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imports for the five years ending 1882-83 was £3°j338, and the exports
,£66,723. The value of the imports in 1882-83 was £25,426, and
exports £60,301. The average number of vessels for the five years
ending in 1882-83 that entered the port was 266, with a gross tonnage
of 6277 tons; and that cleared, 764, with 20,698 tons. The number
of vessels that entered the port in 1882-83 was 32 t, tonnage 7967 ;
that cleared, 900, tonnage 23,567.

The river trade of Keti, though considerable, is fluctuating. The
following statement gives particulars for 1873-74: — Value of down-
river trade, ,£274,268 ; value of up-river trade, £46,692 ; entered,
down-river boats, 2915, with a burden of 1,241,155 maunds ; cleared,
up-river boats, 2862, with a burden of 1,204,336 maunds. No later
statistics are available for the river trade.

The town has several times been in danger of floods, but, owing to its
slightly elevated position, has hitherto escaped the fate of its pre-



! 2 o KE UKUCHI—KE UNJHAR.

decessor. Communication by road with Tatta, 60 miles south-west ;
with Mirpur Sakro, 32 miles south-south-west ; and with Ghorabari, 13
miles. Subsidiary jail, custom-house, Government charitable dispen-
sary. A municipality was established in 1854. In 1882-83, the
municipal income was ^624 ; municipal expenditure, £^9 > incidence
of municipal taxation, 4s. per head.

Keukuchi. — Halting-place in Bashahr State, Punjab, on the north-
east slope of the Cbarang Pass. Lat. 31 27' n., long. 78 37' e.
According to Thornton, the abundance of fuel and herbage causes this
spot to be selected as a camping-ground. The Nangalti, a rapid unford-
able torrent, flows down the pass, and falls into the Tidang a few miles
below Keukuchi. Elevation above sea-level, 12,457 feet.

Keunjhar.— Native State of Orissa, lying between lat. 21 1' and
22° 9' 30" n., and between long. 85 14' and 86° 24' 35 e. Bounded
on the north by Singbhiim District; on the east by Morbhanj State
and Balasor District ; on the south by Cuttack District and Dhenkanal
State ; and on the west by Dhenkanal, Pal Lahara, and Bonai States.
Keunjhar is divided into two wild tracts — Lower Keunjhar, including
the valleys, and Upper Keunjhar, embracing the mountainous high-
lands. The latter consist of great clusters of rugged crags, which
afford almost inaccessible retreats to their inhabitants ; and which,
although from the plains they appear to be sharply ridged or peaked,
have extensive table-lands on their summits, equally fit for pasture and
for tillage. The Baitarani river takes its rise in the hilly north-
western division. Principal peaks— Thakwani, 3003 feet; Gandha-
Madan, 3479 feet; Tomak, 2577 feet; and Bolat, 1818 feet.

Keunjhar is the second largest of the Orissa States, with an area of 3096
square miles. The Census of 1S72 thus returned the population,
according to religion — Hindus, 113,207, or 62*2 per cent.; Muham-
madans, 487, or 0-3 per cent. ; Christian, 1 ; ' others,' consisting of
aboriginal tribes who still retain their primitive forms of faith, 68,176,
or 37*5 per cent.; total, 181,871, namely, males 90,879, and females
90,992. Classified according to race, there were, in 1872— aboriginal
tribes, 44,438, or 24-3 percent, principally composed of Kols (10,990),
Gonds (10,407), Saonts (7172), and Savars (5125); semi-Hinduized
aborigines, 49,294, or 27*2 percent., mainly composed of Pans (19,827),
Bhuiyas (18,481), and Bathudis (7898); Hindu castes, 87,651, or
48-2 per cent., the most numerous castes being Khandaits (22,225),
Brahmans (8583), and Gaurs (6743) ; Muhammadans, 487, or 0-3 per
cent.

In 1 88 1, a different system of classification was adopted by the
Census officers, and no ethnological division seems to have been
made. The total population had increased to 215,612, namely, males
109,041, and females 106,571; average density, 697 persons per



KE UNTHAL—KHA B. 121

square mile; number of villages, 1638; number of occupied houses,
38,212. Classified according to religion, there were, in 1881 — Hindus,
195,695; Muhammadans, 447 ; Sikhs, 7 ; aboriginal tribes still outside
the pale of Hinduism, 19,40s ; ' others,' 55. The principal village and
residence of the Maharaja is Keunjhar, situated on the Midnapur and
Sambalpur road, lat. 21 37' 25" n., long. 85 37' 31" e.

Keunjhar State originally formed part of Morbhanj ; but about
200 years ago, the tribes of this part finding it a great hardship to
travel through the perilous forests of Morbhanj to obtain justice
from their prince, separated themselves, and set up the brother
of the Morbhanj Raja as their independent ruler. Since then
27 chiefs have ruled. The last prince rendered good service
during the Kol rebellion in 1857, and was rewarded by Government
with the title of Maharaja. He died in 1861, without legitimate
issue. On Government nominating his natural son, the present
Maharaja, to the throne, a dispute arose as to the succession,
which ultimately culminated in an insurrection of the Bhuiya and
Juang tribes in favour of an alleged adopted son, which called for the
intervention of British troops before it was suppressed. Estimated
annual revenue of the State, ^"6339 ; tribute, ^197- The chiefs
militia consists of a force of 1758 men and 318 village police. A
Government elephant {khedd) establishment was formerly maintained
at Keunjhar under the superintendence of an English officer, and a
large number of valuable animals were captured ; but the establish-
ment has since been abolished. The Maharaja maintains 49 schools
in the State, attended in 1881 by 962 pupils. A number of other
unaided schools exist. Metalled roads have been made in the neighbour-
hood of the capital village, and a postal establishment is maintained.
Keunjhar, besides being one of the most important, is at the same time
one of the best, if not the best, administered of the Orissa States.

Keunthal— One of the Punjab Hill States.— See Keonthal.

Kewani.— River of Kheri District, Oudh ; takes its rise in the
Jumaita tdl, near the village of Jumaita, 4 miles south-west of Kheri
town; flows a tortuous south-south-east course, and falls into the
Chauka, at a distance of 40 miles from its source, as the crow flies.
Near its source it is a narrow and shallow stream, but it deepens as
it nears the Chauka. Non-navigable, and fordable everywhere, except
during the rains. It has a breadth of about 50 feet, and an average
depth of 9 feet during the rainy season. The large villages of Saxda
and Nabinagar are situated on its banks.

Khab.— Village in Bashahr State, Punjab ; lies on the left bank of
the Sutlej (Satlaj), which flows between high cliffs of slate and granite.
Lat. 31 48' n., long. 78 41' e. Thornton states that Khab is the
highest point where the grape ripens in Kunawar, and that fields, vine-



1 2 2 KHAB UL—KHA GHORIA.

yards, and apricot trees surround the village, which is noted for the
excellence of its fruit. Elevation above sea-level, 9310 feet.

Khabul— Village in Bashahr State, Punjab ; situated 1 mile from
the right bank of the Pabar river, on the route from Subathu to the
Barenda Pass. Lat. 31 15' n., long. 77° 58' e. The surrounding
country is well tilled, irrigated by the mountain streams, and wooded
with sycamores, chestnuts, and apricots. Elevation above sea-level,
8400 feet.

Khadki. — Town in Poona District, Bombay Presidency. — See
Kirki.

Khaga. — North-eastern tahsil of Fatehpur District, North-Western
Provinces ; lying along the south bank of the Ganges, and traversed
by the East Indian Railway. Area, 274 square miles, of which
129-5 square miles are cultivated, 57*9 square miles cultivable, and
86-8 square miles barren waste. Population (1881) 136,947, namely,
males 68,712, and females 68,235 ; average density of population, 500
persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, there were,
in 1 88 1 — Hindus, 115,642; Muhammadans, 21,304; 'others,' 1.
Number of villages, 335, of which 257 contained less than five hundred
inhabitants. Land revenue, ^19,925; total Government revenue,
,£23,433, including local rates and cesses ; rental paid by cultivators,
,£36,856. The tahsil, which comprises the two pa rgands of Hathgaon
and Hotila, contained in 1884, 9 civil and criminal courts; number of
police circles [t hands), 3 ; strength of regular police, 180 men; chauki-
ddrs, or village police, 463.

Khaga. — Town in pargand Hathgaon, Fatehpur District, North-
western Provinces, and head-quarters of Khaga tahsil, situated on the
Grand Trunk Road, about 20 miles from Fatehpur town ; lat. 25 46'
28" n., long. 8i° 8' 46" e. Population (1881) 1643, the prevailing caste
being Chamars. Police station, post-office, good market, station on the
East Indian Railway. A religious fair is held here in the month of
October.

Khagan. — Mountain valley in Hazard District, Punjab. — See Kagan.
Khagaul. — Town and municipality in Patna District, Bengal ;
situated a short distance south of Dinapur. Lat. 25 34' 30" n., long.
85 ° 5' e. The population, which in 1872 numbered only 5257, had
increased by 1881 to 14,075, namely, males 6584, and females 749 1 -
Classified according to religion, the population consisted of — Hindus,
11,771; Muhammadans, 1997; 'others,' 307. Municipal income
(1881), ^£175; (1882-83), £l 22 \ average incidence of taxation,
4jd. per head of population. The Dinapur railway station is just
outside the town ; which, indeed, has only sprung into importance since
the opening of the railway.

Khaghoria. — Village in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bengal;



KHA GRAPARA—KHAIBAR. 1 2 3

situated on the Myani tributary of the Kasalang river. In 1872-73, a
small colony of Gurkhas from the borders of Nepal was established
here, with the object of getting the jungle cleared through their
means. A sum of ^"io was advanced to each family by the Deputy
Commissioner, to enable the immigrants to purchase cattle and
ploughs, and for their subsistence until they could raise a crop. The
settlers, however, were unable to endure the deadly climate of the
place ; and in the following year they were removed to another settle-
ment of their countrymen at Rangamati, a healthier locality farther
south, with whom they amalgamated and formed one colony. The
settlers, however, proved unfit for colonization, and the little community
was finally broken up in 1877.

Khagrapdra. — Village in the north of Darrang District, Assam ;
lying near the foot of the Bhutan Hills. An annual fair is held here,
which is largely attended by people from considerable distances. In
1881-82, the Bhutids are estimated to have sold goods to the value of
^3656, chiefly salt, blankets, ponies, gold, and a spice resembling
coriander, called jabrang, in exchange for which they purchased rice,
silk and cotton cloth, dried fish, and hardware.

Khaibar (Khyber). — A celebrated pass leading from Peshawar District
of the Punjab into Afghanistan; centre of pass, lat. 34 6' n., long.
71° 5' e. The name is also applied to the range of hills in Yaghistan,
through which the pass runs. The Khaibar mountains form, indeed,
the last spurs of the Sufed Koh, as that mighty range sinks down into
the valley of the Kabul river. The elevation of the connecting ridge is
3400 feet ; but it rises to 6800 feet in the Tatara peak. On either side
of the ridge which connects the Khaibar mountains with the Sufed
Koh rise two small streams — the one flowing north-west to the Kabul
river, the other south-south-east towards Jamrud. The beds of these
streams form the Khaibar defile. On the north of this defile is the
Khaibar range ; on its south is another range, which divides the
defile from the Bara valley, and which is also a spur of the Sufed
Koh. These two ranges respectively throw out their spurs south
and north like two combs placed with their teeth inwards, the
teeth being prevented from quite meeting by the streams above
mentioned.

The Khaibar Pass forms the great northern military route from
Afghanistan into India ; as the Kuram and Gumal Passes form the
intermediate military and trade routes, and the Bolan Pass the
great southern passage both for war and commerce. The Khaibar
Pass commences near Jamrud, to the west of Peshawar, and twists
through the hills for about 33 miles in a north-westerly direction,
till it debouches at Dhaka. The plains of Peshdwar District stretch
rom its eastern mouth ; those of Jalalabad from its western exit.



124 KHAIBAR.

Beyond its eastern end is the remarkable collection of caves at
Kadam ; and beyond its western are many interesting remains of
Buddhism and of ancient civilisation. The pass lies along the bed of
a torrent, chiefly through slate rocks, and is subject to sudden floods.
Burnes' camp had a narrow escape below the fort of Ali Masjid. The
dangerous months for floods are July, August, December, and January.
The gradient is generally easy, except at the Landi Khana Pass, but is
covered with loose stones, which become larger as the head of the
stream is reached. The following details are condensed from General
MacGregor's official account.

Immediately on leaving Jamrud, the defensible ground may be
said to commence, as the spurs come almost up to that place in
round bare knolls of low height, but very sufficient command of the
road. Kadam, however, 3 miles from Jamrud, is generally considered
to be the actual eastern entrance. At this point the hills begin to
close in, and 1000 yards farther the width of the pass is 450 feet;
the bed is easy, level, and covered with small shingle, — the hills on
the left are very steep ; 500 yards farther on, this width gradually
lessens to 370 feet, the hills on either side being sheer precipices.
At 1200 yards farther the width is 190 feet, the hills being steep for 50
or 60 feet in height, then sloping back ; 850 yards farther the width
is 240 feet, the hills on the right being precipitous, and on the left
rounded and practicable; at 1050 yards farther the width is 280 feet,
the hills being very steep on both sides; 850 yards farther the width is
210 feet, the hills on the right being perpendicular, and on the left not
so steep; 1050 yards farther the width is 70 feet, the hills being very
precipitous on both sides; 500 yards farther the width is 230 feet, the hills
on the left being precipitous, and on the right rounded and practicable ;
2 miles farther the width is 250 feet, the hills on the right being per-
pendicular, and on the left practicable; 1050 yards farther the width
is 65 feet, the hills on both sides being very steep, those on the left
perpendicular; 1050 yards farther the width is no feet, the hills on
both sides being comparatively easy and practicable ; 880 yards farther
the width is 210 feet, the hills on the left being steep, and on the right
open and easy; 2 miles 220 yards farther the width is 200 feet, the
hills on the left being steepish, and on the right open and comparatively
easy.

At All Masjid, 1300 yards farther, the width is 40 feet, the hills
being perpendicular and impracticable. Between Kadam and this point,
Moorcroft says, the mountains on either hand are about 1300 feet high,
slaty, and to all appearance inaccessible ; 1450 yards farther the width
is 270 feet, hills on the left precipitous, on right comparatively easy; 1
mile 1000 yards farther the width is 390 feet, the hills being very steep ;
6 J miles beyond this lies the Lalabeg valley, which averages ij mile



KIT A IB AR. [2S

broad; 880 yards farther the width is 10 feet or less, the hills being
quite perpendicular; in 1600 yards farther the road goes over the
Landi Khana Pass, the width being 140 feet, and the hills being very
steep, especially on the left ; 3 \ miles farther the width is 300 feet, the
hills being steep on the left, but not so precipitous on the right; 2}
miles farther the width is 200 feet, the hills being very steep on both
sides; 3 miles farther is Dhaka, where the defile opens. The total
length of the defile, therefore, from Jamriid to Dhaka is about ^3
miles.

The elevation in feet of various points of the pass is— Jamriid, 1670;
All Masjid, 2433; Landi Khana, 2488; Landi Kotal, 3373; Dhaka,
1404. If the elevation of Jamriid (2433) given by Mr. Scott of the
Survey is right, all these figures would be increased by 763 feet. The
ascent over the Landi Khana Pass is narrow, rugged, steep, and generally
the most difficult part of the whole road. Guns could not be drawn
here except by men, and then only after the improvement of the road ;
the descent is along a well-made road, and is not so difficult. Tust
beyond All Masjid the road passes over a bed of projecting and slippery
rock, which makes this portion extremely difficult for laden animals.
The Khaibar can be turned by the Tatara road, which enters the hills
about 9 miles north of Jamriid (another branch entering 2-i- miles
nearer), and either joins the Khaibar road at Luadgai, or keeps the
north of the range and goes to Dhaka.

During the first Afghan war, the Khaibar was the scene of many
skirmishes with the Afrfdis, and of some disasters to our troops.
Colonel Wade, with from 10,000 to 11,000 of all arms, including the
Sikh contingent, moved from Jamriid on the 22nd July 1839 to Gagri ;
here he halted a day and entrenched his position ; on the 24th July, he
again marched to Lala China; on the 15th, he moved to the attack
of Ali Masjid, sending one column of 600 men and 2 guns, under
Lieutenant Mackeson, to the right ; and 1 1 companies of infantry, 1
6-pounder gun, and 1 howitzer to the left ; while below a column was
placed to watch the mouth of Shadi Bagadi gorge. Both columns
drove the enemy before them, the right meeting with some opposition,
and the left getting into a position to shell the fort. On the 26th all
the enemy's outposts were driven in, and on the 27th they evacuated
the fort. The enemy had 509 Jazailchis, or musket men, and were
supported by several hundred Khaibaris. The British loss was 22
killed and 158 wounded. After this there was no further opposition.

A strong post was left in Ali Masjid, and a detachment near Lala
China, to maintain communication with Peshawar, and a post of irre-
gulars under Lieutenant Mackeson was placed near Dhaka. The post
near Lala China was attacked during the operations. It was garrisoned
by Yusafzai auxiliaries, whose numbers had been thinned, and the



I2 6 KHAIBAR.

survivors were worn down by continued sickness, when the Khaibaris,
estimated at 6000 strong, attacked their breastwork. They were long
kept at bay, but the marauders were animated by the love of plunder,
and persevered in their attacks. They were aware that the devoted
garrison had recently received their arrears of pay, and that a sum of
Rs. 12,000 was buried on the spot, which was an old Khaibari haunt.
Finally, they carried the weak field-work, and mercilessly put to the
sword 400 of its defenders. They did not keep possession of it, but,
after repeating their vain attempts on All Masjid and Captain Ferris'
posts in the valley, retired to their mountains.

When Jalalabad was blockaded, it was proposed to send a force through
the Khaibar to its relief, and as a preliminary measure, Lieutenant-
Colonel Moseley was detached to occupy Ali Masjid with two regiments
of Native Infantry. He marched on the night of the 15th January 1842,
and reached the place with little opposition the next morning. Through
some mismanagement, however, only a portion of the provisions requi-
site for the two regiments accompanied them. It became necessary,
therefore, to forward the residue without delay ; and to this end, and
with the purpose of afterwards moving upon Jalalabad, Brigadier Wilde
advanced from Jamriid with the remaining two regiments (the 60th and
30 Native Infantry) and 4 Sikh guns. But the appearance of Colonel
Moseley's detachment had alarmed the Afridis, who now rose, and,
closing the pass, prepared to resist Brigadier Wilde's entrance. The
Brigadier, nevertheless, pushed onwards on the 19th January, and
encountered the enemy at the mouth of the pass ; but, owing to the
uselessness of the Sikh guns, and the inadequacy of his force with so
powerful a body of the enemy advantageously placed in his front, his
attempt to reach Ali Masjid totally failed. The situation of Lieutenant-
Colonel Moseley, shut up as he was in Ali Masjid, with scarcely any
provisions, now became desperate. He was not long, however, in
deciding upon the course which it became him to take under circum-
stances of so serious a nature. He cut his way back to Jamriid;
his reasons for doing so being, that he found that the remnant of
his stores only amounted to 6 maunds of atta for the subsistence of
2500 men, who had already been five or six days on half-rations, and
who had been exposed for eight days, without tents, to an inclement
climate.

The next occasion on which the Khaibar Pass was used as a great
military road was when General Pollock advanced on the 6th April
1842. On his return to India, the British army marched through the
Khaibar in three divisions. The first, under General Pollock, passed
through with no loss. The second, under General M'Caskill, was not
equally fortunate: one brigade being overtaken by night, left two
mountain-train guns with the rear-guard, which was suddenly attacked,



KHAIR TAHSIL AND TOWN. I27

and the guns taken, though they were recovered next day. The rear-
guard of General Nott's force was also attacked on the 5th and 6th
November between Landi Khana and Lalabagh, and again on leaving
Ali Masjid.

It was at Ali Masjid in the Khaibar that Sir Neville Chamberlain's
friendly mission to the Amir Sher All Khan was stopped and repelled
with threats. This was in 1878, when Lord Lytton, the Viceroy of
India, had determined to make a final attempt to establish British
influence in Afghanistan. On the repulse of General Sir Neville
Chamberlain's mission, an ultimatum was handed to the Amir's general,
Faiz Muhammad, in All Masjid ; and the day specified having passed
without the return of an answer, Afghanistan was invaded by three
British columns, one of which started from Jamriid at the mouth of the
Khaibar. The other columns started from Thai and Quetta. On the
second day of the campaign the fortress of Ali Masjid, 9 \ miles from
Jamriid, was brilliantly captured by the British troops, under Sir
Samuel Browne. The successful passage of the Khaibar by Sir Samuel
Browne's force, and the unopposed occupation, first of Dhaka at the
eastern mouth of the pass, and then of Jalalabad in the plains beyond,
were immediately subsequent events. The treaty which closed the war
in May 1879 left the Khaibar tribes for the future under British
control.

Khair.— Western tahsil oi Aligarh District, North- Western Provinces ;
stretching inland from the east bank of the Jumna, and irrigated by
distributaries from the Ganges Canal. It comprises the three pargands
of Khair, Chandausi, and Tappal. Area, 406 square miles, of which
293 were cultivated at the time of the last land settlement in 1874,
the proportion of cultivated to cultivable land being 84 per cent.
Population (1872) 169,459 ; (1882) 160,264, showing a decrease of
9195 in nine years. Classified according to religion, there were in
1881 — Hindus, 147,247; Muhammadans, 12,894; Jains, 120; 'others,' 3.
Number of villages, 276, of which 171 had less than five hundred
inhabitants. Land revenue, ^40,105 ; total Government revenue,
,£44,115 ; rental paid by cultivators, £62,131. The tahsil contains 1
criminal, but no civil court ; with 4 police circles (thdnds) ; a regular
police force of 64, and a village watch or rural police of 354 men.

Khair. — Town in Aligarh District, North-Western Provinces, and
head-quarters of Khair tahsil. Situated on the road to the Jumna ;
distant from Aligarh town 14 miles north-west. Tahsili, police station,
post-office, school, munsifi. Population (1881) 4455. For police
and conservancy purposes, a small house-tax is levied. Local revenue
m l8 73> £96- During the Mutiny of 1857, the Chauhans occupied
Khair, under Rao Bhiipal Singh, who set himself up as Raja. On the
1 st of June, an expedition of the Agra volunteers, under Mr. Watson,



128 KHAIRABAD PARC ANA AND TOWN.

surrounded the town, and captured the rebel leader, who was hanged
by order of a court-martial. Later in the month, the Chauhans called
in the Jats, attacked the town, and plundered or destroyed the
Government buildings and the houses of the wealthy Mahajans and
Baniyas.

Khairabad. — Pargand in Sitapur tahsil, Sitapur District, Oudh.



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 15 of 64)