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water from a stream which rises in the base of a limestone hill on
the eastern side of the valley. The miri, or old fort, now forms the
palace of the Khan, and overhangs the town. It consists of a con-
fused mass of buildings closely crowded together. Cook says it is
an imposing and antique structure, and probably the most ancient
edifice in Baluchistan, owing its foundation to the Hindu kings who
preceded the present Muhammadan dynasty. From the Darb&r 01



1 88 KHEM KARN—KHERALL

grand reception room in this building, which has an open balcony, a
most extensive view is obtained, embracing the whole valley and
surrounding hills.

Khelat has two suburbs, the one on the west and the other on
the east side. They would appear to be extensive, and it is here
that the Babi portion of the community reside. The number of
houses, according to Belle w, is 3500, which would imply a population
of about 14,000 persons; but this no doubt includes the suburbs.
Masson states the total number of houses to have been, in his time,
only 1 1 00, which would give probably not more than between 4000
and 5000 inhabitants in all ; but he has nevertheless estimated the
population of Khelat and its environs at 14,000, which would thus
show Bellew's calculation to be correct. The town of Khelat is
inhabited by Brahuis, Hindus, Dehwars, and Babis or Afghans, the
latter residing chiefly, as has previously been stated, in the suburbs.
The Brahuis form the great bulk of the inhabitants ; but the cultivation
is chiefly carried on by the Dehwar communities. There are several
villages and walled gardens clustered together in the valley east of the
town; of these, Sialkoh is one of the largest, having about 100 houses,
or, say, 450 inhabitants. The trade and manufactures of Khelat are in
every way slight and unimportant. Sir Frederick Goldsmid, whose
opinion merits the highest consideration, prefers rendering the name as
Kaldt. — See Baluchistan.

Khem Karn. — Town and municipality in Kasiir tahsil, Lahore
District, Punjab ; 7 miles from Kasiir town, with which place it is
connected by a metalled road. Lat. 31 9' n., long. 74 36' 30" e.
Situated on the old bank of the Beas (Bias), at the edge of the barren
upland known as the Manjha, 34 miles south of Lahore city. Popula-
tion (1868) 5847 ; (1881) 5516, namely, Muhammadans, 3458; Hindus,
1650; and Sikhs, 408. Municipal revenue (1875-76), ^327 ;
(1882-83), ^£402, or average incidence, is. 6Jd. per head. In former
days Khem Karn must have been a place of more importance than
at present, as there are a number of ruins scattered around beyond its
present limits. It is surrounded by a thick, well-built masonry wall,
buttressed at intervals. The main streets are all paved, and it has two
or three straight and fairly broad bazars. The town contains some
good houses, and has a fine bdoli or public reservoir, with steps
leading down to the water's edge. It is not, however, a place of much
commercial importance, although a flourishing manufacture of country
blankets affords employment to about three hundred families. The
public buildings include a municipal hall, school-house, police station,
and rest-house. The Kasiir branch of the Bari Doab Canal passes the
town.

Kherali. — Petty State in the J hate war division of Kathiawar,



KHERAL U—KIJERL






Bombay Presidency; consisting of 2 villages, Kherali and Vadla, with
3 separate shareholders. Area of the estate, 11 square miles ; popula
tion (1881) 1658. Estimated revenue (1S81), ^1061 ; tribute of
^67, 16s. is paid to the British Government. Kherali villa
situated 2 J miles south of the Wadwhdn station on the Bhaun
Gondal Railway. Population (188 1) 1155.

Kheralu. — Town in Kadi Division, Baroda (GaekwaYs territory),
Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Lat. 23 54' n., long. 72° 40' k.
Population (1872) 8212; (1881) 8528, namely, 4030 males and
4498 females. Contains a civil court (kachhari), police station, two
rest-houses, a post-office, and a Gujarathi school. The Gosdvji's
temple is famous as having been founded by the Vishnuite reformer
Vallabhacharya, who is said to have dwelt here.

Kheri. — District in the Sitapur Division of Oudh, under the juris-
diction of the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-Western Provinces,
lying between 27 41' and 28 42' n. lat., and between 8o° 4' 30" and
8i° 23' e. long. The largest District in Oudh, in the extreme north-
west of the Province. Bounded on the north by the river Mohan,
separating it from Nepal ; on the east by the Kauriala river, separating
it from Bahraich ; on the south by Sitapur District ; and on the west
by Shahjahanpur District, in the North-Western Provinces. Area
(1881), 2992 square miles. Population, according to the Census of
1881, 831,922 persons. The administrative head-quarters are at
Lakhimpur town.

Physical Aspects. — Kheri District consists of a series of fairly elevated
plateaux, separated by rivers flowing from the north-west, each of which
is bordered by a belt of alluvial land. The rivers are, commencing
from the east, the Kauriala, Suheli, Dahawar, Chauka, Ul, Jamwari,
Kathna, Giimti, and Sukheta. North of the Ul, the country is what
is generally styled tardi, and is considered very unhealthy. This tract
probably formed in ancient times the bed of a lake, through which two
main rivers, the Kauriala and Chauka, have for thousands of years
been forcing their way. These two rivers change their courses con-
stantly, abandoning old channels and opening up new, so that the
whole surface is seamed with deserted river beds much below the level
of the surrounding country. In these, the vegetation is very dense,
and the stagnant waters are the cause of much fever. The people
reside in the neighbourhood of the low ground, as the soil is more
fertile and less expensive to cultivate than the uplands, which are
covered with forests.

South of the Ul, the scene changes. Between every two rivers
there is a plain, more or less broad, considerably less elevated than
the tardi tract to the north. There is very little slope in any oi
these plains for many miles, and marshes are formed, from which







KHERI.



emerge the head-waters of many secondary streams, but which in
the rains become dangerous torrents, and frequently cause devastat-
ing floods. The general slope of the country is from north-west to
south-east, the highest elevation being 600 feet in the northern forests,
and the lowest 375 feet, opposite Mallapur in the extreme south-east.
Several large lakes exist ; some, formed by the ancient channels of the
rivers in the north of the District, being fine sheets of water, from 10
to 20 feet deep and from 3 to 4 miles long, and in places fringed with
magnificent groves. In Piila and Kheri pargands in the south, there
are also large natural lakes. There are no river-side towns, nor
do any of the villages in the neighbourhood of the rivers contain
any number of persons who live by fishing or river traffic. At the
ferries on the Chauka and Kauriala, merchants encamp during the
cold weather and buy up grain, departing before the rains com-
mence.

The north of the District is covered with forests, occupying an area
of 650 square miles. Of this area, 303 square miles were taken up
by Government in 186 1 and formed into a forest reserve. The re-
mainder was divided into lots of 5000 acres or less, and let out to
grantees rent-free for 20 years, and subsequently at half rates, upon
the condition that one-fourth of the forest area should be cleared and
brought into cultivation within 12 years. Some grants were sold out-
right at an upset price of 5s. an acre. Hardly any of these forest
lessees either brought their land under cultivation under the first set
of conditions, or paid up the due instalments of their purchase money
under the second. Consequently, 120 square miles of such grants
were resumed by Government, raising the present reserved forest area
to a total of 423 square miles. Of the 227 square miles still held by
private individuals, but little has been brought under the plough. Sal
occupies about two-thirds of the whole forest area. In Khairigarh
pargand, the trees grow to a large size, there being an average of more
than ten to each acre, with a girth of over 4J feet. The forests north
of the Mohan consist mainly of sal and dsan. The banks of the
Suheli are fringed with green shisham trees ; above them rise masses
of k/iair, with bare branches, and stiff, grey rugged trunks ; and beyond
them again are the sal forests, groups of tall, slender, straight stems,
the older trees shooting up for 60 or 70 feet without a branch or bend.
In addition to the forest, about 65 square miles of groves, chiefly of
mango trees, are distributed over the District.

Kheri has no merchantable mineral products, except a little petroleum
in Khairigarh pargand. Kankar of good quality is met with near Gold.
Saltpetre is manufactured in large, quantities at Dhaurahra. The wild
animals include tigers, leopards, antelope, spotted deer, hog-deer,
nilgai, principally found in the northern jungles. Tigers, although still



KHERI.

numerous, have decreased considerably of late years. \
snakes and crocodiles are common.

History. — The present District of Kheri has a very brief hi
having only existed as an administrative unit since 1858. Under the
native sovereigns of Oudh, it lay partly in the Chakld of Muhamdi and
partly in that of Khairabad. In 1856, when Oudh was annexed, two
Districts were constituted, those of Muhamdi and Mallapur, dividing
between them the whole of Kheri, in addition to several of the border-
ing parga?ids now included in Hardoi, Sitapur, and Bahraich. Their
head-quarters were Muhamdi and Mallapur, one to the extreme west
of the present District, the other near the south-eastern corner, in
Sitapur. When the Mutiny broke out, the officers of Muhamdi were
captured by the Shahjahanpur mutineers or by the Raja of Mitauli
and massacred ; those at Mallapur fled north into the jungles of Nepil,
being cut off from a retreat to the south, and perished of fever and
ague.

When the present District of Kheri was constituted in 1S58,
Lakhimpur was selected for the head-quarters. It is 28 miles due
north of, and within easy reach of, Sitapur ; but it cannot be considered
central or very accessible, some villages being about 60 miles distant.

In Akbar's time, the country was entirely divided among families of
taminddrs. The Rajas of Muhamdi, who afterwards acquired nearly
the whole District, then held under a royal grant 3000 bighds and 5
small villages. The great estate of the Janwars, which under its three
heads Kaimahra, Oel, and Mahewa now embraces 330 villages, did not
then exist. Similarly the Jangres estate of Bhur Dhaurahra, which
afterwards covered 800 square miles, did not exist even in the germ.
The Ahbans estate of Bhiirwara existed in Akbar's time, but was much
smaller and more divided, while the great Surajbans estate of Khairigarh
is a creation of 1858. In later times, there were four great families who
held the lands now comprised in this District — namely, the Sayvids of
Barwar, the Ahbans of Mitauli and Bhiirwara, the Janwars of Kheri,
and the Jangres of Dhaurahra.

Population. — The population of Kheri District, according to the
Census of 1869, but calculated on the area of 1881, amounted to
399,585 males and 338,504 females ; total, 738,089. The Census of
1 88 1 returned a total population of 831,922, showing an incrc
93>833, or 127 per cent., in twelve years. The main results of the
Census of 1881 may be briefly summarized as follows : — Area, 2992
square miles; number of towns and villages, 1655 ; houses, [42,657.
Total population, 831,922, namely, males 445,019, and females
386,903; proportion of males, 53-5 per cent. Average density,
278 persons per square mile; villages per square mile, '55 ; persons
per village, 503; houses per square mile, 47 '6; persons per house,



jg 2 KHERI.

5-8. Classified according to religion, Hindus numbered 7 2 7>77 > or
87-5 per cent, of the population; Muhammadans, 103,755, or 12*5 per
cent.; Christians, 397.

Of the higher Hindu castes, Brahmans numbered 67,110, or 9-2
per cent, of the Hindus; the Rajputs or Kshattriyas, 24,966, or
3 -4 per cent; Kayasths, 8017; and Baniyas, 12,389. The most
numerous caste is that of the Chamars, who numbered 108,639,
or 14-9 per cent, of the Hindu population ; next to them come
the Kurmis with 84,441, or n*6 per cent.; Ahirs, 71,984, or 9-9
per cent. ; and Pasis, 62,748, or S'6 per cent. The other principal
Hindu castes, ranked according to numerical superiority, are— Kachhis,
42,801; Lodhis, 36,907; Kahars, 28,285; Koris, 17,847; Telis,
16,195; Gadarias, 16,069 ; Dhobis, 13,176; Loniyas, 13,114; Barhais,
10,763; Bhurjfs, 9506; Nais, 9365; Lohars, 8974; Kalwars, 8056;
Kumbhars, 6702 ; and Gosains, 5084.

The only remarkable feature presented by the population tables is
the comparative scarcity of the higher castes — Brahmans, Kshattriyas,
Kayasths, and Vaisyas (the last represented by the Baniya or trading caste
of the present day). They number altogether only 112,482, or 15-4
per cent, of the Hindus ; in the whole Province of Oudh they amount
to 2,387,602, or a fraction over 24 per cent. The reason of this is not
far to seek. The low castes are the first, in all instances, to occupy
the wilderness, and reclaim it from nature, and much of Kheri District
has but very recently been brought under cultivation. There was little
to invite the Brahman or Kshattriya. There are very few temples,
and none of ancient repute ; consequently the priestly class is not
numerous. Population was so thin that disputes about boundaries, that
fertile source of internal warfare, were comparatively rare, and but
few professional soldiers were required. The District, too, was so dis-
tant from any seat of Government, that there could be little interference
with the great landholders, who found it more profitable in many
cases to have low-caste industrious tenants than the prouder Aryans.

The Muhammadan population are almost without exception Sunnis,
only 499 out of a total of 103,755 being returned as Shias. Of the
397 Christians, 320 are natives, 62 Europeans, and 15 Eurasians.

All the towns now existing are of recent foundation. Kheri was
founded in the 16th century, Muhamdi and Aurangabad in the 17th.
Of their origin, one common tale is told. The Musalman or Kshattriya
founder came through the woods and marshes (the country then lying
much lower than now), and seized upon the slight hills or hummocks,
where some Pasi or Ahir patriarch ruled over a few mud huts. The
rightful owner fled deeper into the forest, and the intruder built a
block house or a brick fort to guard against his return. Only 5 towns
were returned in 1881 as containing upwards of 5000 inhabitants,



KIIKRL

namely, LAKHIMPUR, the civil station, 7526; MUHAMDI, 6635;
Dhakwa, 6533; Kheri, 5996; and DHAURAHRA, 5767. Total
population, 32,457.

Lakhimpur, Muhamdi, and Dhaurahra arc the only three muni,
ties. Of the 1655 towns and villages in the District in 1881, 521 arc-
returned as containing less than two hundred inhabitants; 56;
two to five hundred ; 340 from five hundred to a thousand ; 184 from
one to two thousand; 29 from two to three thousand; 12 from three
to five thousand ; and 5 from five to ten thousand. Classified accord-
ing to occupation, the Census Report returns the male population
under the following six main groups: — Class (1) Professional, includ-
ing all Government servants, civil and military, and the learned pro-
fessions, 5245 ; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers,
etc., 143 1 ; (3) commercial, including merchants, traders, carriers,
7088; (4) agricultural and pastoral, including gardeners, 224,'. 1.
manufacturing and industrial, 28,871 ; (6) indefinite and unsp<
(comprising 28,266 general labourers, 149,506 male children, and
'others'), 177, 772.

Agriculture. — The chief agricultural product is rice, the area under
this crop being returned in 1883-84 at 179,047 acres. The area under
other crops is thus returned : — Wheat, 132,110 acres ; other food-grains,
546,883; oil-seeds, 6918; sugar-cane, 20,596; cotton, 4270; tobacco,
9335 J vegetables, 16,531 ; fibres (other than cotton), 6635 acres. Opium
and indigo are also cultivated to a small extent. Total cultivated area
(including 133,948 acres of two-crop land), 925,414 acres.

The rice of Kheri District is of excellent quality, but its cultivation
is slovenly. There are two harvests in the year. The kharifox autumn
crops consist of rice, kodo, kdkan, jodr, bdjra, mas, and ;///<;, sown
from June to August, and reaped between the end of September
and the beginning of November. The rain or spring crops are
barley, wheat, gram, peas, and ar/iar, cut between March and June.
The people are employed principally in the cultivation of the soil as
tenants. The agricultural stock, in 1882-83, consisted of 93,733 pi
567,395 bullocks and buffaloes. North of the river Ul, land is hardly
ever manured, and never irrigated, except the small gardens in which
tobacco and vegetables are grown. Total irrigated area, 96,714
all by private industry. South of the Ul, a fair amount of lab
bestowed upon the crops in this respect, although less than is
in the rest of Oudh.

The Kurmfs, who form the most skilful body of cultivators in the
District, are in general tolerably well off; but the mass of th<
caste husbandmen merely live from hand to mouth. The total male
agricultural population of Kheri District in 18S1 was returned at
22 3>337, giving an average of 332 cultivated acres to each. 1 he

VOL. VIII. N



i 94 KHER1.

total agricultural population, however, dependent on the soil,
amounted to 609,654, or 73*28 per cent, of the District population.
Of the total area of 2992 square miles, 2425-9 square miles are
assessed for Government revenue. Of these, 1122-3 square miles
are under cultivation; 999*3 square miles are cultivable; and 304*3
square miles are uncultivable waste. Total amount of Government
assessment, including local rates and cesses on land, ^82,664, or an
average of 2s. 3fd. per cultivated acre. Total amount of rental actually
paid by cultivators, including rates and cesses, ^£180,008, or an
average of 4s. iojd. per cultivated acre. Rents, although not high,
are very uneven. The highest rates seem to be jQi, 13s. per acre for
tobacco, and £\, 7s. per acre for sugar-cane land, in Haidarabad
pargand. The average rent rates per acre for land suited for different
crops was returned as follows in 1882-83: — Rice, 4s. 5J& per acre;
wheat, 7s. old. ; inferior grains, 5s. 9M. ; indigo, 6s. ; cotton, 7s. 9d. ;
opium, 16s. ; oil-seeds, 7s. 4d. ; fibres, 5s. 6§d. ; sugar-cane, 13s. 9J& ;
and tobacco, 15s. 5J& per acre. The lowest rented lands are the
outlying patches far from the sites of villages, in Palia, Kukra, and
Bhiir, where the ordinary rate is 2s. per acre, but even is. an acre is
met with. Tenants settle on the lands at these low rates, which are
raised as population increases. The nominal rents were much the
same under the native rulers as at present.

The principal landholding castes are the Jangre, Raikwar, Surajbans,
and Janwar Rajputs, Sikhs, and Sayyids. According to the Oudh
Gazetteer ; published in 1877, there were four estates in Kheri each
measuring over 100,000 acres. Nine local landholders held in that
year estates in this or other Districts averaging about 220 square
miles each. There were 12 proprietors holding more than 20,000
acres each; their estates averaged 77,000 acres or 120 square miles
in Kheri alone ; the aggregate area of their holdings was 1435
square miles, or nearly half the District, and they controlled a
population of about 400,000 in this District, and of at least a million
in the whole of Oudh. The rest of the villages (656) were owned
by 780 zaminddrs, many owning 2 or 3 villages. There are also
a number of subordinate tenures, of which 873 had been decreed in
the courts. The cultivators have no fixity of tenure. Out of 1690
villages, reported in the Oudh Gazetteer, Rajput landlords are returned
as holding 850; Muhammadans, 353 ; Kayasths, 116; Brahmans, 88 ;
and Europeans, 98.

The average price of food-grains for the ten years ending 1870 is
returned as follows : — Unhusked rice, 34 sers per rupee, or 3s. 4d.
per cwt. ; common rice, 17 sers per rupee, or 6s. 7d. per cwt. ; best
rice, 7 sers per rupee, or 16s. per cwt.; wheat, 22 sers per rupee,
or 5s. id. per cwt.; barley, 34 sers per rupee, or 3s. 4d. per cwt;



KIIERL , 9S

bdjra, 30 sers per rupee, or 3s. 9c!. per cwt. ;Jodr, 31 #rj per r
or 3s. 7<i. per cwt. In 1870, the average rates were as fol
— Unhusked rice, 26J w* per rupee, or 4s. 3d. per < wt. ;
rice, 13 sers per rupee, or 8s. yd. per cwt. ; best rice, 5 J s*n per rupee,
or j£i per cwt. ; wheat, 21 ^r.y per rupee, or 5s. 4<J. per < wt. ; 1
31 sers per rupee, or 3s. 6Jd. per cwt.; bdjra, 36 wj per rur*
3s. id. per cwt.; jodr, 25 sers per rupee, or 4s. 6d. per cwt In
18S3-84, the rates for common rice were 16^ sers per rupee, or 6 .
per cwt. ; best rice, 10J sers per rupee, or 10s. Scl. per cwt ; wh<
sers per rupee, or 4s. iod. per cwt. ; and gram, 25! sers per rup
4s. 5d. per cwt.

Natural Calamities. — The District is liable to blights, drought-.
floods, the former, however, doing but little damage. Inundations are
very destructive in Dhaurahra, Srinagar, and Firozabrld pargands, from
the overflow of the Chauka ; and in Kheri and Haidarabad par
from the local rainfall causing the/////* and marshes to overflow into the
neighbouring fields. Muhamdi, Magdapur, Paila, and Khairigarh have
good drainage generally, and do not suffer from floods. Hailstorms
seldom occur. Severe famines occurred in 1769, in 177S-S4, and m
1837, while there has been scarcity in 1865, in 1869, and in 1S74:
all these were caused by drought. The price of coarse grain reached
7 sers during these famine times ; but whenever the cheapest wholesome
grain in the market, whether it be kodo, maize, or barley, be priced for
any length of time at a higher rate than 15 sers for the rupee, there will
undoubtedly be famine. In January 1S74, the cheapest grain reached
18 sers.

As in other Districts of Oudh, the periods in which famine
most to be apprehended are the two months before the rabi h
is cut, January and February, and the two months before the
harvest ripens, Julv and August. There is perhaps less dan
famine in Kheri than in the adjoining District of Bahrdich, becau
sugar-cane crop in January, which is an exceptionally large one,
gates the winter scarcity, and the early half-ripe Indian corn or
in August is used by those who have nothing left from then
harvest.

Roads, Manufactures, Trade, etc.— There are no met
Kheri, except the line from Shihjahanpur to Sftipur, which
21 miles through the south-west corner of the District A raised and
bridged road runs from Sitdpur through Oel to Lakhimpur 28
thence to Gold 20 miles, and thence to Muhamdi 18 miles. Thl
now extends to Shahjahanpur. The District is well 1
minor unmetalled and unbridged roads. The principal ol I
Lakhimpur to Sujahi; (2) Lakhimpur to Khairigarh ; (3 Lakhin
Aurangabad; (4) Lakhimpur to Dhaurahra; ( 5 )PailatO M



196 KHERL

to Bhera; and (7) Gold to Khotar. Total length of roads in 1882-83,
40 2 J miles. The manufactures of the District are confined to weaving
and cotton printing, carried on in Kheripargand, but only to meet local
requirements. Grain of all kinds is exported, as also are turmeric, tobacco,
timber, sugar, syrup, hides, bullocks, and ghi. Catechu is made in large
quantities throughout the northern parts of the District, from the khair
tree (Acacia Catechu), the heart-wood of which is chopped out and
boiled down by a caste called Khairfs. Khaskhas (Andropogon
muricatus), the roots of which are used for matting tatti screens, is
exported in large quantities to Benares and Patna.

Two great annual religious trading fairs are held at Gold Gokarannath
— one in January attended by about 50,000 people, and the other
in February, lasting about fifteen days, at which 150,000 persons
are said to assemble. The latter fair is increasing rapidly in
importance ; goods to the value of about ,£15,000 being sold
annually by traders from all parts of India. The principal trading
ghats or landing-places in the District are Dulhamau and Pachperi
on the Chauka, and Shitabi and Katai ghats on the Kauriala, whence
grain is exported by means of flat-bottomed boats to Lucknow and



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