of
villages, 838; houses, 6318; number of families, 6654. Total popu-
lation, 31,154, namely, males 17,329, and females 13,825; average
density of population, 269 persons per square mile. Classified accord-
ing to religion, there were, in 1881 — Hindus, 30,819 ; Muhammadans,
307; Sikhs, 18; Christians, 10. The revenue in 1883 was estimated
at ^6000. Principal products, opium and grain. The present Raja"
(1883) is Balbfr Sen, a Rajput by caste, who succeeded his father
Mahendra Sen in 1882. The chief of Keonthal was formerly styled
Rana, but was raised by the British Government to the higher rank of
R£ja in 1857.

After the Gurkha war a portion of the territory of Keonthal,
which had been occupied by the Gurkhas, was sold to the Maha-
raja of Patiala. In consideration of this, no tribute is paid by the
Keonthal Raja for the remainder of his State, which was restored
to him by sanad in 18 15, on the expulsion of the Gurkhas from the
country. The Raja holds another sanad, dated September 1815, con-
ferring on the Keonthal chief, and his heirs for ever, paramount
authority over the petty States of Theog, Kothi, Ghund, Madhan
(or Kiari), and Ratesh, the chiefs of which, with their descendants,
are bound to regard the chief of Keonthal as their liege, and to pay
an annual tribute as follows :— Kothi, ^50 ; Theog, ^50 ; Ghund,
^25 ; Madhan, ^25. A third sanad was granted to Keonthal, con-
ferring Punnar on him and his heirs. It is dated 1823, though the
transfer was authorized in 181 6. The reasons given for this measure
were the isolated position of Punnar, the turbulent character of its
inhabitants, the indisposition of Government to extend its teritorries
in the hills, and a desire to confer a benefit on Keonthal. The tribu-

n6 KERA.

taries of Keonthal are :— The Rana of Kothi, the late chief of which
obtained that rank for services during the Mutiny — area of his estate,
36 square miles; estimated population (1875) 2 5°° ; and revenue,
£600. The Thakur of Theog— area of estate, 10 square miles;
estimated population (1875) 3000; and revenue, ^330. The Thakur
of Madhan — area of estate, 13 square miles ; estimated population
(1875) 1000; and revenue, ;£i6o. The Thakur of Ghund — area
of estate, 3 square miles; estimated population (1875) 1000; and
revenue, ^100. The Thakur of Ratesh — area of estate, 3 square
miles; estimated population (1875) 437; and revenue, ^20. The
population of these subordinate States are not shown separately in
the Census Report of 1881, but are included within the figures for

Kerd (Khedd). — Village in Cutch (Kachchh) State, Bombay Presi-
dency ; situated 13 miles south of Bhuj. Noted for its old Sivaite temple,
dating from perhaps the end of the 10th century, which was thrown down
by an earthquake in 1 8 1 9. The following description is condensed from
an account furnished by Mr. James Burgess, Archaeological Surveyor
to the Government of Bombay. The shrine is still standing, and
measures 8 feet 6 inches square inside, with walls 2 feet 7 inches thick,
surrounded by a pradakshina or path 2 feet 6 inches wide — the vimana
measuring 24 feet over all. This temple has been built partly of red
and partly of yellowish stone, very hard, and standing exposure very
well. Of the mandap, which was 18 feet 9 inches wide, only a part of
the north wall with one window in it is left ; all the rest is a heap of
ruins. The sculptures on the walls are not numerous, but are superior
to the usual run of such work. The elaborate ornamental w r ork on the
faces of the spire has been largely undercut ; it represents the outlines
of a chaitya window, repeated over a triangular face, with human figures
between. Of these triangles of sculpture there are eight on each side,
gradually diminishing in size as they rise higher and higher, one behind
another, like so many gable ends. The corners of the shrine are
surmounted by miniature spires, reaching not quite half the height of
this sculpture, and above them are four other similar, but set farther
inwards ; above these and the sculpture rises the massive outline of the
great central spire or sikhara, all beautifully carved. To light the
pradakshina, there is a window of perforated stone on each side.

To the south-east of Kera is a small village on rising ground, above
which stands the mausoleum of Pir Ghulam Ali. The principal build-
ings within the enclosure are : — (1) The dargah, facing the east with one
large dome, and in front of it three smaller ones. Inside is the tomb,
under a canopy, supported by 12 small columns. Against the pall lies a
representation of a Mughal pir, a water-colour portrait of Ali, with a
nimbus round his head, and below him Hassan and Husain, also with


aureoles ; and in a third frame, Muhammad in a blue c/iogd, but the
face left blank, — a curious compromise between the prohibition in the
Kuran and the desire for a palpable representation of the objects of
reverence. (2) A canopy or chhatra stands in the middle of the
quadrangle in front of the dargah, with a flat roof and balconies on each
side. (3) Dadi All Shah's darga/i, with lantern minarets ; a neat plain
building, with three doors in front and two in the east end. The roof
is supported by two arches, the whole width of the building. It
contains no tomb, the body having been buried in Iran. These
buildings were erected about eighty years ago, Ghulam All Shah having
died at Karachi (Kurrachee) in 1796. The estate attached to the
establishment is said to yield between ^1800 and ^"1900 per
annum, which is expended in charity. Near the village is a large
and strong fort. A considerable trade in cloth and ironware is
carried on.

Kerala (or Chera). — Ancient kingdom of Southern India, one of the
divisions of the Dravida country. — See Chera.

Kerowlee (Karauli). — Native State in Rajputana. — See Karauli.

Kerur. — Town in the Badami Sub-division, Bijapur District, Bombay
Presidency ; 14 miles south by east of Kaladgi, and n miles north-west
of Badarni. Lat. 16 1' n., long. 75 36' e. Population (1872) 7096 ;
(1881) 3833. A fortified town, on the Sholapur-Hubli road. The
fort is on a gentle slope about 300 yards south-west of the town.
As the town increased, a new market was built to the east of the fort,
and a colony of weavers established themselves in the southern market,
where they carry on a flourishing trade. The town and fort contain
several temples.

Kesabpur. — Town in lessor District, Bengal; situated on the
Harihar river about 18 miles south of Jessor town. Lat. 22 54' 45"
n., long. 89 15' 40" e. The town is the second largest entrepot of
commerce in the District, and a centre of the sugar trade. It con-
tains numerous kdrkhdnds or refineries, conducted by Calcutta native
merchants. Sripur, a suburb on the other side of the river, almost
entirely consists of sugar-refineries. The town has an import
trade in rice ; and manufactures large quantities of earthen pots
and vessels for the purpose of sugar manufacture. Another local
manufacture is brasswork. Population (1881) 6405, namely, Hindus,
3236 ; Muhammadans, 3168 ; ' others,' 1. Area of town site, 640 acres.
Municipal income (1882-83), ^73, 10s. Two large bazars or market-

Kesaria. — Petty State in the Jhalawar division of Kathiawar, Bombay
Presidency. Area, 3 square miles. Population (1872) 186; (18S1)
231. Consists of 1 village, with 2 separate proprietors. The revenue
in 1882 was estimated at ^165 \ tribute of ^27, 16s. is paid to the


British Government. Three miles north of Lakhtar station on the
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. ,

Kesariya. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle (thdnd),
Champaran District, Bengal. Population (1881) 5256, namely, Hindus,
4753; and Muhammadans, 503. Two miles south of the village, on
the road to Sattar ghdt, stands a lofty brick mound 1400 feet in circum-
ference at its base, capped by a solid brick tower, 62 feet high. The
date of this tower (a memorial of Buddhism) is assigned by General
Cunningham to between 200 and 500 a.d. The common people call
it Raja Ben ka deora, after a traditional monarch who is said to have
been one of five Supreme Emperors of India. A tank a little to the
south is also called after this king.

Keslabori. — Ancient village in Chanda District, Central Provinces ;
beneath the Chimiir Hills, 10 miles north-north-east of Segaon. Lat.
20 25' n., long. 79 17' 30" e. Once a large town, but now reduced
to a few huts, with a population in 1881 of only 103 souls. It has a
considerable area under rice, irrigated by a hill spring, the water of
which proves injurious when drunk by strangers. Near the village is
the Ramdighi pool, a basin about 40 feet in diameter and of unknown
depth, hollowed out of the rock, into which falls, during the rains, a
stream of some size from a precipice above. According to tradition,
Rama formed the pool ; and an ancient temple still overhangs it, in
which are two. good carvings of a warrior with shield and straight

Kesod. — Town in the Sorath division of Kathiawar, Bombay Presi-
dency. Population (1872) 3169; (1881) 2589, chiefly Lohanas ; the
decrease is due to the famine of 1878-79. A walled town with an inner
citadel, 25 miles south-west of Junagarh. Has a thriving trade. Known
in Persian histories as Kesoj.

Keti. — Port, town, and municipality in the Jerruck Sub-division,
Karachi (Kurrachee) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Population
(1881) 2141. Situated in lat. 24 8' 30" N., long. 67 28' 30" e., close
to the sea, on the Hajamro branch of the Indus. Chief port in the
Indus delta for river and sea-going boats. Has taken the place of
Ghorabari, a little farther inland on the same branch, which was
the principal commercial town of the surrounding tract in 1845.
Ghorabari, or Bandar Vikar, was founded about 1826, and ten years
later contained 1000 inhabitants. In 1836, Mir Nasir Khan, brother
of the reigning Mir at Haidarabad, owned Ghorabari, and drew from
it an annual revenue of over ,£10,000, the customs of the port alone
having been farmed out for ^5200; while 180 vessels frequented the
harbour every year. In 1837, the exports (rice, ghi, grindstones) were
valued at ^26,500, and the imports (English cloth, raw cotton, metals,
dates, slaves) at ^"10,050. In those days no route presented such

KETI. n g

facilities for the transport of goods to the Upper Delta as the Hajamro
branch. In 1848, however, the Hajamro capriciously receded, and
GhoraMri immediately dwindled into comparative insignificance.
The trade of the deserted port then betook itself to the first Keti,
nearer the sea; but about 1853 the place was swept away by a flood,
and a new site was chosen in the neighbourhood. This second Keti,
the existing town and harbour, now about thirty years old, soon attracted
the river trade, and at present ranks next to Karachi among the ports
of Sind.

During the inundation season, nothing is done in the way of trade,
and the town has a deserted look ; about November the port is
open for sea-going vessels. Exports, to the Bombay and Madras
Presidencies, to Sonmiani, and Makrdn, comprise grain, pulses, oil-
seeds, wool, cotton, drugs, dyes, saltpetre, and firewood. Imports,
from the same places and the Persian Gulf, include cocoa-nuts, cotton
piece-goods, metals, sugar, spices, coir, and shells.

The following statement shows the value of the sea-borne trade of Keti
in 1873-74 : — To and from ports within Sind — exports, ,£164,135 ; im-
ports, ^19,424: to and from ports beyond Sind — exports, ,£116,188 ;
imports, .£37,629. The gross amount of customs duties collected during
the same year was .£"3070, being import duties, .£48, and export duties,
£3022. During the prevalence of the south-west monsoon, trade
remains at a standstill, vessels being unable to make the harbour from
seaward. In the brisk season, from 70 to 90 boats of various sizes may
be seen lining the bandar. Sea-borne goods for transit up the Indus
must be transferred to river boats. The total number of ships which
entered the port from all quarters in 1873-74 was 1295, with a gross
tonnage of 41,073 tons ; the total number clearing for all ports was 1323,
with a gross tonnage of 41,991 tons. The average annual value of the

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 14 of 64)