William Wilson Hunter.

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in 23 towns and 2660 villages; average density, 124-4 persons pel
square mile ; houses per square mile, 28 ; persons per village, 389 ;
persons per house, 5-9. There has thus been an increase of 207,195,
or 20- per cent., in the nine years since 1872. The increase is
mainly due to immigration, arising from the large area of unoccupied
fertile land available for cultivation. Classified according to sex,
there were, in 1881, 632,468 males and 604,763 females ; 1 1
tion of males, 51 per cent. Classified according to age, there were,
under 15 years — 261,174 boys and 250,736 girls; total children,
511,910, or 41 per cent, of the population. Classified according


to religion, there were 958,128 Hindus, 92,297 Muhammadans, 158
Parsis, 1 146 Christians, 88 Jews, 43 Sikhs, 10,013 Jains, 175,349
Bhils, 8 Buddhists, and ' others,' 1. Among the Hindus, Brahmans
numbered 40,459; Rajputs, 45,869; Chamars, 16,259; Darjis (tailors),
14,220; Dhangars, 27,743; Dhobfs (washermen), 6564; Napits
(barbers), 16,902; Kunbis (cultivators), 337,816; Kolis, 48,307;
Kumbhars (potters), 7041; Lohars (blacksmiths), 7140; Mali's
(gardeners), 49,153 ; Sonars (goldsmiths), 20,102; Sutars (carpenters),
13,000; Teh's (oil-men), 23,178; Banjaras (carriers), 28,579; Mhars,
85,674. Other Hindus, 170,122.

Of the thirteen divisions of Brahmans in the District, three under-
stand but do not speak Marathi ; the remaining nine use that dialect.
As a rule, the main divisions eat together, but do not intermarry ; the
sub-divisions as a rule do both. The entire body of Brahmans are the
descendants of Brahmans from every part of India who found their
way to Khandesh. The Prabhus, a section of the ' writer ' class, are
scattered over the District, most of them in the service of Govern-
ment. The sub-division of ' writers ' called Thakurs, who come from
Upper India, follow some peculiar customs. They never marry their
sons and daughters into the same sub-division. If possible, the
daughter marries into a higher, the son, perhaps, into a lower one.

Besides the general body of cultivators, who are Kunbis by caste,
large numbers of Pardhis — a low caste of wandering hunters and snarers
— and Rajputs have long been settled in the District. Another class
of cultivators worthy of notice are the Giijars, the most industrious and
well-to-do of the agricultural population. Their name, and their habit
of speaking Gujarathi among themselves, show that they are immigrants
from Gujarat. But they must have lived for many years in Khandesh,
as in many villages they hold hereditary grants of money and land.
Most of the traders are foreigners — Baniyas from Marwar and Gujarat,
and Bhatias, recent comers from Bombay. Wandering and aboriginal
tribes form a large section of the population. The Bhils, with a total
strength of 175,349, or 14 per cent, of the whole, are the most
important. Many of them are employed in police duties, and as
village watchmen. But though most have settled down to peaceable
ways, they show little skill in farming. Since the introduction of
British rule into Khandesh, the efforts made, by kindly treatment and
the offer of suitable employment, to win the Bhils from a disorderly
life have been most successful.

The Musalman Bhils are of two classes, namely, Tadvis and Nirdhis.
The Tadvis, who live chiefly in the villages at the foot of the Satpura
hills, are a tall and well-built race, said to be descendants of Bhi'l
women and Musalman men, dating from the Emperor Aurangzeb's
reign. Like other Hindu converts to Muhammadanism, they have a


deep regard for certain Hindu deities. The Nirdhis dwell along the
foot of the Satmalas. In former times they were much di\
during seasons of revolt the most atrocious acts were invariably the
work of the Nirdhis. Banjaras or Lamanis, the pack-bullock carriers
of former, and the gipsies of present times, have suffered much
by the increased use of carts and by the introduction of the
railway. A few are well-to-do traders. But most of them live apart
from the villages, in bands or tandds, each with its own leader or ndik.
Forced to give up their old employment, they now live chiefly by
grazing, and cutting grass and wood. The Musalman section of the
population is poor, and employed chiefly as messengers, policemen, and

The Census divides the male population into the following six
main groups as regards occupation : — (i) Professional class, including
State officials of every kind and the learned professions, 19,636;
(2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, 4595 ; (3) com-
mercial class, including bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 7276 ;

(4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 273,640;

(5) industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 61,342 ;

(6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising general labourers,
male children, and persons of unspecified occupation, 265,979.

Of the 2683 towns and villages in the District, in 1881, 1133 con-
tained less than two hundred inhabitants; 931 from two to five
hundred; 379 from five hundred to a thousand; 169 from one to two
thousand; 27 from two to three thousand; 23 from three to five
thousand; 15 from five to ten thousand; 5 from ten to fifteen
thousand ; and 1 from fifteen to twenty thousand.

Language. — Gujarathi is in use among the higher class husbandmen
to the north of the Tapti, and it is the language of trade throughout
the District ; but Marathi, the speech of the people in the south and
west, is the language of Government offices and schools, and is
gradually gaining ground. In their homes the bulk of the people-
speak a dialect known as Khandeshi or Ahirani, a mixture of Gujarathi,
Marathi, Nemadi, and Hindustani.

Agriculture.— \m 1881, agriculture supported 820,127 persons, or 66
per cent, of the entire population. All varieties of soil— black, red,
and light, from the richest to the poorest— are found. The agricultural
stock in State villages amounted in 1881-82 to 113,187 ploughs, 75o 01
carts, 369,782 bullocks, 284,295 cows, 131,244 buffaloes, 15,949 horses,
252,744 sheep and goats, and 8705 asses. The District contains many
fine cows and bullocks, brought chiefly from Nimar and Benin But
the greater number of the cattle are small and poor, reduced during the
hot season to the most wretched condition. The horses also are small,
and of little value. To improve the breed, Government has introduced


bulls and stud horses. Certain tracts have, from their rugged character
and unhealthy climate, been excluded from the Survey operations. Out
of 3,455,122 acres, the total area of Government cultivable land,
2,861,910 acres, or 82-83 P er cent., were taken up for cultivation in
1881-82. Of these, 179,962 acres, or 6*29 per cent., were fallow or
under grass. Of the remaining 2,681,947 acres under actual cultivation
(3478 acres of which were twice cropped), grain crops occupied
1,515,346 acres, or 56-5 per cent.; pulses occupied 117,286, or 4*37
per cent. ; oil-seeds occupied 247,390, or 9*22 per cent. ; fibres occupied
759,346, or 28*31 per cent, of which 758,134 acres were under cotton;
and miscellaneous crops occupied 46,057 acres, or 171 per cent.

Irrigation is more extensively practised in Khandesh than in the
Deccan and Southern Maratha country. The principal agricultural
products exported are wheat, gram, linseed, sesamum, and cotton.
Millet is retained for local consumption, and forms the staple article of
food. Indigo and opium, once important products, are now no longer
grown. Thirty years ago, the poppy w r as a favourite crop ; but in 1853,
the Khandesh opium factory was closed, and the further cultivation of
the poppy forbidden. On the other hand, the area under linseed and
cotton has increased from year to year. Two descriptions of foreign
cotton, Dharwar and Hinganghat, have been successfully introduced.
Cotton is seldom grown oftener than once in three years in the same
field, whether of black or light soil, the intermediate crops being wheat
and Indian millet. A Government farm has been established at
Bhadgaon. Almost every year is marked by some partial failure of the
crops. The District is liable to floods, the rivers overflowing the
country for a considerable distance from their banks.

Attempts at La?id Reclamation. — Several attempts have been made,
dating from 1829, at a re-colonization of the Pal tappa, a waste tract
in the neighbourhood of the Satpura hills, which is said to have been
formerly well inhabited. At the time of the British occupation in
1 8 18, the whole was found to be an uninhabited jungle, excessively
unhealthy, and infested with wild beasts. It is said to have been deserted
about the middle of the 1 7th century, owing to famine ; and the remains
of ancient buildings show that the village of Pal was formerly a place
of considerable importance. Portions of the old fort and sardi are
still standing, though much ruined; a handsome mosque with a fountain
and reservoir still remain in good repair; and the lines of the old
streets were traceable in 1870. Small mounds here and there mark
the site of an old fort; but most of the villages have so entirely
disappeared that their sites cannot be ascertained. Several attempts
have been made to colonize Pal, or some other village in the tappa,
as a preliminary to the settlement of the whole tract. The experi-
ment is still (1885) going on, but as yet, owing to the excessive


poverty of the cultivators and other causes, it has yielded little or no

Industries.— The Trunk Road from Bombay to Agra passes thi
the District, and of late years roads have been made along i
chief lines of traffic. The Great Indian Peninsula Railway runs for
124 miles through the District from east to west ; Bhusawal jun
is situated on this portion of the line ; and about 25 miles 1
Nagpur branch are within the District. The chief exports arc
grains, oil-seeds, butter, indigo, wax, and honey. The chief ii
—salt, spices, metal, piece-goods, yarn, and sugar. The most im-
portant article of trade is cotton. There are 2 steam cotton ginning
factories, 13 steam presses, and one steam factory for spinning and
weaving cotton. Of late years, many Bombay mercantile houses have
established agencies in Khandesh ; and towards the east, in the ri< h
Tapti valley, Jalgion and Bhusawal are rising into centres of an
important trade.

Among declining industries may be noticed the manufacture
of coarse paper, the spinning of yarn by Mhar women, the weaving
of coarse cotton cloth, and the manufacture of wax bangles.

The internal trade is carried on by means of weekly markets, and a
succession of fairs and religious feasts. The rates of interest vary
from 9 to 24 per cent, per annum, rising in some cases as high as
36 per cent. Labourers earn 4|d. a day ; bricklayers and carpenters,
is. The current prices of the chief articles of food during 18S2 were,
for a rupee (2s.) — wheat, 34 lbs. ; Jodr, 54 lbs. ; rice, 22 lbs. ; ddl (split
peas), 22 lbs.

Natural Cala7nities. — The Tapti and lesser streams are liable to
sudden and disastrous rising of their waters. Six great floods have
caused more or less injury at various periods in the District. These
floods took place in 1822, 1829, 1837, 1872, 1875, and in 1S76. In
1822, sixty- five villages were entirely destroyed by the Tapti, and fifty
were partly washed away, causing a loss in money value of ,£25,000. On
Sunday, 15th September 1872, the Girna and Panjhra rose and s
away 500 houses in the town of Dhiilia. A whole village on the
opposite side of the Panjhra suddenly disappeared. At seven in the
morning the flood was forty-five feet above the level of the river-bed.
One hundred and fifty-two villages were damaged, and property to
the value of ,£160,000 destroyed. Over 1000 persons were on this
occasion relieved by public and private charity. The m
famine on record is that of 1802-04, when the selling price of
is reported to have risen to 1 ser per rupee (is. per lb.). Great numbers
died, and extensive tracts were left deserted and waste. This famine
was due, not to any natural causes, but to the ravages o( Holkars
army, who during two years (1802-03) spread desolation and famine


throughout the District. Scarcities not amounting to famine occurred
in 1824, 1833-36, 1845, and 1S76— 77. Locusts have sometimes visited
the District, but never in sufficient numbers to do much harm. In
1869, a large cloud crossed the District from north to south, and in
1873 and in 1878 they did some injury to the late crop. Rats in
1847-48 and 1878-79 caused much havoc.

Administration. — For administrative purposes the District is distributed
into 16 Sub-divisions. The total revenue raised in 1881-82 under all
heads—imperial, local, and municipal — amounted to ,£507,320, showing
an incidence of taxation of 8s. 2-f d. per head. The land-tax forms the
principal source of revenue, amounting to £352,564. Other important
items are stamps and excise. The District local funds, created since
1863, for works of public utility and rural education, yielded a total
sum of £33,132. There are 18 municipalities, containing an aggre-
gate population of 148,084 persons ; total municipal revenue, £10,159,
the incidence of taxation varying from 4d. to 3s. 7d. per head. The
administration of the District in revenue matters is entrusted to a
Collector and 5 Assistants, of whom 4 are covenanted civilians. For
the settlement of civil disputes, there are 10 courts; the number
of suits decided in 1881-82 was 18,832. The total strength of the
regular police for the protection of person and property consisted of
1845 officers and men, being 1 policeman to every 670 of the popula-
tion. The total cost was £27,744, equal to £2, 15s. 9§d. per square
mile of area and 5J& per head of population. The number of persons
convicted of any offence, great or small, was 3551, being 1 to every
348 of the population. Education has widely spread of late years. In
1855-56 there were only 7 schools, attended by 715 pupils. In
1881-82 there were 352 schools, attended by 20,815 pupils, being an
average of 1 school for every 7J villages. There are 3 libraries and
3 printing presses for the publication of vernacular papers, which have,
however, only a small circulation.

Climate. — The rainy period extends from the middle of June to the
middle of October ; the cold months from the middle of October to the
middle of January ; and the hot months from January to June. From
differences of elevation the climate varies greatly in different parts
of the District. Very seldom is the rainfall over the whole area
sufficient. The town of Dhiilia, which may be taken to illustrate the
average, had an annual rainfall of 217 inches during the period of
twenty-nine years ending in 1879. The amount varied during these
years from 10 to 35 inches. The average rainfall during the five
years ending 1882 was 27 inches. In the cold season (October to
January), except on cloudy days, the climate is pleasant and bracing.
At Dhulia the average minimum between 187 1 and 1879 ranged
between 40 F. and 5 2 . The heat of the summer period is intense. The


average maximum reading at Dhulia during the 187 1-7^ period wa

for the month of May. The extreme maximum was a ltl \

In the Tapti valley ii5°has been reached during a hot and stifling

The general health of the people is best in the hot season, and .
in the cold season. Malaria is rife at the beginning of the latter k
when the ground commences to dry after the rains. In the east and
centre, the climate is trying to Europeans, but healthy to the natives.
In the west, all periods except the hot are injurious to native and Kui 1
alike. The prevailing diseases are fever and skin affections. Seven
dispensaries afforded medical relief, in 1 88 1-82, to 67 in-door and
29,044 out-door patients, and 38,510 persons were vaccinated. Since
1881-82, three new dispensaries have been opened. [For further
information regarding Khandesh, see the Gazetteer of the Bombay
Presidency 1 published under Government orders, and compiled by Mr.
J. M. Campbell, C.S., vol. xii., Khandesh District (Government Central
Press, Bombay, 1880). Also the Settlement Report of Khandesh District,
by Mr. A. F. Davidson, C.S. (1854); the Bombay Census Report for
1 88 1 ; and the several Administration and Departmental Reports from
1880 to 1883.]

Khandgiri.— Hill in Puri District, Orissa; situated about 12 miles
west of the road from Cuttack to Puri, and 5 miles east of Bhuvaneswar.
Lat. 20 16' N.j long. 85 ° 50' e. Twin sandstone hills, Khandgiri and
Udayagiri, rise abruptly out of the jungle, separated by a narrow gorge,
each of which is honeycombed into caves and temples cut out of the
rock. These cave dwellings are believed to form the very earliest
memorials of Buddhism in India. They are of various ages, and of
different degrees of architecture. The oldest of them consist of a single
cell, little larger than a dog-kennel, cut in the face of scarcely acces-
sible precipices, and with no signs of even the primitive carpentry
architecture. Others of a somewhat later date are shaped into strangely
distorted resemblances of animals. One has from time immemorial
been known as the Snake Cave, another as the Elephant Cave, a third
as the Tiger Cave. This last stands out from the rock in the form
of a monstrous wild beast's jaw, with nose and eyes above, and teeth
overhanging the entrance to the cell. Such cells in their turn give
way to more comfortable excavations, shaded by pillared verandahs,
and lighted by several doors, which again are succeeded by others still
more elaborate. Of the last, the most important is a two storied
monastery, known as the Ram-nur or Queen's Palace, highly s< ulptnred
in bas-relief. These sandstone caves, as a whole, represent ten centuries
of human existence, or from 500 B.C. to 500 a.d. The oldest U
Udayagiri Hill, the more modern ones being on KHANDGIRI, whose
summit is crowned by a Jain temple erected by the Marathas at the
end of the last century.


KhandgOSh. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle (thand)
in the head-quarters Sub-division of Bardwan District, Bengal ; situated
on the road from Bardwan town to Sonamukhf and Bankura. Lat. 23
12' 30" n., long. 87 44 20" E.

Khandia. — Petty State in the Jhalawar division of Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency ; consisting of 1 village, with 2 separate proprietors.
Area, 5 square miles. Population (1872) 966; (1881) 781. Estimated
revenue in 1881, ,£294; tribute of ^80, 13s. is paid to the British
Government, £8, 2s. to the Nawab of Junagarh, and jQi, 6s. as
sukhri on account of Ahmadabad. Khandia village is situated about
four miles to the north-east of Bhoika thand, and eight miles south-east
of the Limbdi station on the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway.

Khandpara. — Native State in Orissa, lying between lat. 20 11' 15"
and 20 25' n., and long. 85 1' and 85 24' 40" e. Bounded on the
north by the Mahanadi river, which separates it from Narsinghpur and
Baramba ; on the east by Banki and Puri District ; on the south by
Puri and Nayagarh ; and on the west by Daspalla. The State originally
formed part of Nayagarh, and was separated from it about 200 years
ago by a brother of the Nayagarh Raja, who established his inde-
pendence. The present chief, a Rajput by caste, is the eighth in
descent from the founder. The country forms a very valuable territory,
and is one of the best cultivated of the Orissa States. Fine sal timber
abounds in the hilly tracts, and magnificent banian and mango trees
stud the plain. It is intersected by the Kuaria and Dauka rivers, small
tributaries of the Mahanadi.

Area, 244 square miles, with 321 villages and 12,946 houses. The
first Census of 1872 thus returned the population, according to religion
— Hindus, 57,007, or 93-6 per cent; Muhammadans, 38, or 'i per
cent. ; -others,' 3832, or 6*3 per cent. ; total, 60,877, namely, males
30,234, and females 30,643. Classified according to race, there were,
in 1872 — aboriginal tribes, 3561, or 5*9 per cent., mainly composed
of Kandhs(i596) and Savars (11 26); semi-Hinduized aborigines, 6438,
or io-6 per cent, consisting principally of Pans (3577), Mehtars (1547X
and Kandaras (1064); Hindu castes, 50,840, or 83-5 per cent;
Muhammadans, 3S.

The more recent Census of 1881 followed a different classifica-
tion, and only returned the population according to religion. In
that year the population numbered 66,296, namely, males 33,891,
and females 32,405, showing an increase of 5419, or SS per cent
in nine years. In religion the people are almost entirely Hindus,
that faith being professed by 66,196 persons, while only 60 were
returned as Muhammadans, and 40 as belonging to aboriginal
religions. The principal seat of trade is Kantilo, on the banks
of the Mahanadi, lat. 20 21' 46" N., long. 85 14' 20" e. Popula-


tion (1872) 5386. Not returned in the Census of 1881. Five other
villages also contained upwards of 100 houses in 1872, namely, Khand-
pari, the capital of the State, and residence of the Raja, lat 1
50" x., long. 85 12' 51" e., 680 houses. Khandpara had' risen to
the highest place as regards population by 18S1, in which j
contained 5543 inhabitants, namely, Hindus, 5529, and Muhammadani
14. Biengonia, lat. 20 15' 8" x., long. 85 16' e., 211 houses; !
garh, lat. 20 17' 37" x., long. 85 22' 32" e., 158 houses ; Banmalipur,
lat. 20° 16' 14" x., long. 85 15' 12' e., 130 houses ; Xemapol, lat. 20°
16' 10" x., long. 85 16' 14" e. Estimated annual revenue of the chief,
.£2435; tribute, ^421. A post-office has recently been established at
Kantilo, and increased means of communication have been afforded by
the construction of good metalled roads.

Khandtarn. — Town in Champaran District, Bengal. Lat. 26° 40'
15" x., long. 85 5' 45" e. Population (1872) 6207. Not separately
returned in the Census of 188 1.

Khandwa. — The eastern tahsil or revenue Sub-division of Ximar
District, Central Provinces; situated between 21° 32' and 22° 13' n.
lat., and between 76 6' 30" and 77 1' e. long. Area (1881), 2202
square miles ; number of towns and villages, 497 ; houses, 32,009.
Population in 1872, but according to the area of 1881, 138,922.
Population in 1881, 154,000, namely, males 80,842, and females
73,158, showing an increase of 15,078 in nine years. Average density
of population, 70 persons per square mile. The adult agricultural
population (male and female) numbered 61,689, or 4°'o6 per cent, of
that of the whole tahsil, the average area of cultivated and cultivable
land being 1 1 acres for each adult agriculturist. Of the total area of
2202 square miles, less than one-half, or 1066 square miles, is assessed
for Government revenue. Of this area, 482 square miles were returned
as cultivated in 1881, 372 square miles as still available for cultivation,
and 212 square miles as uncultivable waste. Total Government revenue
(1881), including local rates and cesses, ^12,021, or an average of
9§d. per acre of cultivated land. Total rental paid by cultivators,
including rates and cesses, ,£26,155, or an average of is. 7 jd. per
cultivated acre. Total number of civil courts (including those at head-
quarters for the entire District, and the Cantonment Magistrate's
court at Asirgarh), 6 ; criminal courts, 9 ; number of police stations
(including outposts), 18; strength of regular police force, 135 men,
besides village police (chaukiddrs).

Khandwa. — Head-quarters and civil station of Ximar District,
Central Provinces. Lat. 21 50' x., long. 76 23' e. Khandi
perhaps the most advancing town in the Central Provinces. It has a
station on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, where the w!
of Central India towards Bombay meets the line. Thus it has entirely



superseded Burhanpur, the ancient centre of trade between Malwa,
the Narbada (Nerbudda) valley, and the Deccan. Population (1877)
14,119 ; (1881) 15,142, namely, males 8472, and females 6670.
Classified according to religion, there were, in 1881 — Hindus, 10,321 ;
Muhammadans, 3851 ; Christians, 568; Jains, 264; Parsis, 90; Jews,
26 ; Satnami, 1 ; aboriginal religions, 21. Municipal income (1882-83),
^3440, of which ^2386 was derived from taxation, nearly all from
octroi duties; average incidence of taxation, 3s. ijd. per head.
Extensive barracks have been built for the relays of troops who pass

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 19 of 64)