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Bounded on the north by Hargam pargand ; on the east by the Gon
river ; and on the south and west by the Sarayan river, the two streams
meeting at the southern extremity of the pargand, which forms their
dodb. Originally in the possession of the Pasis, who were ousted by
the Bais and Kayasths ; but their descendants still hold many
villages. Constituted a pargand by Todar Mall, in the reign of
Akbar. Soil fertile ; country well wooded and watered ; the Gon and
the Sarayan afford water communication, except during the dry months.
Area, 128 square miles, or 81,919 acres (excluding Sitapur canton-
ment); of which 71 square miles, or 45,70s acres, are cultivated,
and 30 square miles, or 20,628 acres, are cultivable. Incidence of
Government land revenue, 3s. i|d. per acre of cultivated area, 2s. 2^d.
per acre of assessed area, and is. 8|d. per acre of total area. Rents
are paid almost entirely in kind. Population (1869) 63,728; (1882)
57,411, namely, males 29,348, and females 28,063. The town of
Khairabad and the cantonment of Sitapur are situated in this par-
gand. Large markets are held in three other villages. Six numerously
attended Hindu fairs and three Musalman festivals are held, at all of
which a brisk trade is carried on. Three military camping stations,
at Sarayan on the Biswan road, at Thompsonganj, and at Jalalpur on
the Lucknow road.

Khairabad. — Chief town of Sitapur District, Oudh ; situated 5
miles south-east of Sitapur, the civil station and cantonment of the
District, in lat. 27 31' 30" x., and long. 8o° 47' 35" e. The town is
said to have been founded by one Khaira, a Pasi, in the first year of
the nth century, and to have been subsequently taken possession of
by a Kayasth family. In after years, many rent-free grants of portions
of its site were made to Musalmans, who came in great numbers in
the reigns of Babar and Akbar, but these grants were all resumed by
the Nawab of Oudh about 1810. Khairabad is the seventh largest
town in Oudh. It contained a population in 1869 of 15,677 persons,
but had decreased by 1881 to 14,217. Classified according to religion,
the population in the latter year consisted of — Muhammadans, 7653 ;
Hindus, 6551; Jains, 9; and Christians, 4. Municipal income in
1876-77, ^£401; in 1882-83, ^£471, of which ^397 was derived
from octroi ; average rate of taxation, 6|d. per head. The town
contains 40 mosques and 30 Hindu temples, besides a handsome
set of holy Muhammadan buildings, erected about fifty years ago.



KHAIRABAD RIVER— KHAIRAGARH. 129

These consist of a Kadam Rasul (' prophet's footprint '), an Imam-
bdra, and mosques with intervening courtyards, all surrounded by a
wall. The public buildings consist of a police station, school, post-
office, sardis, etc. Four bazars and markets are held daily. Large
fair held in January, lasting ten days, and attended by an average
of 60,000 persons. A second fair is held at the Dasahdra festival,
attended by about 15,000 persons. Annual value of bazar sales,
about ^34,000.

Khairabad. — River in Bakarganj District, Bengal. An offshoot of
the Barisal river at Ranihat, flowing east of Bakarganj town to
Angariahat, a distance of 22 miles ; whence it continues as the Nahalia
river, running a tortuous course, sometimes south-east and sometimes
south-west, for 14 miles, as far as Patuakhali ; after which it is called
the Gulachipa or Rabnabad river, and flows a southerly course for 20
miles till it falls into the Bay of Bengal, just north of the Rabnabad
islands. A branch of this river, called in different parts of its course the
Patuakhali, Beghai, and Buriswar, falls into the sea under the latter name.

Khairagarh. — South-western tahsil of Agra District, North- Western
Provinces ■ consisting of a spur of British territory, almost surrounded
by the Native States of Bhartpur (Bhurtpore) and Dholpur, and
largely intersected by wild ravines. The tahsil is divided by the
Utanghan river into two portions, each varying greatly in physical
features. The northern tract is of the same character as the neigh-
bouring lands of Fatehpur Sikri and Fatehabad, having an alluvial
soil. In the south-west portion of the tahsil, a range of the Vindhya
hills separates it from Bhartpur territory. There are also a number of
isolated hills of red sandstone, which is quarried in considerable quan-
tities. Some of the larger hills are wooded, and supply materials for
charcoal, as well as scanty grazing for cattle. The Sindhia State Rail-
way passes through the eastern half of the tahsil, which is also inter-
sected by the Agra and Bombay road, as well as by five unmetalled
roads which meet at Khairagarh village. Area of the tahsil, 308-9
square miles, of which 192*9 square miles are cultivated, 77 square
miles cultivable, and the remaining 39 square miles uncultivable
waste. Land revenue (1881-82), ^28,485 ; total Government revenue,
.£31,988; rental paid by cultivators, ,£51,703. Total population
(1881) 118,134, namely, males 64,155, and females 53,979, giving
an average density of 382 persons per square mile. Classified according
to religion, there were — Hindus, 110,291; Muhammadans, 7051 ;
Jains, 784; Christians, 6 ; and 'others, 5 2. Total number of villages,
156, of which 82 contained less than five hundred, and none upwards
of five thousand inhabitants. The tahsil contains 1 criminal court,
with 5 police stations ; strength of regular police, 69 men ; village watch-
men (chaukidars\ 407.

VOL. VIII. 1



130 KHAIRAGARH NATIVE STATE AND TOWN.

Khairagarh. — Village in Agra District, North-Western Provinces,
and head-quarters of Khairagarh tahsil ; situated 18 miles south-west
of Agra city, on the left or north bank of the Utanghan river,
in lat. 2 7 i' 28" n., and long. 77 ° 53' 50" e. Population (1881)
1 26 1. Besides being the head-quarters of the tahsil, the village has
a first-class police station, imperial post-office, and Anglo-vernacular
school.

Khairagarh. — Native State attached to Raipur District, Central
Provinces, and the most important of the Chhatisgarh Feudatory
States, lying in the richest part of the Chhatisgarh plain. Area, 940
square miles; number of towns and villages, 512; houses, 30,392.
Population (1881) 166,138, namely, males 82,677, ana " females 83,461 ;
average density, 177 persons per square mile.

The ruling family, which is Raj-Gond, and descended from the
royal family of Garha Mandla, originally held only the small forest
tract known as Kholwa, below the Saletekri range ; but they obtained
extensive grants in 181 8, both from the Mandla princes and from
the Maratha rulers of Nagpur. The last chief, Lai Fateh Singh,
was deposed, and died in 1874. From 1874 till February 1883, the
State was under direct British management, when it was made over to
its present chief, Lai Umras Singh, in public darbdr. During the
year 1876-77, the income amounted to ^12,259, of which p£i 1,261
was derived from land revenue, according to a summary settlement
concluded in 1874; the expenditure amounted to .£9433, of which
^3149 was devoted to the chief's family. In 1882-83, the State
revenue was ,£13,963. The tribute payable to the British Government
is fixed at £4 7 00.

Cotton, wheat, and gram constitute the chief products ; iron-ore is
also found in parts. Two of the principal passes through the Saletekri
hills between Chhatisgarh and Nagpur lie in Khairagarh ; but a different
line has been adopted for the Great Eastern Road. All the roads
leading to the great grain mart of Dongargarh, one of the principal
stations on the Nagpur-Chhatisgarh railway, can at small cost be made
good cold-weather routes. A fair-weather road from Dongargarh to
Borla in Bilaspur District, passing through Khairagarh, Chhuikhadan,
and Kawardha States, is (1883) about to be constructed. Dispensaries
have been opened at Khairagarh and Dongargarh, and various public
buildings, court-houses, jail, etc., have recently been built.

Khairagarh. — Chief town of Khairagarh Feudatory State, attached
to Raipur District, Central Provinces ; situated 45 miles north-west of
Raipur town, at the junction of the Am and the Piparia rivers, in lat.
21 25' 30" n., long. 8i° 2' e. Population (1881) 2887, namely,
Hindus, 2600; Muhammadans, 176; Kabirpanthis, 78; Satnamis, 2;
Jains, 4; aboriginal religions, 27.



KlfAIRI-KII. URIG. IK//.

Khairi.— Small estate in Bhandira* District, Central Proi

miles north of Sakoli, on the Great Eastern k
villages, on an area of 14 square miles, of which 2 square- n
cultivated. The forests yield abundance of inferior timber. I ..
is a Mana, and the population (633 in 18S1) chiefly Gonds.

Khairigarh. - ^;^?^ in Nighasan tahsil, Kheri District,
situated between the Mohan and Sarju rivers, which boi
the north and south; bounded on the east by the Kauriala river,
and on the west by Nepal State. The largest pargand in the 1 1
trict, being 47 miles from east to west and 12 from north to south.
Area, 425 square miles, of which 263 miles are covered with
forests. Population (1869) 33,046; (1881) 39,444, namely, l
21,378, and females 18,066. Hindus numbered 34,903, and Muhain-
madans, 4541. Ahirs form the principal Hindu caste. Brahman^
are very few in number. Crops, principally rice and barley. The
only landed proprietor in the parga?id is the Raja of Khairigarh, who
owns 67 out of the 70 villages, the remaining 3 being the property of
Government. The Government land revenue, which about 1S75 was
returned at ^4963, had fallen by 1882-83 to ^"2343. The pa$
is said to derive its name from the khair jungle, found here in grea:
quantities.

The early history of the pargand is lost in obscurity. It has been
for many centuries the huge forest which it now appears. In the
reign of Firoz-ud-din Tughlak, 1351-1388 a.d., it is related that the
Emperor established a chain of forts along the north bank of the river
Sarju, to repel marauding expeditions on the part of the mountaineer^
of Dhoti and Garhwal. Tradition states that the Emperor, with his
son, ascended the tallest tower of the great Khairigarh fort. I i
his eyes over the boundless sea of jungle, in which no house roof, no
temple spire, no smoke, nor any other sign of human habitation ap-
peared, and was so appalled by the vast solitude, that lie for ever
abandoned the place at which he had spent two years in building and
hunting. The fort was abandoned for centuries. Khairigarh first re-
appears in deeds granted to the kam'ingo family, which held offi<
in Khairigarh and Kheri. A deed signed by Akbar (1556-1605)
recites that Ahbaran, an Ahir of Khairigarh, had usurped dominion,
and was oppressing the people ; and it directs the destruction oi this
chieftain, whose head-quarters were at Kundanpur, near Khaii
The landholders of the pargand at that time were Bichhil
Bais, and Kurmis. The Bachhils were succeeded by the Rijpis
these latter, in their turn, were ousted by the Lohani Banjaras in t he-
reign of Jahangir. Rao Ram Singh was the Banjara chief at the be-
ginning of the present century. He was a turbulent man, and his
exactions led to a rebellion on the part of his own people, and his



132 KHAIRIGARH VILLAGE— KHAIRPUR.

defeat in 1800. In the following year, Khairigarh came into the hands
of the British, being part of the territories ceded by the Nawab Wazir.
It remained in their possession till 18 16, when it was handed over to
Oudh in exchange for a part of Jaunpur. In 1809, the English sent
a force to punish the Raja for his cruelty and exactions. He was
taken prisoner and carried to Bareilly, where he died. His successor,
in 1830, was ousted by the Surajbans Kshattriyas, who had an ancient
claim to the land, and to which tribe the present Raja belongs.
Khairigarh finally came into British possession on the annexation of
Oudh.

Khairigarh. — Chief village in Khairigarh pargand, Kheri District,
Oudh ; situated on the left bank of the Suheli river, no miles north
of Lucknow. Lat. 2 8° 20' 35" N., long. 8o° 52' 55" e. Population
(1869) 1 135 ; (1881) 1278. Built by Ala-ud-din Tughlak, in order to
check the depredations of mountaineers from Nepal and Kumaun.
Tieffenthaler, describing its condition eighty years ago, states it to be
a fortified place, worthy of note as well on account of its excellent
construction as of its size, being 4 or 5 miles in circuit. The defences
are built of huge blocks of stone below, and of bricks of unusual
size above ; but it now lies waste, and the site is infested with tigers
and other wild beasts. The town is 2 miles north-east of the great
fort, the intervening space being overgrown with trees and grassy
jungle.

Khairi-Murat. — Mountain range in Rawal Pindi District, Punjab ;
midway between the Sohan river and the Chitta Pahar. Rises about
30 miles from the Indus, and runs eastward for some 24 miles, a dreary
ridge of barren limestone and sandstone rock. Lat. 33 ° 28' n., long.
7 2 49' 30" e. North of the range lies a plateau intersected by
ravines ; while southward a waste of gorges and hillocks extends
in a belt for a distance of 5 miles, till it dips into the fertile valley
of the Sohan, one of the richest tracts in Rawal Pindi District.
The Khairi - Murat was formerly covered with jungle, but is now
completely destitute of vegetation, except where the hill has been
formed into a reserved forest, and closed to grazing. In these parts
the trees are rapidly springing up again.

Khairpur. — Native State in Upper Sind, also known as the terri-
tories of the Mir All Murad Khan Talpur ; lying between 26 10'
and 2 7 46' n. lat, and between 68° 14' and 70 13' e. long. Bounded
on the north by Shikarpur District ; on the east by Jaisalmer (Jeysul-
mere) State ; on the south by Haidarabad (Hyderabad) District ;
and on the west by the river Indus. Its greatest length from east
to west calculated at 120 miles, and its breadth from north to south
at 70 miles; area, 6109 square miles. Population (1881) 129,153
persons.



KHA1RPUR.

Physical Aspects.— Like other parts of Sind, Khairpur

great alluvial plain, the part bordering directly upon the I:
very rich and fertile, though much of it is converted into n

hunting-grounds. With the exception of the fertile strip watered by
the Indus and the Eastern Nara (a canal which follows an old I
the Indus), the remainder or three-fourths of the whole area is a con-
tinuous series of sandhill ridges covered with a stunted brush*
where cultivation is altogether impossible. The country generally is
exceedingly arid, sterile, and desolate in aspect. In the northern
portion of the State is a small ridge of limestone hills, being a
tinuation of the low range known as the Ghar, which runs southward
from Rohri for a distance of about 40 miles. On the top of the l
are found oyster, cockle, and numerous other kinds of marine shells.
On a western outlying spur of this ridge is situated the fort of DlJI.
About 150,000 acres of land in all are under cultivation.

Khairpur is watered by five canals, drawn off from the Indus river,
as well as by the Eastern Nara. The largest and most important of
these canals is the Mirwah. ; and it is upon the land watered by this
stream and its branches that much of the indigo grown in the State is
produced There are several cuts from the Mirwah canal, which extend
to the valleys near the sandhills, where the soil is apparently fertile, and
largely cultivated on the occurrence of a good rainfall. No separate-
canal department exists under the Mir's rule ; but when the clearing
out of silt becomes necessary, it is generally done by the cultivators
themselves, who receive for this work about a pound of flour per diem.
The Eastern Nara, which irrigates a portion of the State, is a petty
stream, except during the rains, when it spreads out into wide .sheets
of water ; in the dry season it is but a series of sluggish pools. The
belt of land through which this stream flows is composed of rich
alluvial soil, at present almost wholly uncultivated, but capable of
producing excellent crops.

The soil of Khairpur, especially in the strip adjoining the Indus,
is very productive. The tract lying between the Mirwah Canal and
the Indus is the richest part of the State, but cultivation is even
there by no means so extensive as it might be. In the desert
portion of Khairpur are pits of natron — an impure sesqui-carl
of soda, always containing sulphate of soda and chloride of sodium.
It is generally obtained by means of evaporation. The natron pits
are a source of income to the Mir, as many as a thousand camel
of this substance being annually exported to Northern and Central
India, and also to the seaboard, each camel-load being taxed at 5

The wild animals found in Khairpur are the tiger, lynx, hj
jackal, fox, wild hog, deer, hare, and antelope. The birds and
fowl are those common to Sind generally, such as bustard, wild \



134 KHAIRPUR.

snipe, partridges (both black and grey), and various kinds of wild duck
(which arrive in the cold season). The reptiles are also the same as
those common to the Province, and snakes abound as in other parts of
Sind. The domestic animals comprise the camel, horse, buffalo, bullock,
sheep, goat, mule, and donkey.

History. — The present chief of Khairpur belongs to a Baluch family
called Talpur ; and, previous to the accession of this family, on the fall
of the Kalhora dynasty of Sind in 1783, the history of Khairpur belongs
to the general history of Sind. In that year Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur
established himself as Rais or ruler of Sind ; and subsequently his
nephew Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, with two sons, named Mir Rustam
and Ali Murad, founded the Khairpur branch of the Talpur rulers
of Sind. The dominions of Mir Sohrab Khan were at first confined
to the town of Khairpur and a small adjacent tract of country; but by
conquest and intrigue he managed to enlarge them, until they extended
to Sabzalkot and Kashmor on the north, to the Jaisalmer Desert on the
east, and to the borders of Kachchh Gandava on the west. About
the year 1813, during the troubles in Kabul incidental to the establish-
ment of the Barakzai dynasty, the Mi'rs were able to refuse the further
payment of the tribute which up to that date had been somewhat
irregularly paid to the rulers of Afghanistan. Two years earlier than
this, in 181 1, Mir Sohrab had abdicated in favour of his son Mir
Rustam. But he appears to have endeavoured to modify this arrange-
ment subsequently; and ultimately the jealousy between the two
brothers, Mir Rustam and Ali Murad, was one of the factors in the
crisis that called in the intervention of the British power.

In 1832, the individuality of the Khairpur State, as separate from
the other Talpur Mirs in Sind, was recognised by the Government
in a treaty, under which the use of the river Indus and the roads
of Sind were secured to the British. When the first Kabul expedition
w T as decided on, the Sind Mirs were required to assist the passage of
the British through their territories, and allow of the occupation of
Sbikarpur ; most of the princes showed great disinclination to comply
with these demands. But in Khairpur, Ali Murad, who gradually
succeeded in establishing his hold on the raisat i or chiefship, cordially
supported the British policy ; and the result was that, after the battles
of Miani (Meeanee) and Daba had put the whole of Sind at the
disposal of the British Government, Khairpur was the only State in
that Province that was allowed to retain its political existence under
the protection of the paramount power. In 1866, a sanad was granted
to the present Chief, under which the British Government promised to
recognise any succession to the Chiefship that might be in accordance
with Muhammadan law. The present ruler of Khairpur, His Highness
Mir Ali Murad Khan, mentioned above as the youngest son of Mir



KHAIRPUR.

Sohnib Khan Talpur, was born in the year 1S15. II, • i , : • •',
salute of 15 guns.

Population. — The population of Khairpur, according to th- «
of 1872, was returned at 130,350 persons, or 21 persons to e» h square
mile. The Census taken on February 17, 1881, returned the |
at 129,153, there being in the intervening period of nine yean a hardly
appreciable decrease of 1197. Of the total, 70,746 were males, and
58,407 females, the whole inhabiting 25,720 houses. The density
of population remains at 21 persons to the square mile as in 1872;
houses per square mile, 4*2 ; persons per house, 5. In point of
religion, Hindus numbered 26,727, or 207 per cent, of the whole
population; Muhammadans, who are in a great majority, 102
or 79/3 per cent. Among the Hindus were 213 Brahmans, 7 Rajputs,
25,415 Lohanas (Government servants and the shopkeeping da
and ' unspecified,' 1092. The Muhammadans include 12,276 Baluchi's ;
690 Pathans \ 2297 Sayyids ; 1466 Shaikhs ; Sindhis, 77,524 ; ' in
fled/ 8173. The Muhammadans mostly belong to the Rajur tribe,
which is again subdivided into numerous families. The Hindi
inhabitants are principally Soda Thakurs, or Rajputs, who inhabit
the extreme eastern part of the State. They are a well-built and
sturdy race, nomadic in their habits, and fond of a life of freedom.
Their only wealth consists in their herds of camels, oxen, sheep,
and goats. Their chief food is butter-milk or camel's milk, and the
coarsest grain. Sindhi, Persian, and Baluchi are the languages chiefly
spoken.

The Census divides the male population into the following six main
groups as regards occupation: — (1) Professional class, including
State officials of every kind and the learned professions, 2025
domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, 1191 ; (3) com-
mercial class, including bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 456 ; (4)
agricultural and pastoral class, including shepherds, 28,644 ; (5) indus-
trial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 9407: M»d (6)
indefinite and non-productive classes, comprising general labourers, male
children, and 'unspecified,' 29,023.

Trade and Manufactures, etc.— The value of the article! annually
exported from Khairpur to British Sind and the Native Stat
Jaisalmer has been approximately estimated at about 5] Idkhs ot rupee*
(.£52,500), and that of the imported articles at somewhat more than
z\ lakhs (.£25,000). The principal exports are Indigo, wool, <
grain, tobacco, twine, and skins. The imports are rice, wheat, barley,
sugar, and piece-goods. The chief manufactures are cotton fabrics,
such as woven sheets and coloured cloth; silk fabrics, sil\
different kinds, lacquered wood- work, boots, shoes, horse trap]
swords, matchlocks, and earthen pottery for home consumption, A



116 KHAIRPUR.



small quantity of salt and saltpetre is also manufactured. The lines of
communication in the State are very few. Excepting the main trunk
road from Haidarabad to Rohri, which passes through Khairpur at a
distance of about 20 miles from the Indus, and another road connecting
the same towns by a somewhat more direct route, there are no made
roads in Mir Ali Murad's territory. The telegraph runs along the
trunk road. The ferries, chiefly on the Indus, are six in number,
and have each one boat attached to them. They are — (1) Bindu,
(2) Alipur, (3) Saga, (4) Rafidir, (5) Agro, (6) Nurpur.

Agriculture. — The principal grains grown in the State are jodr
(Sorghum vulgare), bdjra (Pennisetum typhoideum), wheat, gram,
various pulses, and cotton. Indigo is also largely cultivated. The
fruit-trees are the mango (Mangifera indica), mulberry, apple, pome-
granate, date, and others. The forest-trees are the pipal (Ficus
religiosa), nim (Melia Azadirachta indica), ber (Zizyphus jujuba),
siras (Dalbergia latifolia), tali (Dalbergia sissoo) bahan (Populus
euphratica), and kandi (Prosopis spicigera). The bush jungle consists
principally of tamarisk j reed grasses are abundant. There is good
timber in the game preserves bordering on the Indus. The kandi
tree grows luxuriantly in the valleys.

Administration. — The rule of the Mir is a patriarchal system of
government like that of the chief of a Scottish highland clan. The
village system has died out in Khairpur as in the rest of Sind. The
gross revenue of Khairpur, collected not in cash but in kind, the Mir
receiving one-third of the produce, amounted in 1882-83 to ^57> 2 5°-
From this about ^17,000 must be deducted for jdgirs or alienations.
The jdgirddrs are mostly the Mir's own sons and the ladies of his
family. The British Collector at Shikarpur acts as a Political Agent
in regard to the State.

There are only two courts of justice in the State ; one permanent,



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