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north of Lathi station on the Dhoraji branch of the Bhaunagar-Gondal
Railway. The revenue in 1881 was estimated at ^2100; tribute of
£85 is paid to the British Government, and ^30, 14s. to the Nawab
of Junagarh. The total population of the little State in 1881 was

3i5 6 -

Karigatta.— Hill in Ashtragram Sub-division of Mysore District,
Mysore State, Southern India, at the junction of the Lokapavni river
with the Kaveri (Cauvery). Lat. 12 26' n., long. 76 47' e. An
annual festival (Jdtra), held in February or March, is attended by
20,000 people.

Karikal (Kdraikkdl, ' the fish pass '—Tamil ; Carical Cariukalla—
Bartolomeo). — French town and settlement on the Coromandel coast,
bounded on the north, south, and west by Tanjore District of the
Madras Presidency, and on the east by the Bay of Bengal. Lat.



io KARIKAL.

(town) io° 55' 10" n., long. 79 52' 20" e. Population (according to
the latest French statistics in 1883) 93,055, namely, males 46,259, and
females 46,796. The number of British subjects residing at Karikal,
according to the Census of 1881, was returned at 4287, of whom 21 13
were males and 2174 females. Karikal is situated on the Coromandel
coast, 12 miles north of Negapatam and 6 miles south of Tranquebar.
The area of the settlement, which is divided into three communes, con-
taining in all no villages, covers 33,787 English acres.

The country is very fertile, and is watered by six branches of the
Kaveri ; and by five large, and numerous smaller canals. The capital
of the settlement, which gives its name to it, is a neatly built town,
situated on the north bank of the Arselaar, an affluent of the Kaveri,
about a mile and a quarter from the sea. The French seized the town
in 1736, and constructed a strong fort to defend their new possession,
which was finally ceded to them, together with 81 villages, on the 21st
December 1749, by the Raja of Tanjore, the addition being confirmed
by treaty in 1754. When it was thus formally given up, the settlement
was estimated to yield a yearly revenue of 106,000 rupees (^10,600) ;
but during the 130 odd years that have since elapsed, its budget has not
augmented by much more than 60,000 rupees (^6000). The town
and fort were besieged by an English force under Major Monson in
1760, and after a gallant defence of ten days, surrendered on the 5th
of April. Karikal came into British possession again on three subse-
quent occasions, and it was not finally restored to the French until
the 14th January 181 7.

A brisk trade in rice is conducted with Ceylon throughout the greater
part of the year ; a less regular import and export business is carried
on with the Straits Settlements. An intermittent petty traffic obtains
with France ; and an emigration society derives much profit from
the exportation of Indian labourers to the French colonies of
Bourbon, Cayenne, Guadaloupe, and Martinique. On the subject
of inland customs, a convention exists with the Madras Government,
and all salt consumed in French territory is by treaty purchased
from the British ; but there is little doubt that the peculiar position
of Karikal, with an open coast on one side, wide - spreading rice
lands on the other, and meandering streams between, admits of many
opportunities for easy smuggling. The administration of the settle-
ment is carried on by a Chef de Service, appointed by the President of
the Republic, who is assisted by eight European officials and a host of
native functionaries, all of whom are nominated by the Governor of the
French settlements in India. A mayor and corporation of the town
also exist, consisting of 13 members, six of whom are Europeans, or
descendants of Europeans, and all are elected by universal suffrage.
Accredited to the French administration is a British Consular Agent,



KAR1MGANJ—KARJA T. T ,

who is an officer of the Indian staff corps and the direct representative
of the Government of Madras. The port of Karikal is an open road-
stead, the anchorage of which varies from 7 to 8 fathoms during the
north-east monsoon, to 6 fathoms during the south-west. The port
flagstaff shows a fixed light about 34 feet above sea-level, visible for a
distance of 10 miles. The revenue of the settlement in 1882-S3
amounted to 381,342 francs or £15,253, and the expenditure to
267,043 francs or ,£10,681. The Budget for 1885 estimated a revenue
of 397,745 francs or £15,909, and an expenditure of 327,250 francs or
,£13,090.

Karimgailj.— Sub-division of Sylhet District, Assam. Area, 106S
square miles. Population (1881) 343,421, namely, Hindus, 181,359;
Muhammadans, 161,831; 'others,' 231. Houses, 68,705.

Karimganj. — Market village in the east of Sylhet District, Assam,
and head-quarters of Karimganj Sub-division, on the Kusiara or southern
branch of the Barak river. Lat. 24 52' n., long. 92 24' e. Rice,
oil-seeds, and raw cotton are exported, in exchange for cotton goods,
salt, pulses, tobacco, and bamboos.

Karimganj. — Village in Maimansingh District, Bengal ; situated 9
miles east of Kisoriganj. Large bazar and reed and jute mart.

Karjat. — Sub-division of Thana District, Bombay Presidency. The
Sub-division, lying in the south-east of the District, includes the petty
division of Khalapur. Bounded on the north by Kalyan and Murbad
Sub-divisions ; on the east by the Sahyadri mountains ; on the south by
Kolaba District ; on the west by the Matheran Hills and Panwel Sub-
division. Area, 353 square miles. Population (1872) 77,150; (1881)
82,062.

Karjat may be described as a rough hilly tract lying between the
Sahyadri range and the hills of Matheran. On its northern side dales
and valleys diversify the surface ; the low lands are divided into rice-
fields ; while the higher grounds are covered with teak, ain (Terminalia
tomentosa), and blackwood. In the east the woodlands become a
forest. The Ulhas and other streams which rise in the Sahyadris flow
through the Sub-division, but are dry channels in the hot season. The
rainfall is fairly sufficient, and failure of the rice crop rare. Drinking
water is scarce. In 1881, there were 86 ponds, 3 river dams, 642
wells, and some river pools. The rice soil is black, and the upland soil
reddish. Besides rice, ragi (Eleusine corocana) and vari (Panicum
miliaceum) are staple crops : no fibres are grown. The climate
varies greatly with the season. In January and February the nights
are extremely cold. Rainfall during ten years ending 18S1 averaged
121 inches.

The population of the Sub-division, according to sex, in 1S81, were
42,207 males and 39,855 females, occupying 14,937 houses. Hindus



12 KARJAT HEAD-QUARTERS AND SUB-DIVISION.

numbered 75,769; Muhammadans, 3732; Christians, 152; Jews, 76;
Parsis, 44; and 'others,' 2289. The general occupation is agriculture,
and of the 268 villages not one deserves the name of town. The
cultivators are mostly Kunbis and Agris. In 1879-80, there were
11,287 holdings in the Sub - division ; each holding averaged 7
acres, and paid an average rental of one guinea. As in other
parts of the Bombay Presidency, the settlement rates of land
revenue were fixed in 1854-56 for a period of thirty years. The
total area of tilled land in 1880-81 was 75,766 acres, of which
47*2 per cent, or 35,794 acres lay fallow. Of the remainder,
1504 acres were twice cropped. Of the 41,476 acres under tillage,
grain crops occupied 38,795 acres, or 93*5 per cent.; pulses, 2210
acres, or 5-3 per cent. ; oil-seeds, 458 acres; and miscellaneous crops,

13 acres. The Sub-division contains 4 criminal courts; police stations
[thdnds\ 2; regular police, 71 men. Land revenue (1882), ^11,919.

Karjat. — Head-quarters of Karjat Sub-division, Thana District,
Bombay Presidency. Population (1881) 692. Station on the south-
east extension of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 62 miles east
of Bombay, and 5 miles distant from Matheran. The village, which
is rapidly expanding since the construction of the railway, is situate
on the south bank of the Ulhas river. Post-office ; rest-house ; school ;
and quarters for railway guards and drivers.

Karjat. — Sub-division of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay Presidency ;
bounded on the east by the Sina river, south by Karmala Sub-division
of Sholapur District, west by the Bhima river, and north by Shrigonda
Sub-division.

A chain of low hills with flat summits traverses the Sub-division
from north-west to south-east, dividing it into two equal parts. The
streams from the eastern slope flow into the Sina river, and from the
western into the Bhima. The country presents a dismal appearance,
owing to the large proportion of rocky and unprofitable ground,
almost destitute of vegetation. There are a few level tracts, some of
considerable extent, where the soil is deep and rich. In the neighbour-
hood of the hills the soil is of the poorest description. The rainfall is
extremely uncertain, and good harvests are rare. The Sub-division
contains about 80 miles of road, and three weekly market towns,
namely, Karjat, Mirajgaon, and Rasin. It suffered severely in the
famine of 1876-77, when many villages were deserted. The cultivators,
owing to a succession of bad harvests, are nearly all in debt. Frequent
territorial changes have occurred, the last in 1868-69. Area, 580
square miles. Population (1872) 48,766; (t88i) 34,820, namely,
17,797 males and 17,023 females.

Number of villages, 79. In 1881, Hindus numbered 32,411 ;
Muhammadans, 1332 ; and ' others,' 1077. Of 115,749 acres, the actual



KARJA T TO WN—KARLL 1 3

area under cultivation in 1882-83, grain occupied 87.310 acres; pulses,
14,992 ; oil-seeds, 10,384; fibres, 2149; and miscellaneous crops, 914
acres. About 135 looms are worked, chiefly in the market towns, for
the manufacture of a coarse strong cloth and woollen blankets.

The Sub-division contains 2 civil and 2 criminal courts ; police station
(thdnd), 1 ; regular police, 31 men ; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 133.
Land revenue (1882-83), ^6891.

Karjat. — Chief town of the Karjat Sub-division of Ahmadnagar
District, Bombay Presidency; situate in lat. 18 33' n., and long. 75°
3' e., 36 miles south by east of Ahmadnagar town. Population (1872)
5535 3 (1881) 3608. Post-office; large school; weekly market on
Saturdays.

Karkal. — Town in South Kanara District, Madras Presidency. —
See Karakal.

Karkamb. — Town in Pandharpur Sub-division, Sholapur District,
Bombay Presidency; situate 13 miles north of Pandharpur. Lat. 17
52' n., long. 75 20' e. Population (1872) 7671 ; (1881) 6421, namely,
Hindus, 5665; Muhammadans, 464; and Jains, 292. The town has
a large weaving and thread dyeing industry, with about 800 looms,
chiefly producing cheap cloth for women's robes. The betel-vine is also
largely grown. Weekly markets on Mondays, when cattle, grain, and
cloth are sold. Post-office, and a school.

Karkiir (Carcoor). — Ghat or hill pass in Malabar District, Madras
Presidency, leading from the Ernad taluk of Malabar into Nilgiri
District. Lat. n° 26' 20" to n° 28' n., long. 76 27' 20" to 76° 28' e.
Karli. — Cave in Puna (Poona) District, Bombay Presidency ; situated
on the road between Bombay and Poona, in lat. 18 45' 20" n., and
long. 73 31' 16" e. It is thus described by Mr. J. Fergusson in his
History of Eastern and Indian Architecture : — ' It is certainly the
largest as well as the most complete Chaitya cave hitherto discovered
in India, and was excavated at a time when the style was in its greatest
purity. In it all the architectural defects of the previous examples
are removed ; the pillars of the nave are quite perpendicular. The
screen is ornamented with sculpture— its first appearance apparently
in such a j>osition— and the style had reached a perfection never after-
wards surpassed.

' In the cave there is an inscription on the side of the porch, and
another on the lion-pillar in front, which are certainly integral, and
ascribe its excavation to the Maharaja Bhiiti or Deva Bhiiti, who,
according to the Purdnas, reigned B.C. 78 ; and if this is so, they fix
the age of this typical example beyond all cavil.

' The building resembles, to a very great extent, an early Christian
church in its arrangements, consisting of a nave and side-aisles, ter-
minating in an apse or semi-dome, round which the aisle is carried.



14 KARLI.

The general dimensions of the interior are 126 ft. from the entrance
to the back wall, by 45 ft. 7 in. in width. The side-aisles, however,
are very much narrower than in Christian churches, the central one
being 25 ft. 7 in., so that the others are only 10 ft. wide, including the
thickness of the pillars. As a scale for comparison, it may be men-
tioned that its arrangement and dimensions are very similar to those of
the choir of Norwich Cathedral, or of the Abbaye aux Hommes at
Caen, omitting the outer aisles in the latter buildings. The thickness
of the piers at Norwich and Caen nearly corresponds to the breadth of
the aisles in the Indian temple. In height, however, Karli is very
inferior, being only 42 ft. or perhaps 45 ft. from the floor to the apex,
as nearly as can be ascertained.

1 Fifteen pillars on each side separate the nave from the aisles ; each
pillar has a tall base, an octagonal shaft, and a richly ornamented capital,
on which kneel two elephants, each bearing two figures, generally a
man and a woman, but sometimes two females, all very much better
executed than such ornaments usually are. The seven pillars behind
the altar are plain octagonal piers, without either base or capital, and
the four under the entrance gallery differ considerably from those at
the sides. The sculptures on the capitals supply the place usually
occupied by frieze and cornice in Grecian architecture ; and in other
examples, plain painted surfaces occupy the same space. Above this
springs the roof, semicircular in general section, but somewhat stilted
at the sides, so as to make its height greater than the semi-diameter.
It is ornamented even at this day by a series of wooden ribs, pro-
bably coeval with the excavation, which prove beyond the shadow of
a doubt that the roof is not a copy of a masonry arch, but of some
sort of timber construction which we cannot now very well understand.

1 Immediately under the semi-dome of the apse, and nearly where the
altar stands in Christian churches, is placed the daghoba, in this instance
a plain dome slightly stilted on a circular drum. As there are no
ornaments on it now, and no mortices for woodwork, it probably was
originally plastered and painted, or may have been adorned with hang-
ings, which some of the sculptured representations would lead us to
suppose was the usual mode of ornamenting these altars. It is sur-
mounted by a Tee, and on this still stand the remains of an umbrella
in wood, very much decayed and distorted by age.

' Opposite this is the entrance, consisting of three doorways, under
a gallery exactly corresponding with our rood-loft, one leading to the
centre, and one to each of the side-aisles; and over the gallery the
whole end of the hall is open as in all these Chaitya halls, forming one
great window, through which all the light is admitted. This great
window is formed in the shape of a horse-shoe, and exactly resembles
those used as ornaments on the facade of this cave, as well as on those



KARLL



*5



of Bhaja, Bedsa, and at Nasik. Within the arch is a framework or
centring of work standing free. This, so far as we can judge, is, like
the ribs of the interior, coeval with the building.; at all events, if it
has been renewed, it is an exact copy of the original form, for it is found
repeated in stone in all the niches of the facade, over the doorways, and
generally as an ornament everywhere, and with the Buddhist "rail,"
copied from Sanchi, forms the most usual ornament of the style.

' The presence of the woodwork is an additional proof, if any were
wanted, that there were no arches of construction in any of these
Buddhist buildings. There neither were nor are any in any Indian
building anterior to the Muhammadan Conquest, and very few, indeed,
in any Hindu building afterwards.

'To return, however, to Karli, the outer porch is considerably
wider than the body of the building, being 52 ft. wide, and is closed
in front by a screen composed of two stout octagonal pillars, without
either base or capital, supporting what is now a plain mass of rock,
but once ornamented by a wooden gallery forming the principal
ornament of the facade. Above this, a dwarf colonnade or attic of
four columns between pilasters admitted light to the great window ;
and this again was surmounted by a w T ooden cornice or ornament of
some sort, though we cannot now restore it, since only the mortices
remain that attached it to the rock.

'In advance of this screen stands the lion-pillar, in this instance
a plain shaft with thirty-two flutes, or rather faces, surmounted by a
capital not unlike that at Kesaria, but at Karli supporting four lions
instead of one ; they seem almost certainly to have supported a chakra,
or Buddhist wheel. A similar pillar probably stood on the opposite
side, but it has either fallen or been taken down to make way for the
little temple that now occupies its place.

1 The absence of the wooden ornaments of the external porch, as well
as our ignorance of the mode in which this temple was finished laterally,
and the porch joined to the main temple, prevent us from judging
what the effect of the front would have been if belonging to a free-
standing building. But the proportions of such parts as remain are so
good, and the effect of the whole so pleasing, that there can be little
hesitation in ascribing to such a design a tolerably high rank among
architectural compositions.

' Of the interior we can judge perfectly, and it certainly is as solemn
and grand as any interior can well be, and the mode of lighting the
most perfect— one undivided volume of light coming through a single
opening overhead at a very favourable angle, and falling directly on the
altar or principal object in the building, leaving the rest in comparative
obscurity. The effect is considerably heightened by the closely set
thick columns that divide the three aisles from one another, as they



1 6 KARMA— KARMALA.

suffice to prevent the boundary walls from ever being seen ; and, as
there are no openings in the walls, the view between the pillars is
practically unlimited.

* These peculiarities are found more or less developed in all the other
caves of the same class in India, varying only with the age and the
gradual change that took place from the more purely wooden forms of
these caves to the lithic or stone architecture of the more modern ones.
This is the principal test by which their relative ages can be determined,
and it proves incontestably that the Karli cave was excavated not very
long after stone came to be used as a building material in India.'

Karma. — Town in Karchhana fa/isil, Allahabad District, North-
Western Provinces; situated 12 miles south of Allahabad city, and 6
miles west of Karchhana town, in lat. 25 17' 52" n., and long. 8i° 53' e.
Population (1881) 3204, namely, males 1648, and females 1556. A
market is held twice a week on Tuesdays and Fridays, the principal
articles of traffic being grain, cotton, hides, cattle, bamboos, and metal
vessels, of an estimated annual value of ^5000. For police and
conservancy purposes, a small house -tax is levied, amounting in
1881-82 to ;£lOI.

Karmala. — Sub-division of Sholapur District, Bombay Presidency.
Lat. 17 57' to 1 8° 32' x., long. 74 52' to 75 31' e. Area, 766
square miles; contains 122 villages, with 9300 houses. Population
(1872) 105,291; (1881) 61,548, namely, 31,278 males and 30,270
females. The great decrease is due to mortality and emigration during
the famine of 1876-77. Hindus numbered 57,290; Muhammadans,
2914; and 'others,' 1344.

Karmala is in the north of the District, between the Bhima on the
west and the Sina on the east. Except the hills near Kem and the
dividing ridge, forming the watershed between the two rivers, the
country is flat ; towards the north it is rough and broken, crossed by
many streams. About one-half of the soil is rich and black, and the
other red and gravelly. The seasons are uncertain, a really good one,
as a rule, not occurring oftener than once in three or four years, when,
however, the harvest is unusually abundant. In 1 88 1-82, of 229,048
acres, the whole area held for tillage, 31,442 acres, or 137 per cent.,
were fallow or under grass. Of the remaining 197,606 acres, 790 were
twice cropped. Of the 198,396 acres under tillage, grain occupied
151,081 acres; pulses, 17,555; oil-seeds, 22,521; fibres, 5569; and
miscellaneous crops, 1670 acres. In 1882-83, the total number of
holdings was 5537, with an average area of about 48 acres each.
Weekly fairs are held at eight towns and villages ; and at Sonari an
annual fair in April, attended by about 6000 persons. The Sub-division
contains 1 civil and 2 criminal courts ; police stations (thdnds), 3 ; regular
police, 40 men ; village watchmen, 206. Land revenue (1882), ;£i 3,008.



KARMALA TOWN—KARNAGARH. tJ

Karmala. — Chief town and municipality of the Karmala Sub-
division, Sholapur District, Bombay Presidency. Situated 69 miles
north-west of Sholapur town, and n miles north of the Jeur station on
the south-east line of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Lat. 18 24'
N., long. 75 14' 30" e. Population (1872) 6759 ; (1881) 5071, namely,
2495 males and 2576 females. Area of town site, 188 acres. Hindus
numbered 4191 ; Muhammadans, 677; Jains, 200; and 'others,' 3.
Karmala was originally the seat of a branch of the Nimbalkar family.
The founder began and his son finished a fort which still exists, and is
used for the sub-divisional offices. This fort, one of the largest in the
Deccan, extends over a quarter of a square mile, and contains about
100 houses. Karmala grew and became a large trade centre, being a
crossing station for the traffic lines from Balaghat through Barsi to
Poona, and between Ahmadnagar and Sholapur. Most of this traffic
has now passed to the railway, but Karmala is still a large mart for
cattle, grain, oil, and piece-goods. A weekly market is held on
Friday, and the town has a small weaving industry, with 60 looms.
The water-supply is from springs in wells three-quarters of a mile to
the south. The water is carried through an earthenware conduit to
dipping wells in the town. An annual fair lasting four days. Municipal
income (1881), £483 '> expenditure, ^463; incidence of municipal
taxation, is. nd. per head. Post-office, dispensary, school, and reading-
room.

Karmar. — Petty State in the Jhalawar Division of Kathiawar, Bom-
bay Presidency; consisting of 1 village, with 1 landholder. The revenue
in 1881 was estimated at .£511 ; tribute is paid of ^14 to the British
Government, and ^3, 4s. to the Nawab of Junagarh. In addition,
^5, 1 8s. is paid as sukhri on account of Ahmadabad. The estate or
village, with a population of 648 souls, is situated six miles to the
north-east of Ranpur, and six miles south-east of Chura, stations on
the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway. Area, 3 square miles.

Karnagarh. — Hill, or more properly plateau, near Bhagalpur town,
Bhagalpur District, Bengal. Lat. 25 14' 45" N., long. 86° 58' 30" e.
It formerly contained the lines of the Hill Rangers, a body of troops
raised from among the hill people by Mr. Augustus Cleveland, Collector
of the District, in 1780, for the pacification of the lawless jungle tribes.
The corps was disbanded in 1863 on the re-organization of the native
army. A wing of a native regiment is at times cantoned here.

The only objects of interest are Sivaite temples of some celebrity.
These consist of four buildings (maths), with square bases and the
usual pointed pinnacles. One is several hundred years old, the others
being modern buildings. Numbers of Hindus, though not usually
worshippers of Siva, pay their devotions here on the last day of the month
of Kartik. The temples contain several of the so-called seats of Mahadeo

VOL. VIII. b



18 KARNAL.

or Siva, one much prized being made of stone from the Narbada, said
to have come from the marble rocks near Jabalpur. Two monuments
are here erected to the memory of Mr. Cleveland, — one by Govern-
ment, and the other by the landholders of the District. Karnagarh is
said to derive its name from Kama, a pious Hindu kins: of olden times,
celebrated for the enormous sums he bestowed on Brahmans. The
plateau is locally known as the kild or fort, and is the reputed site of



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 2 of 64)