William Wilson Hunter.

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situated in lat. 21 57' N., long. 8i° 57' 30" e. Area of the
71 square miles; number of villages, 32; occupied houses, 3459.
Population (1881) 11,309, namely, males 5616, and females 5693;
average density, 159 persons per square mile. The estate is at \ 1
(1883) under Government management, the zaminddr, a Muhammadan,
being a minor.

Khulna. — A British District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of
Bengal, lying between 21 38' and 23 1' n. lat, and between i
and 89 59' e. long. Khulna District forms the south-eastern 1
of the Presidency Division. It is bounded on the north by ]
District, on the east by Bakarganj District, on the south by the
Sundarbans, and on the west by the Twenty-four Pargan.
exclusive of the unsurveyed Sundarbans, 2077 square miles. Popula-
tion, according to the Census of 1881, 1,079,948 persons. The admini-
strative head-quarters are at the town of Khulna, which is the
terminus of the Bengal Central Railway.

Physical Aspects. — Khulna occupies the southern central portion of
the Delta between the Hugh' and the united Ganges and Brahmaputra.
Its general shape is much the same as that of the Twenty-four Parganis,
an irregular parallelogram. It is an alluvial plain, intersected by rivers,
which again are interlaced by cross-channels and marshes. The
District may be divided into three parts: the north-western portion,
where the land is well raised; the north-eastern portion, from the
boundary-line between Jessor and Khulna, down to the latiti:
Bagherhat, where the land is low and covered with swamps ; and
the southern portion, which forms the Khulna Sundarbans, a mere
tangled network of swamps and rivers, in the inters!
(except where reclamation has been going on) tillage is impossible, and
there is no settled population.

The north-west of Khulna District is beautified with
groves of date-palms and plantations, especially on the outsk.
villages. Indeed, nearly every village lies within its own frill
plantations and garden-ground. The produce of the date ti.
boiled down into gur or molasses by the cultivators, and sold to
refiners for the purpose of being manufactured into sugar. In the
north-east portion of the District the population is sparse, the only
parts of the tract suitable for dwellings being the high land along the


banks of rivers. The principal rivers of Khulna are the Madhumati
(which forms the eastern boundary of the District), with its tributary
the Bhairab, on the banks of which is situated the town of Khulna ;
the Kabadak, the Bhadra, the Atharabanka, the Jamuna or Ichhamati,
the Galghasia or Banstala, and the Sibsa. As in all deltaic tracts, the
banks of the rivers are higher than the adjacent country ; but a great
part of the District is spread out into large marshes.

History. — The history of Khulna District is much the same as the
history of Jessor, as more than two-thirds of it is formed of what
were formerly Sub-divisions of the District of Jessor. Khulna was
erected into a separate District on the ist June 1882.

Population. — The population of Khulna, as ascertained by the
Census of 1881, is 1,079,948 persons, inhabiting 2890 villages or
townships, and 156,223 houses. The average pressure of the popula-
tion on the soil throughout the surveyed portion of the District
is 519*96 to the square mile; number of houses per square mile,
77*03 ; persons per house, 6 '91. The density of the population varies,
however, in a most marked way in different parts of the District.
After what has been said above in connection with the physical aspects
of the three different portions into which Khulna may be divided, it
will be readily understood that the population may be expected to be
more sparse towards the south of the District than in the north-west
and north-east.

Of the total population, 568,402 are males and 511,546 females;
proportion of males, 52*63 per cent. Classified according to age,
there are, under twelve years old — males 183,167, and females
173,414; total children, 356,581, or 33*01 per cent. As regards
religious distinctions, Hindus number 523,657, or 48*48 per cent.
of the total population, while Musalmans number 555,544, or 51*44
per cent., chiefly belonging to the lower classes. The number of
Christians is 747, of whom 723 are native converts. Of the higher
castes of Hindus, Brdhmans number 28,654, and Rajputs 551. Of
the lower ranks of the Hindu community, the fishing and boating
castes deserve special mention. The fisheries in the rivers and
deeper swamps are very valuable, and the right to fish is a regular
tenure, paid for like the right to cultivate land.

Toums and Villages. — There are, in Khulna, according to the Census
of 1 88 1, four towns with a population of over 5000 souls, viz. Satkhira,
8738; Kalamoa, 5995; Kaliganj, 5554; and Debhata, 5514; and
there are three municipalities in the District, at Satkhira, Debhata,
and Chandonia. There are t6o towns containing from 1000 to
5000 inhabitants, of which 138 contain fewer than 2000; 2266
villages with fewer than 500; and 460 with between 500 and 1000
inhabitants. Among the towns or large villages which, though con-


taining fewer than 5000 inhabitants, are important comma

otherwise, may be mentioned the following :— Khul

the Sundarbans,' a town of commercial importance, and I

of the District, past which the whole boat traffic of the east and :.

east passes on its way to Calcutta; Kapilmuni, a market and pi..

pilgrimage ; Bagherhat, with the celebrated shat-gumbaz ■

mosque, and many other interesting ruins connected with Khan Jahan,

one of the earliest reclaimers of the Sundarbans; Morrellganj on the

Tangachi, lately the property of Messrs. Morrell and I

Satkhira, which contains many Hindu temples. Descriptions of most

of these places will be found in their alphabetical order in this work,

and a detailed account of them is given in the Statistical .

Bengal, vol. ii. pp. 201-239.

Occupatio?is. — As regards occupation, the Census Report of 1SS1

classifies the male population into the following six main divisions :

(1) Professional class, including all Government officials and the
professions, 10,786; (2) domestic servants, innkeepers, etc., 7
(3) commercial classes, including bankers, merchants, traders, carrier ,
etc., 31,666; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners,
253,622 ; (5) industrial class, including manufacturers and artisans,
63,204; (6) indefinite and unspecified class, comprising general lab.
and male children, 202,056.

Agriculture. — As in Jessor, the staple crop in the District of
Khulna is rice, of which there are three harvests, dman, dus, and
The times of sowing and reaping vary in different parts of the
District, as in Jessor. In the north-west portion of Khulna, dman
or winter rice is sown in April and May, and reaped in Noveml
December ; in the Sundarbans, it is sown in April and reaped in January.
The land for this crop is ploughed four times before sowing, a: .
in marsh lands, the young shoots are transplanted in July. Fur dus rice
the ground is ploughed five or six times, the seed is sown on i.
ground, there is no transplanting, and the lands yield a second
Boro rice is hardly ploughed at all ; the seed is scattered broadcast in
the marshes as they dry up, and the shoots are transplanted when a
month old, and sometimes again a month later. Among the 1
crops of the District are peas, jute, sugar-cane, date palms, etc. The
land tenures of the District deserve special notice. Th
Sundarbans grants are called tdlukddrs. Several of them hold
siderable estates in Jessor, Bakarganj, or the Twenty-four Parg
but many are residents in the portion of this District immediately
north of the Sundarbans. These are men who, being in comfortable
circumstances, have money enough to carry on Sundarban ret
tion with success, although they cannot afford to leave the busiiu
the hands of agents. They are therefore immediate'. ted in

2 o8 KHULNA.

the reclamation scheme, and to them is due much of the agricultural
improvements and extension since the Permanent Settlement. Rates
of rent vary in Khulna, as in Jessor, according to the description and
position of the land.

National Calamities. — Blights occur occasionally, but rarely to any
serious extent. The District is, as might be expected, subject to heavy
floods, which have sometimes been immediately followed by disastrous

Commerce and Trade. — The trade of Khulna is carried on by means
of permanent markets. The chief exports are sugar, both dhulna (half-
refined) and paka (white granular), indigo, rice, etc., and from the
Sundarbans, timber, honey, shells, etc. The principal imports are salt,
English piece-goods, and hardware. The exports greatly exceed the
imports in value.

Admi?iistration. — Khulna was formerly a Sub-division of Jessor
District, but now, with the addition of two more Sub-divisions, it forms
a District of itself. With the view of lightening the work in the
great suburban District of the Twenty-four Parganas, and of partially
relieving Nadiya and Jessor of the charges which pressed so heavily
on them, the local Government, after long and careful inquiry, came to
the conclusion that the formation of a Sundarbans District with its
head-quarters at Khulna was absolutely necessary. The advantages of
having the head-quarters at the Khulna terminus of the new Bengal
Central Railway are many ; and the same grounds which rendered it
desirable that the Sundarbans should be connected by railway com-
munication with Calcutta, pointed conclusively to the choice of Khulna
as the head-quarters of the new District. The sanction of the Govern-
ment of India and of the Secretary of State having been obtained to the
formation of the new District in the Sundarbans, which the local
Government considered should be formed, a notification, dated the
25th April 1882, which took effect from the 1st June of the same year,
declared that it should consist of the Satkhira Sub-division of the
Twenty-four Parganas, and of the Khulna and Bagherhat Sub-divisions
of Jessor District, the head-quarters being at the town of Khulna.
Jessor District, thus relieved of two Sub-divisions, is in a position
to take one from Nadiya, which District stands in need of relief.
The Bangaon Sub-division of Nadiya is accordingly to be transferred
to Jessor, of which District indeed it geographically forms a part. The
effect of these changes is that each of the three Districts of the
Twenty-four Parganas, Nadiya, and Jessor will be relieved of one
Sub-division, and will be reduced to more manageable proportions in
regard to area and population.

The additional establishment which has been provided for Khulna,
exclusive of the usual ministerial establishments, is a Magistrate and


Collector, a Joint-Magistrate, a Civil Surgeon, and a Di

tendent of Police. Beyond the appointment of a subordinate J
no increase in the judicial establishment is necessary, as the Ju<:_
Jessor will hold sessions at Khulna, and, with the aid of the subordinate-
Judge newly appointed, and the munsif, dispose of the civil work of
the District. For police purposes Khulna is divided into 13 /
or police circles, with 11 outposts and 1 salt pass-station. The District
police consists of 303 men, of all ranks. There is one District jail
in Khulna and two subsidiary jails.

Medical Aspects — Climate. — The seasons arc substantially the
as in other Districts of Lower Bengal ; but the climate is marked by
a comparative absence of cold weather during the winter months,
throughout which heavy night dews prevail, and by a cool breeze
during the rainy season from the south-east. During the year the
thermometer ranges from 5 6° to 98 F. The rainfall during the
1882 at the town of Khulna was returned at 67-02 inches.

Diseases. — As in the neighbouring Districts, intermittent and
other classes of fever are prevalent throughout the year, owing to
the extreme dampness of the District. The people living on the
borders of the Sundarbans, and those at a distance, suffer alike from
this cause ; the country in the immediate neighbourhood of the
head-quarters of the Satkhira Sub-division being apparently the most
unhealthy. Cholera is scarcely ever absent, being most severe at the
commencement of the cold season. The total number of deaths reported
to have occurred from cholera during 1882 was 2830, of which
happened during the last quarter of the year. Small-pox is now almost
unknown. Cattle disease prevails at times, chiefly in the Sun/.
tracts of the Bagherhat Sub-division. The cattle required for cult; .
in those parts are carried backwards and forwards in crowded
and from want of proper accommodation, both in their transit and on
shore, it is not surprising that some disease among them ot 1

Medical Institutions. —There are public charitable
containing accommodation for in-door patients, supported bj
contributions, at the head-quarters of each of the Sub-dii
Khulna, Satkhira, and Bagherhat, in charge of native hospita
and also one at Morrellganj, supported by the owners ol I
one at Daulatpur, 6 miles from Khulna, supported from the fill
the Sayyidpur trust estate (the Mohsin Fund), of which a ,
portion lies in this District ; and one at Syamnagar in tlu
of Satkhira, maintained by the zamind&t of Nokipur. 1;
number of persons who received out-door medical relief in tn
1882 was about 8000.

Khulnl-Head-quarters Sub-division of Khulna D
situated between 21 41' 45" and 23° i' * lat, and between



and 89 47' 15" e. long. Area (1881), 696 square miles; with 886
villages or towns, and 47,480 houses. Population (1872) 324,001;
(1881) 344,389, showing an increase of 20,388, or 629 percent., in
nine years. Classified according to religion, there were, in 1881 —
Hindus, 169,960, or 49-4 per cent.; Muhammadans, 174,267, or 50*6
percent.; and Christians, 162; total, 344>3 8 9> namely, 180,994 males
and 163,395 females. Proportion of males, 52*6 per cent. ; density of
population, 495 persons per square mile ; villages per square mile, 1*27 ;
persons per village, 389; houses per square mile, 54; persons per
house, 7'i. This Sub-division, which was constituted in 1842, comprises
the 4 police circles (thdnds) of Khulna, Baitaghata, Damuria, and
Paikgachha. In 1883 it contained 4 civil and 5 criminal courts, a
regular police force of 151 men, besides 575 village watchmen.

Khulna. — Administrative head-quarters of Khulna District, Bengal ;
situated at the point where the Bhairab river meets the Sundarbans.
Lat. 22 49' 10" n., long. 89 36' 55" e. Khulna may be described as
the capital of the Sundarbans ; and for the last hundred years at least
it has been a place of considerable importance. It was the head-
quarters of the salt department during the period of the Company's
salt manufacture. The whole boat traffic from the east and north-east
passes here on its way to Calcutta : rice from Dacca and Bakarganj ;
lime, lemons, and oranges from Sylhet ; mustard seed, linseed, and
pulse from Pabna, Rajshahi, and Faridpur ; clarified butter (g/ii) from
Patna; and firewood from the Sundarbans. From Calcutta, the
principal cargo is Liverpool salt, the trade in which is very considerable.
Numerous sugar refineries exist. .. It contains three market-places, of
which the most important, Sen's Bazar, is situated on the east and
the other two on the west bank of the river. Khulna town forms the
terminus of the Bengal Central Railway.

Khumber. — Town in Bhartpur (Bhurtpore) State, Rajputana. — See

Khun. — Port and lighthouse in the Dhanduka Sub-division of Ahmad-
abad District, Bombay Presidency. The port is five miles east of
Dholera, on the Bhadar or Dholera creek. Dholera town and the
port of Khun were once connected by a tramway, which has now ceased
to run. The lighthouse is at the entrance of the creek, in lat. 22 3' 20"
n., and long. 72 17' 30" e. It is provided with a common lantern with
five oil burners and reflectors fixed on a conical building on wooden
piles. The lantern is 50 feet above high-water, and visible for 15 miles.
Khund (or Kund). — Valley in Kashmir State, Punjab, on the
northern side of the Pir-Panjal Mountain. Lat. 33 32' n., long.
75 io' e. Thornton describes it as three miles long, picturesque, well
cultivated, and possessing a cool climate. Elevation above sea-level,
6000 feet.


Khundalu.— Lake in Hindiir State, Punjab, among the rani

hills extending from the Sutlej (Satlaj) to the Siwalik chain.
10' x., long. 76 47' e. Thornton states that it varies in length I:
mile in dry weather to i\ miles during the rains; depth,
Winding shore, enclosed by hills, and clothed with vegetation to the
water's edge. Elevation above sea-level, about 2800 feet.

Khurdha.— Sub-division of Pun' District, Orissaj situated
19 40' 30" and 20 25' 15" n. lat., and 85 o' 15" and . Ion-.

Area, 943 square miles; with 1314 villages, and 30.237 hi
Population (1881) 323,405, namely, males 161,861, and fei
161,544. Hindus numbered 316,285 ; Muhammadans, 6889; Christians,
230; Sikh, 1. Density of population, 343 persons per square 1
villages per square mile, 1*39; persons per village, 246; hous^
square mile, 40; persons per house, 107. This Sub-division com]
the 2 police circles (thdnds) of Khurdha and Banpur. It contained in
1S83, 3 courts, with a regular police force of 1 14 officers and men, and
a rural police or village watch numbering 407.

The estate or little principality of Khurdha formed the la
of territory held by the independent Hindu dynasty of
The Maratha cavalry were unable to overrun this jungle -covered
and hilly tract ; and the ancient royal house retained much
independence until 1804, when the Raja rebelled against the British
Government, and his territory was confiscated. A rising on the ;
the peasantry took place in 181 7-18, arising in great measure thi
the oppression of underling Bengali officials. The insurre
speedily quelled, reforms were introduced, and grievances redu
At the present day Khurdha is a profitable and well-managed Govern-
ment estate, and the cultivators are a contented and generally
perous class. Since 1804, the Raja has possessed no indepei
powers, but he was held in great veneration by the people as the
hereditary guardian of the Jagannath temple. The late holder of the
title was convicted of wilful murder in 1878, and sentenced to ;
servitude in the Andaman Islands.

Khurdha.— Town in Puri District, Orissa, and head-;
Khurdha Sub-division and police circle (thdnd) ; situated on the high-
road from Cuttack to Ganjam in Madras. Lat. 20 10' 49 n., lonj
40' 12" e. Between 1818 and 182S, Khurdha* was the head-quart*
the District, which in the latter year was transferred to I

Khurja. — South-western tahsil of Bulandshahr District, N
Western Provinces, comprising thtpargandsoi Khurja, Je\var,a:
stretching from the Jumna to the East Kali Nadi, and
by the East Indian Railway, and by three branches
Canal Area, 460 square miles, of which 322 are cultivate L I
lation (1872) 221,712; (1SS1) 212,561, namely, males 112,7


females 99,845, showing a decrease of 9 151, or 4-3 per cent, in nine
years. Classified according to religion, there were, in 1881 — Hindus,
175,702; Muhammadans, 36,624: Jains, 231; 'others,' 4. Land
revenue (1872), ,£30,507 ; total Government revenue, ^33,561 ; rental
paid by cultivators, ^69,6 19. In 1883, the Sub-division contained 1
civil and 4 criminal courts, with 4 police stations {thdnds) ; strength of
regular police, 48 men ; village watchmen (chankiddrs), 500.

Khlirja. — Town, municipality, and chief commercial centre of
Bulandshahr District, North-Western Provinces, and head-quarters of
Khiirja tahsil. Lat. 2 8° 15' 25" n., long. 77 53' 50" e. Distant from
Bulandshahr 10 miles south, from Aligarh 30 miles north, from Meerut
(Merath) and Delhi 50 miles south and south-east respectively. Popu-
lation (1872) 26,858; (1881) 27,190, namely, males 14,102, and females
13,088. Classified according to religion, the population in 1881 con-
sisted of — Hindus, 16,145; Muhammadans, 10,990; and Jains, 55.
Area of town site, 623 acres. Municipal income (1876-77), £"1843 ;
(1881), ^2287, of which £1892 was derived from octroi; average
incidence of taxation, is. 4§d. per head.

Khiirja is the chief trading town between Delhi and Hathras, and
is particularly well situated for commercial purposes ; railway station
on the East Indian Railway 3^ miles south, and the meeting-place
of the Delhi and Meerut (Merath) branches of the Grand Trunk
Road. The principal inhabitants are Keshgi Pathans and Churiiwal
Baniyas ; the latter, who are Jains by religion, are an enterprising
and a wealthy class, carrying on banking over all India by means
of paid agencies. They have recently built a handsome temple in
the centre of the town, with a lofty dome surmounted by a gilded
pinnacle. The interior is one blaze of gold and colour ; the vault
of the dome being painted and ornamented in the most florid style
of Hindu decorative art. Among the recent improvements in the
town are a fine masonry tank, 200 feet square, supplied with
water from the Ganges Canal ; and a market-place with handsome
facades, a lofty gateway, a mosque in the centre of the square, and
an adjoining bazar, all pointed with carved stone. The cost of the
tank and aqueduct was about £1200; that of the market-place nearly
;£ 10,000. Tahsili, police station, post-office, dispensary, town hall,
tahsili school. Chief trade in raw cotton, of which about 70,000 cwts.
are annually exported to Cawnpur, Mirzapur, and Calcutta. A Euro-
pean cotton press was started in 1882. Imports of English piece-goods,
metals, country cloth, and brass utensils. Local trade in cotton,
safflower, indigo, sugar, molasses, grain, and ghi. The population has
rapidly increased during the last thirty years.

Khushab. — Western tahsil of Shahpur District, Punjab ; consisting
of that portion of the District lying west of the Jehlam (Jhelum) river.


Lat. 3r3i'45"t0 32 4 i / 30" n., long. 71 38' 30" to 72° 40' 45 r. The
greater part is unproductive land, but a narrow strip along thi
the river, exposed to its fertilizing inundations, produces good 1
The tahsil is intersected by the great salt range of the Punjab.
(1881), 1032 square miles, with 239 towns and villages, 22,874 1.
and 28,423 families. Total population (1881) 122,633, namely, males
64o 8 5> an d females 58,048; average density, 119 persons per square
mile. Of the 239 towns and villages, 168 contain less than five
hundred inhabitants; 46 from five hundred to a thousand; 2.;
one to two thousand; while two towns (Shahpur and Shahiwal)
have between five and ten thousand. Classified according to religion,
the population in 1881 consisted of — Muhammadans, 101,831;
Hindus, 19,304; Sikhs, 1481 ; and Christians, 17. Of the
area of 660,615 acres, 182,047 acres were returned in the quin-
quennial agricultural statistics of the Punjab Government as under
cultivation in 1878-79, of which 175,957 acres were irrigated
acres from Government works, and 166,768 acres by private indi-
viduals). The uncultivated area included 274,192 acres of grazing
lands, 190,950 acres of cultivable land available for tillage, and 13.42O
acres of uncultivable waste. The principal crops are wheat, jodr,
bdjra, gram, and barley. Poppy is also grown to a considerable
extent. Revenue, ^14,432. The administrative staff consists of a
tahsilddr, presiding over 1 civil and 1 criminal court. The tahsil is
sub-divided into six police circles (thdnds), with 89 regular police, and
142 village watchmen.

Khushab.— Town and municipality in Shahpur District, Punjab, and
head-quarters of Khushab tahsil ; situated on the right bank of the
river Jehlam (Jhelum), on the road from Lahore to Dera Ismail K
about eight miles from Shahpur town. Tat. 32 17' 4°" >•'•> long, ~ :
23' 51" e. Population (1868) 8509; (1SS1) S9S9, namely,
Muhammadans, 2402 Hindus, 227 Sikhs, and 1 'other/ Municip
revenue (1882-83), ^919, or an average of 2s. ojd. per head.
by year the water eats away the bank of the Jehlam, so that the
inhabitants are continually driven out of their homes and compelk
build on the farther side of the town, which has been several tin
washed away. Khushab carries on a flourishing trade with W
(Mooltan), Sakkar, Afghanistan, and the Derajat Exports
cotton, wool, £-///, and country cloth; imports of Englis

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 25 of 64)