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through in the cold season, and also a good travellers' bungalow with a
spacious sardi or native rest-house, near the railway station.

The Arab geographer, Al Biriini {circa 1000 a.d.), mentions Khandwa ;
and a century later, it was a great seat of Jain worship. The mound
on which the town stands has supplied many finely carved pillars,
cornices, and other remains of the old Jain buildings, which have been
built into Brahmanical temples, the walls of the Maratha fort, and other
structures, besides forming materials for the Sivaite temples surrounding
the four kunds or water reservoirs, one of which is on each side of the
town, that on the west side bearing the date a.d. 1132. Ferishta
describes Khandwa as the seat of a local governor of the Ghori
kingdom of Malwa in 15 16. The town was burnt by Jaswant Rao
Holkar in 1802, and again partially by Tantia Topi in 1858. The
civil station, 2 miles east of the town, contains a court-house, circuit-
house, and church. The road to Indore is in good repair.

Khangarh. — Town and municipality in MuzafTargarh tahsil,
Muzaffargarh District, Punjab ; situated about 4 miles from the present
bed of the Chenab, and 1 1 miles south of MuzafTargarh town. Lat.
2 9° 55' N -> l° n &- 7 J ° I2 ' E - Khangarh is the head-quarters of a police
division (thdnd), and was chosen in 1849 as tne civil station of the
District ; it was found, however, liable to inundation from the Chenab,
and in 1859 the head-quarters were removed to Muzaffargarh. Popu-
lation (1868) 3717; (1S81) 3417, namely, Hindus, 1909; Muham-
madans, 1504; Jains, 3; Sikh, 1. Number of houses, 947. Municipal
income (1875^-1876), ^377; (1881-82), ^522; average incidence,
3s. of d. per head. The land around the town is well wooded, fertile,
and more highly cultivated than any other part of the District. Khanpur
is little more than an ordinary village compactly built, chiefly of brick,
with one principal street running north and south, from which narrow
lanes branch off at right angles. The main streets and lanes are neatly
paved. At the beginning of the century it was an Afghan post, but
the town has now outgrown the dimensions of the circular fortification
which originally enclosed it. It has no manufactures, and owes all the
importance it possesses to being the agricultural centre for a fertile tract.
The town contains a grain market, primary school, municipal hall, dis-


pensary, and sardi or native inn. Outside the town is an en


Khania - dhana. — One of the petty States in Bundelkhand,
under the political superintendence of the Central India
It originally formed part of the 'Orchha (Urchd) or Tehri S
the jdgir having been granted by Udet Singh to his younger bn
Aman Singh, about the year 1703. After the dismemberment of
the Orchha State by the Marathas, the Peshwa granted a sana
the jdgir to Amir Singh. For a long time the claim to feudal suzerainty
over Khania-dhana was disputed between the Manitha State of fhansi
and Orchha. However, in 1862, when the Jhansi Raj was extinct, it
was decided that the Khania-dhana jdgir was directly dependent on
the British Government, as it had undoubtedly formed part of the
Maratha conquests, to which the British Government had sua
The chief is a Hindu Biindela. The present (1S83) Raja being a
minor, the administration is conducted by his uncle. The area of the
State is about 84 square miles. Population (1881) 13,494, namely,
males 7089, and females 6405. Classified according to religion, there
were — Hindus, 12,857; Jains, 480; and Muhammadans, 157. The
revenue is estimated at ^2000 a year. The State is in a wild tract of
country, w r ith much hill and jungle, west of the Betwa river and south-
west of Orchha.

Khania-dhana. — Chief town in Khania-dhana State, Bundelkhand,
Central India; situated in lat. 25 1' 30" n., long 78 11' 30" e.
Population (1881) 1961 ; number of houses, 370. The town contains
a small fortress, which forms the residence of the Raja. It is situated
amidst much hill and jungle. The roads leading to it are extremely

Khanna. — Town and municipality in Samrala tahs'i!, Ludhiana
District, Punjab. Lat. 30 42' n., long. 76 16' e. Situated on the-
Grand Trunk Road, and on the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway, 27
miles south-west of Ludhiana town. Population (1868) 3408; (1SS1)
3988, namely, Hindus, 2643; Muhammadans, 1090; Sikhs, 254;
'other,' 1. Number of houses, 1380. A third-class municipality.
Municipal revenue (1875-76), ^160; (1882-S2), ^439 i -
incidence, 2s. 2jd. per head. The place possesses no importance be-
yond being the seat of a railway station, and the head -quark:
police circle {thdnd).

Khanpur— Village in Shikarpur /#/«£, Sukkur (Sakhar) Sub-division
of Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency; situated about 8 miles
north of Shikarpur town. Lat. 28° o' 15" N., long. 6S^ 47' 1 . 1'
tion (1872) 2807, namely, 1849 Muhammadans (principally bel
to the Bapar and Sethar tribes) and 958 Hindus (of the Lohanf caste).
Population (1881) below 2000. Head-quarters of a tappaddr % with police


station, musafirkhdna (travellers' rest-house), and cattle pound. There are
52 wells in and about the village. Manufactures — weaving, shoemaking,
and pottery. Trade chiefly in agricultural produce. Road communi-
cation with Zurkhel, Thairio, and Abad Melani.

Khanpur. — Commercial town in Bahawalpur State, Punjab ; situated
on the Ikhtiarwah, a navigable canal from the Panjnad. Lat. 30 9' n.,
long. 71 1 6' e. Population (18S1) 7189, namely, Muhammadans.
4738; Hindus, 2450; 'other,' 1. Ruinous mud fort; good roofed
bazar. The country in the immediate neighbourhood is irrigated, and
supports a considerable population ; but the sandy desert to the south
presents the usual barren appearance of the Punjab uplands. Thornton
says that Khanpur bears marks of having formerly possessed greater
importance than at present. It now forms a station on the Indus
Valley State Railway, 133 miles from Rohri, and 147 miles from
Miiltan. The town contains a flat-roofed bazar, and a ruined fort
200 yards long and 120 broad.

Khanua {Khdnwa). — Village in Bhartpur (Bhurtpore) State, Raj-
putana ; situated on the road from Agra to Ajmere, 37 miles
west of the former and 197 miles east of the latter town. Lat.
2 7 2' n., long. 77 33' e. Thornton states that this village was the
site of the great battle, in 1526 a.d., between the Mughal conqueror
Babar and the confederated Rajput princes under Rana Sanka of
Udaipur (Oodeypore). The latter were completely defeated ; Babar
henceforth assumed the title of G/idzi, 'Victorious over the Infidel,'
and the supremacy of Upper India passed into the hands of the
Muhammadan invaders.

Khanwahan. — Village in theKandiaro/tf7z^,Naushahro Sub-division,
Haidarabad (Hyderabad) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency ; 8 miles
north-east of Kandiaro town. The population, chiefly agriculturists,
is inconsiderable. Cotton cloth is manufactured for home consump-
tion and export. The town is supposed to have been founded some
300 years ago by one Khan Sahta, a zaminddr. Head-quarters of a

Khanwah Canal. — One of the Upper Sutlej (Satlaj) Inundation
Channels in Lahore and Montgomery Districts, Punjab, and one of
the most important of those useful irrigation works. The canal
follows the course of an ancient flood-torrent bed, with a cross cut
from the Sutlej. Its origin and date remain uncertain, though tradition
assigns its construction, amongst other persons, to Khan Khanan, a
minister of the Emperor Akbar, who held this part of the country as a
fief. In 1839, the head was reported to be choked up with sand;
and in the succeeding year, Maharaja Kharrak Singh, the son and
successor of the great Maharaja Ranjit Singh, cleared it out by con-
tributions levied from the surrounding landowners. Shortly afterwards,


the canal once more silted up, and continued inefficient till i
Maharaja" Sher Singh repaired it at the expense of the Si
has since levied a half-yearly water-rate of [6s. p r acre irri
head-water flows from the Sutlej near Mamokf, in Lahore Distra
the channel runs as far as Dhappai, 26 miles below Dipiipur in
gomery. Since the annexation, the Canal Department has taken
charge of the works, and greatly promoted its efficient w and much is
still being done to render it useful to a larger area. The area watered
by it in 1881-82 was 84,456 acres, and the water-rate levied amounted
to ,£10,095.

Khapa.— Town and municipality in Nagpur District, Central Pi
vinces. Lat. 21 25' n., long. 79 2' e. ; situated on high ground ovei
looking the Kanhan river, 20 miles north of Nagpur city, with which it
is connected by the Chhindwara road as far as Patan-sdongi (14 miles),
and thence by a main District road. Population (1877) 8007 ; 1
8465, namely, Hindus, 6664; Kabfrpanthis, 11 15; Muhammadans,
636; Jains, 49; 'other,' 1. Municipal income (1882-83), £577, of
which £556 was derived from taxation, nearly all octroi duty; a
incidence of taxation, is. 3|d per head. Fine groves surround the
town, and the river and numerous wells supply excellent water.
Melons are largely cultivated on the sandbanks in the river bed.
Khapa manufactures and exports cotton cloth of good quality ; and
imports cotton, wool, grain, European goods and hardware, and silk
thread. Several mercantile firms in the town carry on large transac-
tions by means of bills with Poona and other distant cities. The town
is well kept ; it has a dispensary, a school where English is taught,
police buildings, and a sardi ; and four good metalled roads converge
in the central market-place.

Kharaila (Kharela). — Town in Hamirpur District, North-W<
Provinces. Lat. 25 32' n., long. 79 50' 45" e. Situated near the
Charkhari border, within which lie many of its lands; distant from
Hamirpur town, 40 miles south-west. Population (1S72) ;
(1881) 7633, namely, Hindus, 7300, and Muhammadans, 33$. i
station, village school, bdzdr, handsome temple. No trade or manu-

Kharakpur.— Town and head-quarters of a police circle (thdn
Monghyr District, Bengal. Lat. 25 ° 7' 10" n., long. 86° 35' i
The pargand which gives its name to the town forms one of the 1
of the Maharaja of Darbhangah. Kharakpur, with some neighb
villages (population 5450), was constituted a municipal union in 1
income, £72, 14s. Extensive irrigation works are being carTM
here under the superintendence of the Assistant Manager »>t the
Darbhangah estate. Charitable dispensary and vernacular Bel
maintained by the Maharaja.


Kharal. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Province of Gujarat (Guzerat),
Bombay Presidency. The estate contains 1 2 villages, lying along the banks
of the river Vatrak. The Miah or chief, Sirdar Singh, is a Mukwana
Koli, converted to Islam, and observes a sort of Muhammadan and
Hindu religion. There is no sanad authorizing adoption ; the succession
follows the rule of primogeniture. The area of the land under culti-
vation is estimated at 3250 acres, the population in 1880 was returned
at 2841, and revenue at ^"1650. Tribute of ^175 is paid to the
Gaekwar of Baroda, and of £76 to the British Government. School
with 80 pupils.

Kharar. — Tahsil of Ambala (Umballa) District, Punjab; situated
between 30 38' and 30° 53' n. lat, and between 76 34' and 76 49' e.
long. Area, 366 square miles. Population (1881) 167,869, namely,
males 91,856, and females 76,013 ; average density, 459 persons
per square mile. Classified according to religion — Hindus, 110,445;
Muhammadans, 32,286; Sikhs, 25,019; Jains, 105; and Christians,
14. Land revenue of the tahsil, ^12,542. The average area under
cultivation for the five years ending 1881-82 is returned at 160,176
acres, the principal crops being — wheat, 67,753 acres ; jodr, 20,837
acres; Indian corn, 19,606 acres; gram, 10,956 acres; rice, 6443
acres; cotton, 14,552 acres; and sugar-cane, 3006 acres. The admini-
strative staff consists of a tahsilddr and an honorary magistrate,
presiding over 2 civil and 2 criminal courts ; number of police stations
(thdnds), 3 ; strength of regular police, 5 1 men ; village watchmen
(chaukiddrs), 445.

Kharar. — Town and municipality in Ambala (Umballa) District,
Punjab, and head-quarters of Kharar tahsil. Lat. 30 44' 45" n., long.
7 6° 41' i5"e. Situated on the road from Ambala to Rupar, 25 miles north
of the former town. Population (1868) 4884; (1881) 4265, namely,
Hindus, 2503; Muhammadans, 1639; Sikhs, 71; Jains, 50; 'others,'
2. Number of houses, 792. Municipal income (1875-76), ^240;
(1882-83), ;£436; average incidence, 2s. ojd. per head. The town is
of no importance apart from its official position as the head-quarters
of a tahsil and police circle {thdnd).

Kharda. — Town in the Jamkher Sub-division, Ahmadnagar District,
Bombay Presidency; situated 56 miles south-east of Ahmadnagar town.
Lat. 18 38' n., long. 75 31' e. Population (1872) 6899; (1881)
5562, namely, 2852 males and 2710 females. Hindus numbered
4685 ; Muhammadans, 583 ; and Jains, 294. In 1795, an engagement
took place near here between the Marathas and the Nizam. The
general of the latter, being defeated, retreated to Kharda, where he
was completely hemmed in by the enemy, and constrained to accede
to an ignominious treaty. The town contains upwards of 500 sub-
stantial merchants, shopkeepers, and money-lenders, many of whom


carry on a large trade in grain, country cloth, and other irl
Kharda belonged to the Nimbalkar, one of the
handsome mansion in the middle of the town is now in ruin
1745, the Nimbalkar built a fort to the south-east of the town,
fort is square, in good repair, being built with cut stone wall
feet, and a ditch, now in ruins. The walls have a massive gateway
two gates at right angles to each other. The cattle marked on '1
is the largest in the District. Post-office.

Khardah.— Village in the District of the Twenty-four I
Bengal; situated on the left bank of the Hugh' river. Lat. 2
30" n., long. 88° 24' 30" e. A Vaishnav place of pilgrimage in honour
of Nityanand, one of the disciples of Chaitanya, who took up hi
dence here. His descendants are regarded as gurus or spiritual guides
by the Vaishnavs. Khardah is a small roadside station on the E
Bengal Railway, 1 1 miles north of Calcutta.

Kharela. — Town in Hamirpur District, North-Western Provinces. —
See Kharaila.

Khargon. — Town in Indore State, Bhopawar Agency, Central India :
now in ruins, but once the capital of the southern part of the old tract
of Nimar. Distant from Indore city 60 miles south, and from Mhau
(Mhow) 49 miles south. Lat. 21 52' n., long. 75 43' 45" e.

KMri. — Village in the District of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal ;
situated on the old bed of the Ganges. The village contains a small
church connected with the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel,
and many of its inhabitants are native converts. A tank called Ganga*
Chakraghata is held peculiarly sacred by the Hindus, and multitudes
annually resort to its waters. English school.

Kharian. — North-eastern tahsiloi Gujrat District, Punjab ; consisting
mainly of a dry submontane tract, intersected by hill torrents in deep
beds unavailable for purposes of irrigation. Lat. 32° ax' to 33
73° 37' 3°" to 74 15' e. Area, 647 square miles. Population | 1
217,371, namely, males 113,398, and females 103,973; average density
of population, 336 persons per square mile. Classified according to
religion, Muhammadans numbered 199,643; Hindus, 15.456; Sikh-,
2209 ; and ' others,' 63. Number of villages, 504, of which 466 contain
less than five hundred inhabitants. Number of house-, a ;.
number of families, 49,496. The average annual area under cultiva-
tion for the five years ending 1881-82 is returned at
the principal crops being— wheat, 108,763 acres; bdjra, 5S.
jodr, 20,455 acres ; barley, 16,437 acres; moth, 1 1,850 acres ; grain.
acres; and cotton, 5843 acres. Revenue of the tahsil, , 1 he

administrative staff consists of a tahsilddr and munsif, presiding
1 criminal and 2 civil courts. Number of police circl<
strength of regular police, 82 men ; village watchmen [chauHa


Khariar. — Zaminddri estate in Raipur District, Central Provinces ;
lying to the east of Bindra Nawagarh, and stretching for 53 miles from
north to south, and 32 miles from east to west. Area, 1306 square
miles; number of villages, 508; houses, 15,587. Population (1881)
58,918, namely, males 30,474, and females 28,444; average density,
45 'ii persons per square mile. Khariar is said to have been formed
long ago out of the Patna State, as a dowry for the daughter of a
Patna chief. Nearly half the area is cultivated. The chief is a

Khariar. — Village in Raipur ta/isil, Raipur District, Central Pro-
vinces, and head-quarters of the Khariar zaminddri, situated in lat.
20 17' 30" n., long. 82 48' 30" e. Population (1881) 2170, namely,
Hindus, 1949; Muhammadans, 51; aboriginal religions, 170.

Kharkhauda. — Town and municipality in Sampla tahsil, in Rohtak
District, Punjab. Lat. 28 52' n., long. 76 57' e. Population (1868)
4181 ; (1881) 4144, namely, Hindus, 2565, and Muhammadans, 1579.
Number of houses, 511. Municipal income (1881-82), ^203 ; average
incidence, is. per head. Kharkhauda is an ancient town, bearing
traces of a bygone prosperity, and now gradually falling into decay.
In 1 88 1 the population was decimated by fever, and many of the
survivors left the town, causing the trade to fall off seriously for a time,
but it is now (1884) gradually recovering. The town contains a police
station, rest-house, school, and post-office.

Kharmatar. — Village in the District of the Santal Parganas, Bengal.
Railway station on the chord line of the East Indian Railway, 168 miles
from Calcutta.

Kharod. — Town in Bilaspur District, Central Provinces; 40 miles
east of Bilaspur town. Population under 2000, comprising traders of all
kinds. The weekly market is well attended. The origin of Kharod is
unknown ; but an old tablet bears the date of Samvat 902 (a.d. 845),
and the remains of ancient earthworks prove the place to have been
strongly fortified.

Kharsal. — Zaminddri estate in Sambalpur District, Central Provinces ;
30 miles west of Sambalpur town. Population (1881) 5135, entirely
agricultural, principally Gonds, Binjwars, Savars, and a few Kultas,
residing in 20 villages, on an area of 30 square miles. Kharsal, the
chief village, has a good school. The estate lies at the base of the
Bara Panar Hills, and consists partly of open country with a good soil,
and is partly hilly, with a fair forest growth. The proximity of the hills
gives the cultivators many facilities for storing water for irrigation by
means of dams. The staple crops are rice and oil-seeds. A little
sugar-cane is also grown. Total revenue, ^123 ; Government tribute,
^45. The estate derives its origin from the grant of this village three
centuries ago, in the reign of Baliar Singh, Raja of Sambalpur, to one


Udam Gond. The late chief, Daya Sardar, was hanged in i860 I
share in the Surendra Sai rebellion. Kharsal village is situated in lat.
21 31' n., long. S3 33' E.

Kharsawan.— One of the petty States in Singbhum Distro t, Chutia
Nagpur, under the Government of Bengal. Situated between i
and 22 53' 30" n. lat, and between 85 40' 30" and 85 57' 15 1 .
The Thakur or chief, Raghunath Singh Deo, is a Hindu Rajput.
145 square miles; number of villages, 255; houses, 5622.
population (1872) 26,280; (1881) 31,127, namely, males 15,496, and
females 15,631; average density, 215 persons per square mile.
Hindus numbered 30,834, and Muhammadans, 293. Annual revenue,
;£i8oo. This State, with others in Chutia Nagpur, was ceded to the
British by the Marathas. The chief is under engagements binding him
to right administration, and his decisions in serious cases are sut>je< t
to appeal to the Commissioner of Chutia Nagpur. Kharsawan \
is situated in lat. 24 47' 30" n., long. 85 52' 20" e.

Kharshan. — Village in Darjiling District, Bengal. — See Karsiang.

Kharsi Jhalaria {Kharsia).— Guaranteed Thdkurate under the
Indore Agency, Central India. There are two Thakurs, Balwant
and Datar Singh, cousins, owning this estate (the family being divided
into two branches), who receive allowances (tankhds) from Sindhia
(Gwalior) and Dewas State, under two joint sanads from those States.
The first Thakurs to whom the guarantee was given were Swanip
Singh and Fatah Singh. The tankhd from Sindhia amounts to ^175,
and that from Dewas State to ^"22. Area, about 10 square miles.

Kharsua. — River of Orissa, rising in the Tributary States, and flow-
ing south-eastwards through Cuttack District till it falls into the left
bank of the Brahmani river, a short distance above the point where the
combined waters of the Baitarani and Brahmani fall into the I
Bengal as the Dhamra estuary.

Kharturi. — Town in Champaran District, Bengal. Lat. 26' 40' 15
N.,long. 85 5' 45" e. Population (1872) 6207. Not separately returned
in the Census Report of 1881.

Khasaura.— Town in Bilgram tahsil, Hardoi District, Oudh ; situated
on the left bank of the Ramganga, 12 miles north-west of Sandi, on the
road to Farukhabad. A well-to-do Ahi'r village of (1SS1) 2520 inhabit-
ants, residing in 351 mud houses. Bi-weekly market.

Khasi and Jaintia Hills.— District in the Chief Commissioneiship
of Assam; situated between 25 1' and 26 5' N. lat, and between 90'
47' and 92 52' e. long. It contains an area of 6157 square mil<
a population, according to the Census of 1SS1, of 169,360 souls. '1 he
administrative head-quarters are at the station of Shu ich is

also the residence of the Chief Commissioner of Assam, situated U
2 5° 3 2 ' 39" N - lat., and 91 55' 32 ,/ e. long.


The Khasi and Jaintia Hills form the central section of the watershed
between the valleys of the Brahmaputra and the Surma. On the north
the District is bounded by Kamriip and Nowgong (Naugaon); east
by the Nowgong (Naugaon) and Cachar Districts ; south by Sylhet ;
and west by the Garo Hills. The District is divided into three
portions, namely, British possessions in the Khasi Hills ; petty dependent
democratic States in the Khasi Hills, presided over by elected chiefs
known as Siems, Wahadadars, Sardars, and Lyngdohs ; and the Jaintia
Hill country, which is entirely British territory.

The British possessions in the Khasi and Jaintia Hills, which cover
an aggregate area of 2160 square miles, consist of the following Fiscal
Divisions: — In the Khasi Hills — (1) Jim-mang ; (2) Lait-lynkot ; (3)
Lait-kroh ; (4) Bai-rang, otherwise Wah-long ; (5) Long-ka-ding ; (6)
Mao-be-lar-kar ; (7) Mao-smai ; (8) Mynteng ; (9) Mao-mluh ; (10)
Mao-pun-kyr-tiang ; (11) Nong-jirf; (12) Nong-lyng-kin ; (13) Nong-
bah; (14) Nong-riat ; (15) Nong-kroh; (16) Nun-niah ; (17) Ram-
dait ; (18) Sait-soh-pen ; (19) Tyng-riang ; (20) Tyng-rong; (21)
Tyr-na; (22) Um-niuh ; (23) Mar-bisu (dependency); and (24) U
Tyma. In the Jaintia Hills — (1) Am-wi ; (2) Chap-duk (Kuki); (3)
Dar-rang; (4) Jowai; (5) Lang-fhit ; (6) Lang-soh ; (7) Laka-dong;
(8) Myn-riang (Mikir) ; (9) Mul-shoi (Kuki); (10) Mas-kiit ; (11)
Myn-sao; (12) Nong-klih ; (13) Nong-fulut; (14) Nong-tha-long ; (15)
Nar-pii ; (16) Nar-tiang ; (17) Nong-bah ; (18) Nong-jyngi ; (19) Ral-
liang ; (20) Rym-bai ; (21) Sai-pung (Kuki); (22) Soh-tyngah ; (23)
Shiliang-myn-tang ; (24) Sath-pathor; and (25) Shang-piing.

The Khasi democratic States, covering an aggregate area of 3997
square miles (in some reports stated at 4490 square miles), are as
follow : — Presided over by Siems — (1) Bhawal, otherwise War-bah ; (2)
Cherra; (3) Khyrim ; (4) Lang-kin ; (5) Malai-soh-mat ; (6) Maharam ;
(7) Mariao; (8) Mao-iong ; (9) Mao-syn-ram ; (10) Mylliem ; (11)
Nong-soh-phoh ; (12) Nong-khlao ; (13) Nongs-pung ; (14) Nong-stoin ;
and (15) Ram-brai. Presided over by Wahadadars — (1) The Con-
federacy of Sheila. Presided over by Sardars — (1) Dwara Nong-tyr-
men ; (2) Ji-rang ; (3) Maolong; (4) Mao-don; and (5) Nong-long.
Presided over by Langdohs — (1) Lan-iong ; (2) Mao-phlang; (3)
Nong-lywai; and (4) Soh-iong.

History. — In history, as in administration, the Khasi Hills and the
Jaintia Hills constitute two separate tracts. The Khasi Hills are
occupied by a collection of States, each governed by an elective ruler,
on democratic principles. The chiefs or siems have treaties or agree-

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