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Patna. The imports, which consist mainly of cotton, salt, country
cloth, and English piece-goods, are thought to exceed the exports
in value.

Administration. — For administrative purposes, Kheri District is
divided into 3 tahsils and 17 pargands, as follows: — (1) Lakhimpur
tahsil, comprising Kheri, Srinagar, Bhiir, Paila, and Kukra Mailani
pargands; (2) Nighasan tahsil, comprising Firozabad, Dhaurahra,
Nighasan, Khairigarh, and Palia pargands ; (3) Muhamdi tahsil, com-
prising Muhamdi, Pasgawan, Aurangabad, Kasta, Haidardbdd, Magda-
pur, and Atwa Piparia, — all of which see separately. The admini-
stration is conducted by a Deputy Commissioner, with one or more
Assistant Commissioners, and the usual staff of subordinates. The
total revenue in 1870 amounted to ,£74,132, of which ,£62,471, or
six-sevenths of the total, was derived from the land - tax, which is
increasing every year. Total cost of administration in 1870, ,£29,594 ;
but this included the expenses of the Survey Department, then engaged
in making a new Land Settlement. In 1882-83, tne tota l revenue
amounted to ,£89,605, of which ,£79,088 was derived from the land.
For police purposes, Kheri is divided into 7 police circles {thdnds) ; the
force, including regular police, village watch, and municipal police,
numbered, in 1882, 2972 officers and men, maintained at a total cost
of ,£13,557. Average daily number of prisoners in jail in 1882, 193 ;
total number of convicts imprisoned during the year (732 males and 86
females), 818. In respect of education, Kheri is one of the most back-
ward Districts of Oudh. There were in 1882, 90 schools, attended by



KI1ERI. , 97

3069 pupils, inspected by the Government Education Department [n
addition, there are a number of indigenous uninspected schools.

Climate. — The climate of Kheri is reckoned by the natives
malarious beyond the Ul, but healthy south of that river. The heat i>
less than in the surrounding Districts. The mean annual temper
is returned at 79'6o° F. The rainfall is above the average of the
Province. Cold winds following the course of the rivers sweep from
the Nepal plateaux through the mountain gorges, and meeting the
already saturated atmosphere of the plains, cool it, and precipitate
moisture first on the lowlands at their base. The hot vapours from
the plains are also cooled by the vast forests which clothe the uplands,
and which, being unable to carry so much water, discharge it in rain.
The average rainfall during the fourteen years ending 1SS1 amounted
to 42*69 inches, the maximum being 70*2 inches in 1S70, and the
minimum 23-60 inches in i88j.

Medical Aspects. — The disease most common in this District is inter-
mittent fever, which appears to be endemic in the neighbourhood of
Gokarannath. Its origin is assigned to the malaria produced by the
spontaneous decomposition of vegetable matter after the cessation of
the rains, and by imperfect drainage. European and native
stitutions alike suffer from its attacks. Spring fever appears mostly
among those whose pursuits expose them to the noon-day sun.
It assumes a remittent type, and is proportionally more fatal as
summer advances. Next in the order of frequency are bowel complaints.
As a rule, they increase at harvest -time, and have a fatal tendency
when succulent fruit and vegetables are abundant in the market.
Cholera became epidemic in this District during the rains of 1867, and
was most fatal and persistent in those villages where filth
abounded. In Lakhimpur town, the scourge was apparently intn
on bazar days, or only occurred sporadically. Pulmonic and rheumatic
affections increase in winter.

Of cutaneous affections, herpes deserves notice; it is very prei
among the natives. It seems to be acquired from the pra
keeping on a dhoti while bathing, and replacing it by a dean on
without drying the skin. The disease is seen chiefly ab
hips and loins of those affected, and does not yield readily I
ment; strong acetic acid externally is the best remedy.
is not an uncommon disease. Goitre is most common am
trans -Chauka population. The quality of the water
to be the cause of this disease. Its local distribution
ably capricious, but, as a rule, the great majority ol the .
within 2 miles of the river bank, particularly in Dhaurahra and Ian
pargands. Venereal diseases are common, and frequently seen in
secondary and tertiary forms, a fact attributable to neglect or in



1 98 KHERI PAR GANA.

treatment of the primary symptoms. Among ophthalmic disorders, those
most prevalent are ophthalmia and nyctalopia ; they occur principally
in summer. Cataract among the aged is not uncommon. Dropsies of
the skin and abdomen are often seen in subjects who have long suffered
from marsh fever and enlarged spleen.

In 1882, the total number of registered deaths in Kheri District was
28,098, showing a death-rate of 3377 per thousand, as against an
average of 23-32 per thousand for the previous five years. Deaths from
fevers alone numbered 22,744, and from cholera 3957. There are 5
dispensaries in the District, which in 1882 afforded medical relief to
587 in-door, and 20,318 out-door patients.

Cattle plague made its appearance in Kheri in 1870 and 1871,
and it is estimated that about one-fourth of the cattle in the District
died, viz. 120,000, of an estimated value of ^120,000. Cattle murrain
is said to have been unknown prior to this epidemic. [For further
information regarding Kheri, see the Gazetteer of Oudh, vol. ii.
pp. 140-273 (published by authority, Allahabad, 1877). See also the
Settlement Report of the District, by T. R. Redfern, Esq., C.S. (1879);
the Census Report of the North- Western Proriuees and Oudh for 1881 ;
and the several Annual Administration and Departmental Reports from
1880 to 1883.]

Kheri. — Pargand in Lakhimpur tahsil, Kheri District, Oudh ;
lying between the Ul and Jamwari rivers on the east and south-
west respectively, and bounded on the north-west by Paila, and
on the south by Sitapur pargand. Area, 193 square miles, of which
130 are cultivated. Population (1869) 104,916; (1881) 107,668,
namely, males 56,951, and females 50,717. The pargand is roughly
divided into two parts. One is an upland plateau, largely irrigated
from jhils and wells, which contains three-quarters of the total area,
the soil nearly all high-class loam. To the north-east of this plateau,
along its whole length, lies a slope, 1 or 2 miles in breadth, of
lighter soil, which suddenly sinks into the tardi of the Ul. Farther
to the south-east, the Kewani river has formed a very extensive tardi
of first-class land, separated from the Ul tardi, as far as the borders of
Kheri District, by a promontory of high land running south-east from
the main plateau. This tardi is at a level of nearly 60 feet beneath
the upper ground.

Down the centre of the pargand runs a series of jhils, or marshy lakes.
They collect the water of the plateau, which is slightly saucer-shaped.
The southern edge is formed by the high bank of the Jamwari,
and the northern by the bank of the Ul. These lakes communicate
in the rains ; and generally there is a slight stream running through
to Muhammadpur, where the channel becomes perennial and joins
the Kewani. Unfortunately, however, this outlet is not sufficient,



KHERI TOWN—KHETRL

and the overflow spreads over a great area, as the lowest point of the
plateau is only n feet lower than the highest. A part of the water
also from these lakes, in heavy rain, seeks an outlet through Lakhi
station to the Ul, and five persons were drowned or killed I
floods and falling houses in 1870. This series of lakes ofl
facilities for constructing irrigation channels, which will be more required
every year. Kheri is well supplied with groves.

Bisens appear to have been the earliest landlords in Muham-
madan times, having ousted the Pasis. The whole pargand, how-
ever, afterwards became part of the great estate formed by the 1 1
Sayyids. This family, however, has decayed; and out of the 193
villages now forming the pargand, T38 are held by Rajputs. S
local traffic in grain, and a few settlements of weavers and 1
printers.

Kheri. — Town in Kheri District, Oudh, and head-quarters of
Lakhimpur tahsil ; situated in lat. 27 54' n., long. 8o° 51' e. Population
(1S69) 7001 ; (1881) 5996, namely, Muhammadans, 3524, and Hindus,
2472. For police and conservancy purposes, a house-tax is levied.
Daily market, 14 Hindu temples, 12 mosques, and 3 im&mbdr&s.
The one object of antiquarian interest is the tomb of Sayyid Khurd,
who died in 971 a.h. or 1563 a.d. — a building composed of huge
kankar blocks.

Kherkeria. — Village in Bhutan, near the Lakshmf nodi, just beyond
the northern frontier of Darrang District, Assam. An annual fair is
held here, which is largely attended by people from considerable-
distances. In 1875, tne Bhutias are estimated to have sold
valued at ^1700, chiefly salt, blankets, ponies, gold, and a
called jabrang ; and to have bought goods to the value of /~i6oo,
chiefly rice, silk, cloth, cotton cloth, dried fish, and hardware.

Kherna— Seaport in the Salsette Sub-division of Than..
Bombay Presidency. One of the ports of the Panwel customs
Average annual value of trade during the five years ending 1
imports, ^£35 ; exports, ^289.

Khetri.— Chiefship and town in Jaipur (Jeypore) State, Rajpul
The chiefship comprises the pargands of Khetri, Babai, SinghAna,
and Jhunjhnu, yielding an annual revenue of about ^.35- 00 ~- an<
paying a tribute of ^8000 a year to Jaipur. The chief hoi
besides, the pargand of Kot Putli, yielding about /. 10.000 a
a possession which was bestowed in perpetuity upon
Raja Abbi Singh, by the British Government, for military
rendered to Lord Lake against the Marathas in the eai
the present century, notably in an important engagement
troops, under Colonel Monson, with Sindhia's army on the banks
the Chambal. Population of the town (1881) 5 2S 3< na;;



200 KHEURA— KHILCHIPUR.

males and 2691 females. Hindus numbered 3929; Muhammadans,
1347; and 'others,' 7. The town is commanded by a citadel of
some strength, on the summit of a hill icoo feet high. It is
distant from Jaipur city 75 miles north. In the immediate neigh-
bourhood are valuable copper mines. School, dispensary, imperial
post-office.

Kheura. — Village in Jehlam (Jhelum) District, Punjab. — See Mayo
Mines.

Khiaodah. — Petty State in Gwalior, under the Giina (Goona) Sub-
agency, Central India. Originally a portion of the Umri State, it now
comprises 7 villages, with a population (1 881) of 11 84, and an income
of about ^300. The Thdkur or chief is not a feudatory of Gwalior.

Khijadia Naganio. — Petty State in the Jhalawar division of Kathia-
war, Bombay Presidency ; consisting of 1 village, with 1 proprietor.
Estimated revenue (1881), ^"100. Tribute of ^£5, 4s. is paid to the
Gaekwar of Baroda.

Khijaria. — Petty State in the Gohelwar division of Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency ; consisting of 1 village, with 2 separate share-
holders. Area, 2 square miles. Population (1881) 265. Estimated
revenue (1881), ^240. Khijaria village is situated n miles north-west
of Chital station on the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway.

Khijaria. — Petty State in the Gohelwar division of Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency ; consisting of 1 village, with 2 separate share-
holders. Area, 1 square mile. Population (1881) 995. Estimated
revenue (1881), ^"240. Tribute of ^38 is payable to the Gaekwar of
Baroda, and of £4, 14s. to the Nawab of Junagarh. Khijaria village
is situated 18 miles south-east of Songarh and 5 miles north-west of
Dhola junction on the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway.

Khilchipur. — State under the Bhopal Agency, Central India; a
tributary of Gwalior. Lat. 23 52' to 24 17' N., long. 76 28' to 76 45' e.
Chief products — grain and opium. The present Chief of Khilchipur
is Rao Araar Singh, a Khichi Rajput, who since his accession in 1869
has received the title of Rao from the British Government. He
was adopted, with the consent of Sindhia, by the widow of the late
Chief, and the adoption was confirmed by the British Government.
The area of the State is estimated at 273 square miles. Population
(1881) 36,125, or 132 persons per square mile. Of the total popula-
tion, 19,859 are males and 16,266 females. Number of houses, 6757.
Hindus numbered 33,291; Muhammadans, 1273; Jains, 250; and
aboriginal tribes, 131 1. The State contains 269 villages, and its revenue
is estimated at ;£i 7,500. The Chief pays tribute of .£1313 to Sindhia,
through the Political Agent in Bhopal. He maintains a force of 40
horse and 200 foot, and is entitled to a salute of 9 guns.

Khilchipur. — Chief town of the State of Khilchipur, under the



KHIMLASA— KHIPR. I.



2 i



Bhopal Agency of Central India. Situated on the bank, of thi
Sind river, a stone dam across which supplies water to the inhab
The country about the city is hilly and jungly, and sparsely cultivated.
It is about 7 miles north-east from Rajgarh, and on the road from
thence to Jhalra Patan, thus gaining the only trade it pos
Population (1881) from 3000 to 5000.

Khimlasa. — Town in Kurai iahsil, Sagar (Saugor) District, Central
Provinces; 42 miles north-west of Sagar town. Lat. 24 12' 30° n.,
long. 78 24' 30" e. Population (1S81) 2726, namely, Hindus, 2219 :
Jains, 294; Muhammadans, 212; and Kabirpanthi, 1. Number of
houses, 713. A stone wall 20 feet high surrounds the town, enclosing
a space of 63 acres ; and the fort, which is built on high ground
in the centre, occupies 5 acres. Within the fort are the police
station-house and two remarkable edifices. One, a Muhammadan
building, apparently the burial-place of some saint, consisted of a square
structure, surmounted by a lofty dome. The dome has fallen, but the
side walls remain ; they are formed of enormous slabs of stone, about
an inch and a half thick, cut with the most beautiful fretwork de
right through the stone, so that the pattern is visible both within and
without the building. The other edifice is of Hindu origin, and was
apparently a shisha mahal or glass palace. The upper of the two
storeys contained an apartment fitted with mirrors, many trace
which still remain.

Khimlasa originally belonged to a dependant of the Delhi Emperor,
but was taken by the Raja of Panna in 1695, on the death of
whose son without heirs in 1746, the representative of the Peshwa
at Sagar occupied the fort. It was made over to the British with
Sagar in 1818. From that date the town was the head-quartei
a tahsil, till in 1834 the tahsili was moved to Kurai. In July 1
during the Mutiny, when the Bhanpur Raja occupied Kurai, he
seized Khimlasa, and the town has not yet recovered from the dai
done by his troops. Though the streets are narrow and irregular, the
houses are generally well built, but many are still ownerless. Little
trade takes place, though a market is held every Sunday. Tv.
for boys and girls respectively have been established. Police station.

Khindoli.— Tahsil in Agra District, North-Western Provin*
See Khandauli.

Khipra. — Taluk or Sub-division in Thar and Parkar
Sind, Bombay Presidency; situated between 25° 26' and 26 14 45 N -
lat, and 69 2' 45" and 70 16' e. long. Population (188]
namely, 14,348 males and 1 1,731 females; number of nous 1 he

Sub-division contains 28 villages. Hindus numbered 2; iham-

madans, 20,279; aboriginal tribes, 2928; Sikhs, 140; Christian
Jews, 4 ; and Jains, 1. Revenue (1881-82), ^6595, of which /:560c;



202 KHIPRA— KHIRON.

is derived from land; ^"667 from ^-^(miscellaneous), and ^319
from local sources. In 1884 the Sub-division contained 2 civil and 2
criminal courts ; police stations (t/tdnds), 9 ; regular police, 45 men.

Khipra. — Chief town in Khipra taluk, Thar and Parkar District,
Sind, Bombay Presidency ; situated on the Eastern Nara, about 40
miles north-west of Umarkot town. Lat. 25 49' 30" x., long. 69 25'
e. Population in 1881 inconsiderable. The municipal revenue in
1873-74 was ,£236, but the municipality was abolished in 1878, on
the introduction into Sind of the Bombay Act vi. of 1873. Head-
quarters station of a tnukhtiy&rk&r and tappaddr ; civil and criminal
court-houses ; police post ; dharmsdla or rest-house. Occupation of
the inhabitants principally agricultural. Manufactures consist chiefly in
weaving and dyeing of cloth ; local trade in cotton, wool, cocoa-nuts,
metals, grain, sugar, tobacco, etc. Transit trade — grain, cattle, wool,
ghij indigo, sugar, and cloth. The town is supposed to have been
founded about a century ago.

Khirasra. — Petty State in the Hallar division of Kathiawar, Bombay
Presidency; consisting of T3 villages, with 1 proprietor. Estimated
revenue (1881), ^1900. Tribute of ,£236, 12s. is paid to the British
Government, and ^"35 to the Nawab of Junagarh. Area of the estate,
13 square miles. Population (1881) 4377.

Khiron. — Pargand in Dalmau tahsil, Rai Bareli District, Oudh ;
bounded on the north by Mauranwan ; on the east by Dalmau and Rai
Bareli ; on the south by Sareni ; and on the west by Panhan, Bhagwant-
nagar, Bihar, and Patan. Population (1869) 57,102 ; (1881) 59,492,
namely, males 29,252, and females 30,240. Hindus numbered 56,579,
and Muhammadans 2913. Area, 102 square miles, or 65,097 acres.
Government land revenue, ^9070; average rate per acre, 2s. 9^d. Of
the 123 villages forming the pargand, 79 are held under tdlukddri tenure ;
20 are zaminddri, and 24 pattiddri. Five market villages. Two large
annual fairs. The pargand was originally in the possession of the Bhars,
who were ousted about 700 years ago by Raja Abhai Chand of the
Bais clan, who annexed it to his dominions, and his descendants still
form the main proprietary body. Raja Satna, eighth in descent from
Abhai Chand, founded a village, calling it after his own name Satanpur,
which he also bestowed upon the whole pargand. This arrangement
continued till the time of Nawab Asaf-ud-daula, when the tahsilddr of
the parga?id built a fort at Khiron, which he fixed on as the seat of
the tahsil, and re-named the pargand after it.

Khiron. — Town in Dalmau tahsil, Rai Bareli District, Oudh, and
head-quarters of Khiron pargand ; situated on the road from Rai Bareli
to Cawnpur, 18 miles from Rai Bareli town. Population (1881) 3083,
namely, 2439 Hindus and 644 Muhammadans. The residence of one of
the pargand tdlukddrs. Here also dwell some notable old families of



KHIRPAI—KIIISOR HILLS. 2 o 3

Kayasth k&n&ngos. Vernacular school ; weekly market. Ruined mud-
built fort dating from the days of native rule.

Khirpai.— Village in Midnapur District, Bengal; situat-
main road from Bardwan to Midnapur town. Transferred, \\v
surrounding country, from Hugh to Midnapur in 1S72. Popu
(188 r) 6295, namely, Hindus, 6081 ; Muhammadans, 207 ; * oth
Area of town site, 1280 acres. Municipal income in 1SS2-
average incidence of taxation, 5§d. per head. The town is principally
inhabited by cotton-weavers, who manufacture fabrics of a SU]
quality, which commands a high price.

Khisor (Khasor) Hills.— Range in Dera Ismail Khan I >. :
Punjab, known also under the name of Rattah Roh or k Re d
Hills;' situated between 32 13' and 32 34 n. lat., and between
70 56' and 71 21' e. long. The Indus washes their eastern base
for a distance of about 25 miles, from Isa Khel to Chiira, near I
after which the chain sweeps slightly westward, parallel to the Shaikh
Budin Hills, from which it is separated by the Paniala valley, having
an average breadth of 5 miles, till it terminates at Paniala, about 16
miles from the Indus. The extensive ruins of two ancient Hindu
forts or fortified monasteries — the one about 9 miles south of the
mouth of the Kuram river, and the other immediately above the town
of Bilot — make these hills archaeologically interesting. Both of the
ruins are locally called Kafir Kot, ' infidel's fort.' Bilot is also famous
for its shrine of a holy Sayyid, who used to sail about the Indus in a
stone boat. His descendant, known as the Makhdiim of Bilot, has
inherited the sanctity as well as the stone boat of his ancestor, and
enjoys ajdgir worth about ^250 a year.

The hills consist of miocene sandstone and conglomerate, super-
imposed upon Jurassic and carboniferous limestone, in which fossils occur
abundantly. The range is generally stony and destitute of vegetation
and water. Here and there springs are to be found, their pre
being usually marked by a clump of palms. The largest of these is the
Garoba spring, near Kirri Khisor. Its waters run for a mile or two
along a narrow ravine fringed with date-palms. These springs are
generally situated too low to allow of their being utilized for irrigation.
Water for cattle is also procured from some large tanks at the very top
of the range, above Kirri Khisor. The hills are dotted with numerous
patches of cultivated land, varying in size from one or two roods to
twenty acres. These fields are embanked to receive and retain the
rain water from the higher land, and sometimes form terraces one
above the other. The cultivation, however, entirely depends on the
rainfall, and is very uncertain. Sometimes nearly the whole of tin
hill fields remain waste; while in years of abundant rainfall almost
the whole is cultivated, yielding very fair crops of wheat and



2 o 4 KHOLAPUR—KHUDIAN.

bdjra. Lands at the foot of the hills watered from wells produce
tobacco.

The Khisor range has a total length of about 50 miles, a breadth of

6 miles, and an elevation varying from 2000 to about 3500 feet. Its
northern extremity juts into the District of Bannu.

Kholapur. — Town in Amraoti District, Berar, Deccan ; 18 miles
west of Amraoti town. Lat. 20 55' 30" n., long. 77 33' 30" e. Popu-
lation (1867) 6169; (1881) 6452, namely, 3261 males and 3 191
females, of whom 4576 were Hindus, 1719 Musalmans, 150 Jains, and

7 Sikhs. Silk trade was once considerable. In 1809, the subahddr
of Ellichpur, Vithal Bhag Deo, demanded a contribution of ^10,000.
On payment being refused, he captured the town, which was then
protected by walls; and it was sacked by his troops. Its rapid
decadence may be partly attributable to the annual fights between the
Musalmans and the Rajputs, when the victorious party always took
occasion to plunder at least part of the town.

Kholpetua. — River in Khulna District, Bengal ; an offshoot of the
Kabadak near Asasunf. It first keeps a westerly course for a short
distance, and, after receiving the waters of the Budhata Gang, turns to
the south till it is joined by the Galghasia, whence the united river
flows through the Sundarbans till it falls again into the Kabadak, a few
miles above the place where that river in its turn empties itself into the
Pangasi. The Kholpetua is a river of little note, except for the great
breadth which it assumes after it is joined by the Galghasia, the width of
the channel increasing from 150 to 600 yards in a course of 16 miles.

Khora. — Village in Khairpur State, Sind, Bombay Presidency;
situated on the Abulwaro Canal, about 20 miles from Khairpur town,
and on the postal road between Haidarabad (Hyderabad) and Miiltan
(Mooltan). The population is inconsiderable. There is a small manu-
facture of coarse cotton cloth.

Khoshab. — Tahsil and town [in Shahpur District, Punjab. — See
Khushab.

Khudabad. — Ruined town in Dadu tdluk, Sehwan Sub-division,
Karachi (Kurrachee) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency; 16 miles
north-east of Sehwan, and 8 miles south-west of Dadu. Lat. 2 6° 38'
35" n., long. 67 44' 30" e. With regard to this place, Thornton says:
1 Little more than thirty years ago it rivalled Haidarabad in size and
population, yet now not one habitable dwelling remains. It was a
favourite residence of the Talpur chiefs of Sind, and the remains of
many of them rest here in tombs of neat but plain construction.'

Khudian. — Town in Chunian tahsil, Lahore District, Punjab ;
situated on the road from Firozpur to Miiltan. Lat. 30 59' 30" n.,
long. 74 19' 15" e. Population (1869) 3108; (1881) 2917, namely,
Muhammadans, 1694; Hindus, 1071; and Sikhs, 152. Number of



KHUJJI—KIIULX. I.

houses, 607. Municipal income (1882-83), ;£i20, or an :.-.
taxation of ofd. per head. It is an old town, but of no pn
importance 9 ; surrounded by a brick wall, with well-built h burnt

brick, and several large residences. The Katora Inundatii 1
passes close to the town on the south. School and police station.

Kkajji.—-Zaminddri estate in Drug tahsil, Raipur District, Central
Provinces; 70 miles south-west of Raipur town. Khiijji vil!



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