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the number of persons tried was 180, of whom 132 or 73-34 per cent,
were convicted. The civil cases tried before the courts numbered 101.
There is a jail at Shillong. In 1881, the daily average number of
prisoners was 43' 28 > of whom 2-70 were females. The total expenditure
■as ^732, or an average of ^15, 18s. for each prisoner.

The management of education in the Khasi and Jaintia Hills is
chiefly in the hands of the Welsh Calvinistic Mission, whose efforts
have been rewarded by most satisfactory results. In 1874-75, the
total number of schools open in the District was 73, attended by 1666
pupils, which by 1881-82 had increased to 107 schools, attended by
2551 pupils, being 1 school to every 57 square miles, and 1 pupil to
every 66 inhabitants. The total expenditure on education in the latter
year was ^3806, towards which Government contributed ^1586 ; the
average cost per pupil waspfi, 9s. iod. English is taught in 46 schools
out of the 107. The Normal School for higher instruction was attended
by 44 pupils, of whom 9 were girls. The number of girls attending
school increased from 344 in 1874-75 to 742 in 1881, showing 8-35
pupils to every thousand of the female population.

Medical Aspects. — The climate of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills is mild
and equable, though in some parts excessively humid. At Shillong, the
thermometer rarely exceeds 8o° F., and has been known to fall t<
Hoar frost lies on the ground almost every morning during the months
of December, January, and February. Shallow water occasionally
freezes over, but snow never falls. The rainfall at Cherra PiSnji is
enormous. The average during the 25 years ending 1881 is returned
at 489 inches ; and 805 inches are said to have fallen In 1861, including
366 inches in the single month of July. At Shillong, where the clouds
rolling up from the plains of Bengal have already spent their for
three intervening ridges, the annual rainfall declines to an avera
about 88 inches; and at Jowai, which occupies an intermediate
position, the average is 362 inches. The rainy season is confine i to
the five months from May to November. The District is liable to



1 80 KHASOR—KHA TAX HILLS.

shocks of earthquake, one of which, in 1875, did much damage to the
houses in Shillong.

Generally speaking, the climate of the hills is healthy, both for
natives and Europeans. Malarious fevers do not exist, except in the
marshy strip or tardi on the northern frontier. Cholera never prevails,
unless directly imported from the plains. The chief diseases are fevers
of a typhoid character, or at least engendered by insanitary conditions
of life ; small-pox, dysentery, and bowel complaints. Europeans on
first arriving at Shillong frequently suffer from disorders of the liver ;
but afterwards enjoy excellent health, when they have once passed
through a short period of acclimatizing indisposition. European
children thrive remarkably. Except in the case of Shillong, no regard
is paid to the requirements of conservancy in any Khasi village. The
collection of vital statistics was commenced in the District in 1882 in
certain representative areas. The charitable dispensary at Shillong was
attended in 1881 by 10 1 in-door and 1133 out-door patients. The
total expenditure was ^306, towards which Government contributed
;£i2o. [For further information regarding the Khasi and Jaintia
Hills, see the Statistical Account of Assam, vol. ii. pp. 203-255 (London,
Triibner & Co., 1879). Also Memorandum on the Revenue Adminis-
tration of the Lower Provi?ues of Bengal, by D. J. M'Neill, Esq., 1873,
p. 33 ; the Assam Census Report for 1881 ; and the several Admi-
nistration and Departmental Reports from 1880 to 1884.]

Khasor. — Range of hills in Dera Ismail Khan District, Punjab. —
See Khisor.

Khatak Hills. — A range or series of ranges in Kohat and Peshawar
District, Punjab ; so called from the Afghan tribe who inhabit them.
They bound Peshawar District to the south, and extend from the
Sufed Koh system to the Indus. In Kohat they consist of an intricate
network of barren and almost perpendicular ridges, intersected by deep
valleys, whose sides are clothed with jungle and scored by innumerable
ravines. Patches of cultivation, however, nestle in the open glades,
while occasional clumps of acacia and wild olive relieve the sterile
monotony of the bare gorges. The Teri Toi river divides the system
into two main groups, the southern of which contains the famous salt
mines of Narri, Bahadur Khel, and Kharrak ; while the mines of
Malgin and Jatta lie among the spurs of the northern range. The
peaks of the south-eastern group seldom exceed 3000 feet ; but Swanai
Sir, in the opposite range, has an elevation of 4785 feet above sea-
level.

The salt, which gives these mountains their chief importance,
occurs as a solid rock, uncovered and exposed in many places, so
as to be quarried rather than mined. The deposit may probably
rank as one of the largest in the world. It has a bluish-grey colour,



KHA TA O—KHA TMAND U. , 8 ,

but grinds white. Large quantities are exported to the Punjab
towns, to Afghanistan, and to the surrounding countries generally.
The Government Preventive Establishment consisted in 1872 of 204
persons, maintained at a total annual cost of ^1678. The
quantity of salt extracted from the five mines in 1870-71 amounted to
407,098 itiannds, and the duty realized was ,£8556. In 1882-83, the
annual out-turn was returned at 416,616 maunds. The head-quarters
of the salt establishment are at Jatta.

The Khatak hills on the border of Peshawar District have an average
height of about 3000 feet above sea-level, but the highest peak, that
of Jawala Sir, close to the sanitarium of Charat, reaches an elevation
of 5 1 10 feet. The celebrated shrine of Kaka Sahib is situated in
Peshawar District, at the foot of these hills, and forms the head-
quarters of the powerful clan of Kaka Khels, descendants of Shaikh
Rahim Kar, a Khatak. They are venerated by the other inhabitants
as holy men, and travel to all parts of Central Asia as traders. The
Mir Kalan pass runs through these hills, and a wide road has been
made for military purposes. A bungalow is situated on the Kohat
side. Slate is found in considerable quantities at the foot of the hills.

Khatao. — Sub - division of Satara District, Bombay Presidency.
Area, 497 square miles; number of villages, 84. Population (1872)
66,104; (1881) 74,027, namely, 36,839 males and 37,188 females.
Hindus numbered 71,327; Muhammadans, 2072; and 'others,' 628.
Contains 1 civil and 2 criminal courts; police station (t/idna), 1 ; regular
police, 56 men; village watchmen, 214. Land revenue, ^15, 49°-

Khatauli. — Commercial town in Jansath tahsil, Muzaffarnagar
District, North-Western Provinces. Distant from Muzaffarnagar town
13I miles south. Lat. 29 17' N., long. 77 46' 10" E. Population
(1872) 6409; (1881) 7574, namely, 3342 Hindus, 3601 Muham-
madans, 628 Jains, and 3 Christians. Area of town site, 76 acres.
Khatauli is a place of increasing importance as a mart for the
exchange of country produce, and is a station on the Sind, Punjab, and
Delhi Railway. There are four Jain temples, and the Jain inhabitants
are thriving grain dealers. It contains a good bazar, with a well-paved
road; good communications with the surrounding country. For ;
and sanitary purposes, a house-tax is levied. Police station, post-office,
school, and encamping ground.

Khatmandu (K&thm&ndti).— Capital of the Native State of Nepal ;
situated towards the western side of the valley, about a mile from the
base of Mount Nagarjun, standing on the east bank of the Vishnumatl
river at its junction with the Baghmati; approximate latitude 27 4- *■>
longitude 85 12' e. The population is estimated by the State autho-
rities at 50,000, occupying about 5000 houses, which are usually from
two to four storeys high, made of brick, and tiled or (in the suburbs)



1 82 KHATMANDU.

thatched ; many houses possess large projecting wooden windows or
balconies, often richly carved. The majority of the inhabitants belong
to the Newar class, half of whom are Buddhists. The Gurkhas form
but an inconsiderable minority. There are many small open spaces in
various parts of the town, paved, like the streets, with brick and stone ;
in these the markets are held, and Dr. Wright {History of Nepal, 1877)
notices that in the mornings these places are quite gay with the flowers,
fruit, and vegetables exposed for sale. The general shape of the city is
very irregular, but it is said by the Hindus to resemble the khora or
sword of the goddess Devi, while the Buddhist Newars declare it to
have been built after the shape of the sword of the great founder of
the city, Manjiisri. They state that the handle or blunt extremity of
this traditionary sword is directed to the south, towards the confluence
of the Baghmati and Vishnumati rivers, while its apex points to the
north, where it terminates in the suburb of Timmale, which stretches
round or rests upon it as the chhattra or cloth does upon the point of
Manjiisri's sword. Khatmandu is said to have been founded by Raja
Gunakdmadeva about a.d. 723.

The greatest length of the city from north to south is about a mile,
and its breadth varies from one-fourth to one-third of a mile. The
Vishnumati is crossed by two masonry bridges, over one of which runs
the road from the city to the arsenal and parade-ground, and over the
other the direct road to the temple of Shambunath. The earliest name
by which the city was known was Manju Patan, after Manjiisri, its
traditional founder. Its modern name is said to be derived from an
ancient building which stands in the heart of the city near the royal
palace, and which is still known among the Newars as Kathmandu,
from kdth, ' wood ' (of which material it is chiefly composed), and
mandi or inandon, an 'edifice,' 'house,' or 'temple.' This building
was erected by Raja Lachmina Singh Mai, a.d. 1596, not as a temple
(though there are some figures of Siva inside it), but as a house of
accommodation for religious mendicants, and it has always been used
for that purpose. The walls of the city have been allowed to fall into
decay, and in many places are now hardly distinguishable. Many of
the gateways, of which there were thirty-two, are still standing, but the
gates themselves have long since disappeared. There are said to be
thirty-two small squares or tolas in the city, of which the following only
are now of importance : Assan told, Indra Chauk, Khatmandu, Toba
told, Laghan told, and the square in front of the Darbdr or royal
palace.

The Daibdr covers a considerable extent of ground, in the form
of an irregular quadrangle. To the north it is partly open to the
city, and is flanked by the lofty Taliju temple. At the southern
end is the council-chamber, the Basantpur, and the long modern



KHATMANDU. ,

Darbdr or public reception room. On the east it encloses the
garden and stables, and on the west, which is its principal front, it it
open to the street, and forms one side of a rambling irregular square,
in which are clustered together a number of Hindu temples, originally
built by the Newars. Opposite the north-west corner of the J <
is the K6t, or military council-chamber, in which was enacted the
massacre of 1846. The Kot-ling, Dhunsar, and other courts of law-
are also situated around the western front of the Darbdr. Several of
the SardaVs have, during the last few years, built large houses in
different parts of the city, which, from their imposing appearance,
contrast very strongly with the humble and dirty Newar dwellings in
their neighbourhood.

Dr. Wright gives the following description of the chief objects of
interest at Khatmandu : —

' In the centre of the town stands the Maharaja's palace, which is
a huge, rambling, ungainly building. Part of it is very old, built in
pagoda fashion, and covered with elaborate and grotesque carvings.
Other parts of it, such as the Darbdr room, have been built within the
last ten years, and possess glass windows, which are rare in N
being found only in the houses of the wealthiest. In the square in
front of the palace are numerous handsome temples. Many of these
are like pagodas, of several storeys in height, and profusely ornamented
with carvings, painting, and gilding. The roofs of many of them are
entirely of brass or copper gilt, and along the eaves of the different
storeys are hung numerous little bells, which tinkle in the breeze.
At some of the doorways are placed a couple of large stone lions or
griffins, with well-curled manes, which remind one strongly of the
figures found at Nineveh.

'Another description of temple is built of stone, with pillars and a
dome. Though less ornamented and less picturesque, this style is
far more graceful than the other. Close to the palace, on the north,
is the temple of Taliju, one of the largest of the pagoda type. It is
said to have been built by Raja Mahendra Male, about a.d. 1549.
It is devoted entirely to the use of the royal family. In front of
several of the temples are tall monoliths, some surmounted by
figures of old Rajas, who founded the temples, others by the winged
figure of Garur. The figures are often in a kneeling posture, fat ing a
temple, and are generally overhung by a brazen snake, on whose
is perched a little bird. Not far from the palace, and close to one of
the temples, is an enormous bell, suspended to stone pillars ; ami in
another building are two huge drums, about eight feet in diameter.
The bell is sounded by pulling the tongue, but the peal is by
no means what might be expected from its size. Here, too,
several huge and hideous figures of Hindu gods and goddc



i8 4 KHATMANDU.

which on festival days are dressed up and ornamented in the usual
way.

'About 200 yards from the palace stands a large semi -European
building, called the Kot, which is famous as being the place where, in
1846, the massacre took place of almost all the leading men of the
country, by which event the [late] prime minister, Sir Jang Bahadur,
was established in power.

1 Besides the temples already noticed, many others are to be found
in every street and lane. In fact, at a first glance, the town seems to
consist of almost nothing but temples. They vary in size from the
gigantic pagoda of Taliju to a diminutive shrine cut out of a single
stone, with an image a few inches high in the centre. Many of them
present a most repulsive appearance, being dabbled over with the blood
of cocks, ducks, goats, and buffaloes, which are sacrificed before them.

' The streets of Khatmandu are very narrow — mere lanes, in fact ;
and the whole town is very dirty. In every lane there is a stagnant
ditch full of putrid mud, and no attempt is ever made to clean these
thoroughly. The streets, it is true, are swept in the centre, and part of
the filth is carried off by the sellers of manure ; but to clean the
drains would now be impossible without knocking down the entire city,
as the whole ground is saturated with filth. The houses are generally
built in the form of hollow squares, opening off the streets by low
doorways ; and these central courtyards are too often only receptacles
for rubbish of every sort. In short, from a sanitary point of view,
Khatmandu may be said to be built on a dunghill in the middle of
latrines !

' On leaving the town by the north-east gateway, and turning to the
south, the first object one sees is a large tank, the Ranipukhri, or
Queen's Tank. It is surrounded by a wall, and in the centre is a
temple, united to the western bank by a long narrow brick bridge. On
the south side is a large figure of an elephant, cut out of, or rather
built of, stone, bearing the image of Raja Pratapa Male, the maker of
the tank, and of his Rani. A little farther south, the road passes
through an avenue of bukdynn (Cape lilac) trees, which runs between
the city and the great parade-ground or Thandikhel. This ground
is a large open space, covered with a fine greensward, and here the
troops are daily drilled and exercised. In the centre used to stand
a square stone building 1 about 30 feet high, erected by Sir Jang
Bahadur after his return from England in 185 1. On the top was a
figure of Sir Jang Bahadur, holding a sword in one hand and a scroll
in the other, and at the four corners were hideous brazen griffins or
dragons. All these have, however, been removed to a new temple
built by Sir Jang Bahadur on the bank of the Baghmati. To the west

1 Removed in 18S2.



KHED.



i*5



of the parade-ground is a more graceful object, namely the Darera 01
column erected by a former prime minister, General Bhfmasen I
This column is beautifully proportioned, standing on a base of stone,
and rising to a height of 250 feet. This is the second column of the
kind that was built by Bhimasen, the first having been thrown down
by a violent earthquake in 1833. The column now standing was
struck by lightning in 1856, and a large rent was made all down one
side. It was repaired, however, in 1869, and now looks as well as
ever. There is a good winding staircase inside, and from the windows
at the top a fine bird's-eye view of the town and its environs may be
obtained.

'A little farther south stands the arsenal, 1 and to the east of the
parade-ground are store-houses for ammunition, cannon, etc., and a
manufactory where these are cast and bored. A new workshop on a
larger scale has lately been built about 4 miles south of the city, on a
small stream, the Nukkti, near Chaubahal.

* The road now turns to the east, and at about a mile south-east of
Khatmandu it reaches Thatpatali, the residence of [the late] Sir Jang
Bahadur. This is an immense building, or rather range of buildings,
situated close to the northern bank of the Baghmati, just where it is
crossed by a bridge leading to Patan.'

A British Resident, with a small staff and escort, is stationed at
Khatmandu. The Residency is situated about a mile out of the city
on the north side, in a spot described by Dr. Wright (who was Resi-
dency Surgeon) as one of the best wooded and most beautiful in the
valley, though it was originally assigned for a Residency 'because, owing
to a deficient supply of water, it was a barren patch, supposed to be
very unhealthy, and to be the abode of demons.'

The present minister, Sir Ranadip Singh, has a very extensive
residence at Naiainhitti, to the north-east of the city. The military
force maintained in Khatmandu and its suburbs numbers about 12,000
men, in twenty infantry battalions, with 250 field-pieces, all of which
are of small calibre, and many are unserviceable. There are several
magazines in and about the city, filled with muskets and rifles mostly
of obsolete patterns, old equipments, accoutrements, and other material
of war.

Khatmandu is an open town, and is connected with the neighbouring
towns of Bhatgaon, Patan, and Thankot by bridged carriage roads.
There are no manufactures of any importance.

Khed (or Kher). — Sub-division of Ratnagiri District, Bombay
Presidency. Bounded on the north by Kolaba District ; on t
east by Satara District ; on the south by Chiplun ; and on the
west by Dapoli. It lies fifteen miles inland, with the Sub-division oi
1 On the completion of the Nukku buildings this arsenal was abandoned



1 86 KHED HEAD-QUARTERS AND TOWN.

Dapoli between it and the sea. Area, 400 square miles. Population
(1881) 91,492, namely, 44,024 males and 47,468 females, dwelling in
146 villages, containing 17,204 houses; density of population, 228
persons to the square mile. Hindus numbered 84,116; Muham-
madans, 7329; and 'others,' 47.

The Sub-division consists of a rugged and hilly surface, with patches
of poor land. The north-west is much broken by ravines ; in the north-
east are the three lofty hills of Mahipatgarh, Sumargarh, and Rasalgarh,
detached from the range of the Sahyadris by the deep valley of the
Jagbudi. Across the Sahyadris, the principal passes from the Sub-
division are the Hatlot and the Ambaoli, the latter passable by pack-
bullocks. The village sites alone are protected by shade-giving trees ;
near the villages are numerous sacred groves. The sea - breeze is
but little felt. The average rainfall for ten years ending 1877 was
1 30 '5 inches. The river Jagbudi is navigable for small craft as far as
Khed, where a hot spring is found. Grain, rice, and pulses are the
staple crops. In 1878, the agricultural stock consisted of — horned
cattle, 36,774; sheep and goats, 2793; horses, 21; ploughs, 10,362;
and carts, ^. Of the 187,949 acres under actual cultivation in 1878,
grain crops occupied 98 per cent. Of the whole, rice occupied
18,794 acres, and ndchni (Eleusine corocana) 34,700 acres. In 1884,
the Sub-division contained 2 criminal courts ; police stations, 3 ;
regular police, 52 men. Land revenue (1878-79), ^"9262.

Khed (or Kher). — Town and head-quarters of the Khed Sub-division,
Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency. Situated at the head of the
Jagbudi river, and surrounded by hills. The population in 1872 was
3817. Not separately returned in the Census Report of 1881. A cart-
road connects Khed with the port of Harnai, 26 miles distant. Boats
of light draught work up from Dabhol and Anjanwel to Khed. Post-
office, school, and rest-house for travellers. East of the town are
three small rock temples, now inhabited by a family of lepers.

Khed (or Kher). — Sub-division of Poona District, Bombay Presi-
dency. Area, 888 square miles. Population (1872) 139,152 ; (1881)
141,890, namely, 70,811 males and 71,079 females, dwelling in 244
villages, containing 24,054 houses. Density of population, 159 persons
to the square mile. Hindus numbered 136,395 ; Muhammadans,
3601; 'others,' not specified, 1894. The Sub-division in 1884 con-
tained 1 civil and 3 criminal courts ; police stations (fhd/ids), 2 ; regular
police, 76 men; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 156. Land revenue
(1883), ,£15,980.

Khed (or Kher). — Town and municipality in Poona (Puna) District,
Bombay Presidency ; situated on the left bank of the river Bhima, 26
miles north of Poona city. Lat. 18 51' n., long. 73 55' 30" e.
Population (1881) 3836 ; municipal revenue (1882-83), ^44 ; municipal



KHEJIRI-KHELA T. , 8 ?

expenditure, ^79; incidence of municipal taxation, 3s. 3 Jd. PostH
and dispensary, and head-quarters of the revenue and police office!
the Sub-division. Khed has a village area of upwards of 20 square
miles. Within those limits are at least three places of interest, from an
architectural or archaeological point of view, viz. the tomb and mosque
of Dilawar Khan, and an old Hindu temple of Siddheswar, on the left
bank of the Bhima river.

Khejiri.— Village near the mouth of the Hugli river in Midnapur
District, Bengal. — See Kedgeree.

Khekera (or Kahkra).— -Town in Bagpat tahsil, Meerut (Merath)
District, North-Western Provinces; situated 26 miles from Meerut
city. Population (1865) 6045 ; in 1872, the population having fallen
to below 5000, it was not returned separately in the Census Report ;
by 1 88 1, however, the population had risen to 6972, namely, Hindus,
5715; Muhammadans, 879; and Jains, 378. Said to have been
founded about 1500 years ago by Ahirs, who were subsequently ousted
by Jats from Sikandarpur. Fine Jain temple ; second-class police
station. Large annual fair. During the Mutiny, the proprietor of the
village rebelled, and his estate was confiscated and made over to some
neighbouring loyal zamindars.

Khelat (Kaldt or Eastern Bahichistdn). — A collection of chiefships
inhabited by tribes of Baluchi's, acknowledging subordination to the
Khan of Khelat, who is the ruler of Baluchistan (q.v.).

Khelat (Kaldt). — Chief town of the territories of the Khan of Khelit,
in Baluchistan ; situated on the northern spur of a limestone hill called
the Shah Mardan. Lat. 28 53' n., long. 66° 28' e. It is about 67S3
feet above sea-level, and has, in consequence, a temperate climate
approximating to places situate in much higher latitudes. Kheldt is a
fortified town built in terraces, and has three gates, known as the
Khani, Mastiing, and Belai — the two latter named, no doubt, from t he-
roads leading to Mastiing and Bela, which pass through them. The
streets are extremely narrow, tortuous, and dirty. The walls are-
built of mud, with bastions at intervals ; and both walls and
bastions are said to be pierced with numerous loopholes for musketry.
Only a few guns are mounted on them. The bazar of Khelat is
reported to be large and well supplied with all kinds of 1,0
saries; and the town itself is furnished with very clear and pure



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 22 of 64)