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former have not yet been persuaded to relinquish their freedom of
eating and drinking. Though professedly followers of the Buddhist
religion, the Khamti laity eat all kinds of flesh (except beef), and drink
strong liquors, but their priests are bound to abstinence. The Bapu-
chang, or monastery, is a large house outside their village, with onlv
two residents, an old man who has lived there five-and-thirty years, and
a young lad in training to be his successor. Their daily meal of rice
and curried vegetables is supplied to them by the women of the v;
The interior of the home is occupied by the carpets and beds of the
priests, their domestic utensils, and a shrine with a red canopy, con-
taining several images of Gautama, one of which is a clay model three
feet high, and gilded, but of coarse workmanship, while another is a
small image of white marble, and both are of the ordinary Buddhist
type. The priests shave their heads, and wear a yellow dress.

'The doctrines of their religion are contained in sacred books written
in the Khamti character, but believed in some cases to be of th<
language. They have not, however, any very definite notion of the
religion they profess. They celebrate Thursday as the birthd
Gautama, or Kodoma, as they call him, but of the month and v
his birth they are ignorant. Their principal feasts are on the full moon
of Asarh and Asin. The common people worship both Kodoma
the Hindu goddess Debi or Durga, but they are not the follow.
any Gosain, and they employ in her service their own priests, instead
of Brahmans. The priests of Debi are called Pomu, while th
Kodoma are called Thomon (Assamese, Upu\ F01 , and

buffaloes may be offered to Debi, but not a duck nor a goat ; the
service of Kodoma consists of floral offerings only. The wor>
Durga, like the custom of burning their dead, is said by themseh
date from time immemorial, but it seems more probable that both
practices have been adopted from the Hindus with whom this little
colony has been thrown so intimately into contact. The Khamtis oi



Sadiya, in Colonel Dalton's time at least, used not only to bury their
dead, but to preserve the graves with particular care. The chief man
of the colony, who has adopted the Hindu name of Mani Ram, is the
grandson of the old Sadiya-khoa, whose office was taken away in 1839/

Closely allied to the Khamtis, and, indeed, undistinguished from
them in the Census, are four tribes, known as Kamjangs, Aitonias,
Pani Noras, and Phakials. They are of somewhat inferior status, and
are not allowed to take wives from the Khamtis, who, however, do not
object to taking wives from them. A full account of the Khamti tribe
will be found in Colonel Dalton's Ethnology of Bengal (Calcutta, 1872),
which has been quoted at length in the Statistical Account of Assam,
vol. i. pp. 309-315 (Triibner & Co., London, 1879).

Khan (or Kan). — River of Malwa, Central India, rising in lat. 22
36' N., and long. 75° 55' e., on the north side of the Vindhyan range,
8 miles east of Mau (Mhow). It flows in a northerly direction through
a very fertile country until it is joined by the Saraswati. It then takes
a north-easterly direction for about 19 miles, and eventually falls into
the Sipra, in lat. 23 8' n., long. 75 50' e. On the route from Mau
to Ujjain, about 12 miles from the source of this river, there is a good

Khanapur {formerly known as Bidi). — Sub-division of Belgaum
District, Bombay Presidency. The most southern Sub-division of the
District, known as Bidi till 1868-69, in which year the head-quarters
was transferred from Bidi to Khanapur, and the name of the Sub-
division changed. It contains 219 villages, with an area of 632
square miles; population (1872) 78,875, (1881) 79,264, or 125 persons
per square mile; land revenue, ^11,308. Of the 632 square miles,
6267 had been surveyed in detail in 1882 ; 86 square miles were
occupied by the lands of alienated villages. The remainder contains
156,669 acres of arable land, 1796 acres of uncultivable land, 1690
acres of grass, 174,534 acres of forests, and 12,664 acres of village
sites, roads, rivers, and streams. Of the total, 36,400 acres are
alienated lands in Government villages. The south and south-west
of Khanapur is crowded with hills and dense forest, the people are few
and unsettled, and, except in patches, tillage disappears. In the north-
west the hills are especially lofty. In the centre, north-east, and east,
the country is an open, well-tilled black soil plain, with many rich and
populous villages. The climate is temperate and healthy during the
hot months, feverish in the cold season, and sickly during the south-
west rains. At Khanapur town, during the ten years ending in 1882,
the rainfall averaged 63 inches. In 1881-82, of 94,727 acres held for
tillage, 36,143 acres were fallow or under grass. Of the remaining
58,584 acres, 2706 were twice cropped. Of the 61,290 acres under
tillage, grain occupied 52,231 acres; pulse, 5722; oil-seeds, 2184; fibres,


64; and miscellaneous crops, 999. About 20 miles of the \V, *
Deccan line of the Southern Marathd Railway pass from north to
through the centre of the Sub-division, and about 21 miles of the
Bellary-Marmagoa Railway along the southern boundary. In
there were 15 schools in the Sub-division. [Khanapur Sub-dn
was formerly known as Bidi, and it has been described undt a
name in Volume II. of this edition of the Imperial Gazetteer of In dm.
Since the short article Bidi was written, the further materials here given
under Khanapur have been obtained.]

Khanapur. — Town in the Khanapur Sub-division of Belgium
District, Bombay Presidency. Situated in lat. 15° 37' n., and long.
74° 34' e., on the Malprabha river, about 16 miles south of Belgium
town. Head-quarters of the Sub-division, with a population of 3516
in 1872, and of 4016 in 1881. About 1720, Khanapur was a large
entrepot for Goa merchants with drugs, China goods, metals, and
spices ; they were met here by merchants from Hubli, Nargiind, and
Nawalgiind with cloth, cotton, and saltpetre. This trade was destroyed
about 18 10 by the Kittur Desai, who removed it to Nandgar, seven
miles south-east of Khanapur. Besides the revenue and police offices
of the Sub-division, the town contains a school, post-office, rest-house,
and Portuguese mission with a chapel. It is a station on the West
Deccan line of the Southern Maratha Railway.

Khanapur. — Sub-division of Satara District, Bombay Presidency.
Area, 531 square miles; contains 1 town and 90 villages. Population
(1872) 76,783 ; (1881) 80,327, namely, 40,388 males and 39,939 females,
occupying 11,245 houses. Hindus numbered 76,768; Muhammadans,
2989; and 'others,' 570. Since 1872 the population has increased by
3544. The Sub-division contains 1 civil and 2 criminal courts ; police
station (thdnd), 1 ; regular police, 44 men ; village watchmen [chauH-
ddrs), 135. Land revenue, ^16,693.

Khanbaila. — Town in Bahawalpur State, Punjab ; a place of some
importance, near the left bank of the Panjnad. Lat. 29° 4' n., long.
70 52' e. The neighbouring country, fertilized by the inundations,
produces abundant crops of grain.

Khandala.— Sanatorium in Poona (Puna) District, Bombay I
dency. Situated about 41 miles north-west of Poona city, on the
Western Ghats ; a favourite retreat of the inhabitants of Bombay during
the summer months. There is a much admired waterfall, distant about
half a mile, consisting in the rainy season of two cataracts, divided into
an upper and a lower fall. The upper cataract has a sheer fall of 300
feet. The village of Khandala is extending since the opening ot the
south extension of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, on whi. li it is a

Khandansa. — Pargand in Bikapur ta/isil, Laizabad (1


District, Oudh ; situated along the north bank of the Giimti. It con-
tains 12S villages, covering 116 square miles, of which 65 are cultivated.
Population (1S69) 70,905; (1SS1) 67,712, namely, 62,542 Hindus and
5170 Muhammadans. Tradition states that about six hundred years
ago, one Khande, a Bhar chief, while on a pilgrimage to Ajodhya with
his brothers, came to the neighbourhood of the present Khandansa,
and, rinding it fertile and uninhabited, took possession of it and
founded four villages — Khandansa, Urwa, Bhakauli, and Dehli Girdhar
— calling them after his own and his brothers' names. The pargand
remained in the hands of the Bhars, until one Deo Rai, a Bisen of
Manjhauli, happened to stop at Bhakauli on his way to bathe in the
Ganges. During his stay, a quarrel arose between him and the Bhars,
which ended in his putting them to the sword and taking possession of
Bhakauli. Subsequently, his descendants made themselves masters of
Urwa and Khandansa, with other villages in neighbouring pargands, of
which, after the lapse of thirty-five generations, they are still zaminddrs.

Khandauli {A'anau/i). — Village in Bhdgalpur District, Bengal ;
situated within a short distance of the Nepal frontier. Lat. 26 26' 5S"
n., long. S6° 49' 6'' E. Although the population is small (1955 in
1881), a large bi-weekly market is held here, which is one of the most
flourishing seats of trade in the north of the District. Since the
opening of the Tirhiit State Railway to Darbhangah, Khandauli has
much increased in commercial importance. It not only exports large
quantities of rice, oil-seeds, mahud, and other country produce, but
imports salt, cloth, spices, etc. for distribution to smaller bazars, and
also for export to Nepal. Since 1S75, Khandauli has been a station for
the registration of traffic with Nepal.

Khandauli (or Ihtimadpur). — Tahsil oi Agra District, North-Western
Provinces ; lying in the Doab portion of the District, along the north
bank of the Jumna, and much intersected by ravines, which intersect
the country for miles from the river bank. These ravines are distinctive
features of the country, which exhibits three separate and strongly -
marked divisions. First, the tract above the ravines, and removed
from their influence, which forms the main area of the tahsil, and the
soil of which is, with rare exceptions, a rich and productive loam.
Second, the ravines and adjacent parts, which are for the most part
sterile ; and third, the low-lying alluvial or khddar tract below the
ravines, and along the river bank. The khddar is often a mere narrow
belt of sand capable of supporting only melons. The ownership in
this tract is, moreover, precarious, as it is liable to be cut away by
constant changes in the river bed. The tahsil is intersected by the
East Indian Railway, with stations at Tundla and Firozabad. Water
communication is afforded by the Jumna, although river traffic has
greatly diminished of late years. There are also several good lines


of road, metalled and unmetalled. Towns and markets are ;.
absent, and there is no manufacture or trade worth mention ; what
there is consists chiefly of native-made indigo and country cloth.

Area of Khandauli tahsil, 277-3 square miles; 201 square 1
being cultivated, 31 square miles cultivable, and 45-3 square miles
uncultivable. Population (1872) 151,454; (1881) 141,267, namely,
males 77,137, and females 64.130. the decrease of population in nine-
years being 10,187. Classified according to religion, the popula-
tion in 1881 consisted of— Hindus, 128,768; Muhammadans,
Jains, 2639; and Christians, 306. Number of villages, 180, of which
90 contained less than five hundred inhabitants. Government land
revenue (1881), .£30,987; total Government revenue, including rates
and cesses, ,£34,786; rental paid by cultivators, including cesses,
,£58,002. The tahsil contains 2 criminal courts, with 4 police stations
(thdnds); strength of regular police, 56 men; village watchmen (chauki-
ddrs\ 331.

Khandela. — Town in the Tourwati district of Jaipur State, Rajputina.
Population (1881) 7949, namely, 4138 males and 381 1 females.
Hindus numbered 6130 : Muhammadans, 1701 ; and 'others,' 118.

Khandesh. — British District of the Bombay Presidency, lying between
20" 15' and 22° 5' n. lat., and between 73' 37' and 76' 24' e. long.
Bounded on the north by the Satpura hills and the Xarbada river ; on
the east by Berar, and the Nimar District of the Central Provinces :
on the south by the Satmala or Ajanta hills ; on the south-west by the
District of Xasik; and on the west by Baroda territory and the petty
State of Sagbara. The District is distributed into the following sc
Sub-divisions, each of which see separately: — Amalner, Bhusawal,
Chalisgaox, Chopda, Dhulla, Eraxdol, Jamxer. Xaxdurbar,
Xasirabad, Pachora, Pimpalxer, Savda, Shahada, Sherpur.
Taloda, and Virdeb. Area, 9944 square miles. Population (188 1 )
1,237.231. Chief town, Dhulia.

Physical Aspects. — Khandesh forms the most northerly section of the
Deccan table-land. The chief natural feature is the river Tapti, whit h,
entering at the south-east corner of the District, flows in a north-
westerly direction, dividing it into two unequal parts. Of these, the
larger lies towards the south, and is drained by the river Girna.
is the long central plain of Khandesh,— an unbroken stretch - I
miles, from Burhanpur to Xandurbar, comprising an extensive area
of rich alluvial soil. In this tract large and prosperous town
villages, surrounded by mango groves and gardens, are numerous.
Except when blasted by the hot winds of the dry season, the fields are
green with a harvest of' various crops. Xorthwards beyond the alluvial
plain the land rises towards the Satp-ra Hills. In the 1
east, save for some low ranges of barren hills, the count:;


and has in general an arid, unfertile appearance. Towards the north
and west, the plain rises into a difficult and rugged country, thickly
wooded, and inhabited by tribes of Bhils, who chiefly live on the
wild fruits of the forest, and are supported by the profits of wood-
cutting. The drainage of the District, drawn from an area of about
30,000 square miles, centres in the Tapti, which receives thirteen
principal tributaries in its winding course of 450 miles through Khan-
desh. None of the rivers are navigable, and the Tapti flows in too
deep a bed to be made use of for irrigation. The banks of the Tapti rise
high and bare at distances of from 240 to 400 yards across. Except
for two waterfalls, one above and the other below the Bhusawal railway
bridge, the river rolls over long sandy stretches for 40 miles, till it
meets the waters of the Vaghar. During the rainy season the Tapti
is not fordable; the only bridge across it is the railway bridge at

Khdndesh District on the whole may be said to be fairly well
supplied with surface water, for besides the rivers that flow during the
whole year, the channels of many of the smaller streams are seldom
entirely without water. In 1879-80, 28,137 wells and 97 water-lifts
were utilized for irrigation. Three lakes have been built or restored for
the same purpose. The four principal mountain ranges are — in the north,
the Satpura hills, dividing the valleys of the Tapti and the Narbada (Ner-
budda), including the peak of Panchu-Pandu (3000 feet) and plateau
of Turanmal (3800 feet), the starting-point of Khandesh history; in
the south-east, the Hati ; in the south, the Satmala Chandor, or Ajanta
range, separating Khandesh from the Deccan table-land, and, speaking
roughly, from the Nizam's dominions ; on the west, between Khandesh
and Gujarat, is the northern extremity of the Sahyadri range. The
Satmala range is dotted with the remains of rock -cut Bhuddist
monasteries and temples. The only cart road across the Sahyadris,
between Khandesh and the Konkan, is through the Kundaibari Pass,
1 5 miles west of Nizampur. The Arva and Galna hills divide Khandesh
from Nasik.

Khandesh is not rich in minerals. A large area is under forest ; but
the want of conservancy rules in the past, and the destructive habits of
the hill tribes have robbed the jungles of most of their valuable timber.
The forest revenue for the year 1881-82 amounted to ^14,200.

Wild beasts are numerous, comprising the tiger, leopard, hunting
chita, bear, lynx, wolf, bison, sdmbhar deer, nilgai, spotted deer,
antelope, ravine deer, and the four-horned deer. At the time of the
introduction of British rule, and for many years after, tigers and
leopards were found in every part of the District. As late as 1858,
tigers were numerous; but since then they have been very closely
hunted, and during the fifteen years ending 1881 as many as 202


were killed. This, together with the spread of tillage, has driven
the tiger almost entirely out of the plains into the Satpura hills in the
north, the Hati and Satmala ranges in the south-east and south, and
the rough hilly country in the west.

Geology.— The geology of the District has been examined 01
far south as the river Tapti. Alluvium and trap are the predominant
formations, the latter in the mountain ranges and hill-spurs. N r
Burhanpur is a curious patch of limestone formation of an infra-
trappean character, and probably included in some ancient lava flow.
South of the Tapti, the peaks of the Sahyadris take a strangely-
tilted shape, with precipitous and long defiles between. A columnar
structure of the rocks characterizes the ranges between Khandesh and
Nasik. Here the hills are covered with a stratum of dark basalt ; and
traces are obvious of felspar, hornblende, and iron-ore. There is
plenty of stone for building purposes in the District, as well as gravel
for road-making. A good quarry near Bhusawal supplies the railway
requirements. Kankar, or nodular limestone, and clay for brick-
making, occur in all parts of the area.

History. — The history of Khandesh, like the history of the greater
part of India, falls naturally into an earlier and a later period. The
early period is the period of the Hindu, the latter the period of the
Muhammadan dynasties. In the case of Khandesh, the early and
partly mythical period extends from 150 B.C., the date of the oldest
rock inscription yet discovered and deciphered, to the year 1295 a.d.,
when the Musalman emperor Ala -ud- din suddenly appeared from
Delhi. The later and purely historical period extends from 1295 t0
the present time. In its course, Khandesh has been successively ruled
by Muhammadan, Maratha, and British masters.

The annals of the Hindu period may be said to commence with the
mention in the Mahdbhdrdta of the hill forts of Turanmal and Asirgarh ;
the ruler of Turanmal is recorded as having fought against the Pan
the fort of Asirgarh is named as a place of worship to Ashvatthama.
Next, there is the local tradition that, from a time long previous to
Christianity, the dynasty in power was that of a Rdjput chief whose
ancestors had come Out of Oudh. The first dynasty of which distinct
record remains is that of the Andrabhityas ; the Andrabhityas were
succeeded by Sah kings ; in the 5th century after Christ the Chalukya
dynasties rose to power; local chiefs followed; and Khandesh was
under an officer of the Yadava princes of Devagiri (Deogarh) when
Ala-ud-din appeared.

The Muhammadan rule lasted until the Manithas captured the
stronghold of Asirgarh in 1760. In the interval, Khandesh was
subject to successive governors from Delhi, sent by the different
dynasties that rose, each on the ruins of its predecessor in that city.


Under Tughlak, from 1323 to 1370, Khandesh was administered from
Ellichpur in Berar. Arab viceroys, favourites of the Delhi Emperor,
succeeded; and from 1370 to 1600 the Arab dynasty of the Farukhis
administered the District. The last year of the century (1599) saw the
coming of the Mughals. In that year Akbar in person overran
Khandesh at the head of an army, besieged Asirgarh, captured the
fortress, and sent the reigning prince, Bahadur Khan, to Gwalior for
safe-keeping. Khandesh became incorporated into the Delhi Empire.
Its name was changed for a time to Dandesh in honour of its new
governor, Prince Danyal. And from this period, a formerly rich,
prosperous, and contented region began to grow impoverished and

Khandesh under the Mughals (1600-17 60) was for more than a
century and a half given up to every species of calamity, internal and
external. Before the arrival of Akbar, all descriptions agree in repre-
senting it to have thriven wonderfully. Its thirty-nine sub-divisions
supplied a revenue of over ^200,000, and were able to furnish a
contingent of 6000 infantry and 500 cavalry. The air was delightful,
the winter temperate, the rivers and streams abundant. The land was
highly cultivated. The husbandmen were dutiful subjects as well as
laborious and thrifty workers. In many places the soil yielded three
crops yearly. There was in the towns and villages a busy cloth manu-
facture. In one of its crowded cities — Burhanpur — were congregated
inhabitants of all nations and of every handicraft. Then the rule of
the Mughals was set up. The Mughal governors could not be held
responsible for such natural changes as the years must bring ; but as to
the degenerate condition of Khandesh and its people under the Mughals,
the following picture is extant: — 'In 1609, the English merchant
Hawkins, travelling from Surat to Burhanpur, even with an escort of
about 60 Pathan horse, was attacked by a troop of outlaws. Next year,
the Viceroy was defeated by the people of the Deccan, and the
country was disturbed. The roads were not safe for bodies of less than
1000 horse. The Deccanis made inroads to the Tapti, plundering the
people and sacking Raver and other towns. Ten years later (161 8) Sir
Thomas Roe found the country quite as unsettled. Travellers, when
they stopped for the night, made a ring-fence of their carts and pitched
their tents inside. On any suspicion of danger, the local governor
provided a special guard of horse.'

In 1630, Khandesh suffered from both war and famine. ' One
army after another sent from Delhi, at times with the Emperor (Shah
Jahan) in command, laid the country waste. The chiefs rose in
revolt. After the rains the governor of Gujarat (Guzerat) let loose
a force of 26,000 men to ravage the country and sack the towns. The
rains proved deficient over the country between Ahmadabad and


Daulatibad. Areas, before famous for fertility, became utterly barren.
1 Life,' says the chronicler, ' was offered for a loaf, but none would buy ;
rank for a cake, but none cared for it; the ever-bounteous han<
stretched out to beg, and the rich wandered in search of food. I
flesh was sold, and the pounded bones of the dead were mixed with
flour. The flesh of a son was preferred to his love. The dying
blocked the roads, and those who survived fled.' From 1634 to
there was an interval of relief. Todar Mai's revenue system was intro-
duced into the District, to the greater security of the rdyafs tenure
and the State revenue. The land was measured, the produce of ea< h
bighd ascertained, and the proportion to be paid for each field to
Government settled. Trade began to increase over the Khdndesh
roads, on its way to the emporium of Surat. The ways were safely
guarded, the towns and villages made secure. Cotton, rice, and indigo
were largely grown. Burhanpur again rose into importance as a cloth

But in 1670 began the Mughal contests with the Maratha hordes,
which were to end by dragging the District back to a condition worse
than that before its temporary prosperity. The struggles between the
Miighals and Marathas practically ended with the fall of Asirgarh in
1760, and the cession of Khandesh to the descendants of Sivaji. The
period of Maratha supremacy in Khandesh lasted till the fall of the
Peshwa in 18 18. Until that year Khandesh experienced a return of
most of its former miseries.

In 1802, the country was ravaged by Holkar's army. For two
seasons the land remained uncared for, the destruction and ruin bring-
ing on a severe famine. In the years that followed, Khdndesh was
further impoverished by the greed and misrule of the Peshwds. The
people leaving their peaceful callings, joined together in bands, wander-
ing over the country, robbing and laying waste. It was in this state
that, in 181 8, the District passed into British hands. Order was soon
established, and has never since been disturbed.

Population. — In 1872, the population numbered 1,030,036. The
Census returns of 188 1 disclosed a total of 1,237,231 persons, residing

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 18 of 64)