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metal, dried fruits, sugar, and molasses. The town is ate
mart for the trade of the salt range ; numbers of cattle are eir.
in taking salt eastward, and bringing back rice and sugar. Man; •
of coarse cloth and cotton scarves; 600 weaving establish!!
weaving is also a local industry, and the town has a name I
embroidered silk scarves. A canal 14 miles long, the Corbyn-wal


been cut from the Jehlam river, which affords irrigation to a large tract
of country, and supplies the town of Khushab with good water. This
canal will fertilize a barren tract of country. The principal official
buildings comprise a town hall, tahsili, school, dispensary.

Khutahan. — Northern tahsil of Jaunpur District, North- Western
Provinces, comprising the pargands of Ungli, Rari, Badlapur, Karyat-
Mendha, and Chandah. Large tracts of barren tisar land are scattered
over the tahsil. Numerous tanks, wells, and ponds afford facilities for
irrigation. The chief tanks are the masonry built Suraj-kund in Sarai-
Khwaja, the royal (badshdhi) tank in Manicha, the viceregal (waziri)
tank, and a masonry tank at Shahganj. Population (1872) 237,536;
(1881) 268,901, namely, males 136,237, and females 132,664; total
increase in the nine years, 31,365, or 13-4 per cent. Classified accord-
ing to religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 231,750 ; Muhammadans,
37,148; and 'others,' 3. Of the 697 villages, 537 contained less
than five hundred inhabitants; 117 between five hundred and a
thousand; and 43 between one and five thousand. The only town
with upwards of five thousand inhabitants is Shahganj (population,
6317). The area of Khutahan tahsil, according to the latest official
returns (188 1), is 367 square miles, of which 359*8 square miles are
assessed for Government revenue. Assessed area under cultivation,
209*9 square miles ; cultivable, but not under tillage, 64*1 square miles ;
uncultivable waste, 85*8 square miles. Government land revenue,
£22,583; total Government revenue, including local rates and cesses,
,£27,651. Amount of rent, including rates and cesses, paid by the
cultivators, £51,705. Means of communication are afforded by the
Giimti river, which flows across the tahsil in a south-easterly direction ;
by the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, which runs through its entire
eastern tract, with four stations; and by numerous roads. In 1884,
Khutahan tahsil contained 3 criminal courts, 4 police stations {thdnds),
with a regular police force of 59 men, supplemented by 526 village
watchmen {chaukiddrs).

Khutahan. — Village in Jaunpur District, North- Western Provinces,
and head-quarters of Khutahan tahsil ; situated on the left bank of the
Giimti river, 18 miles north-north-west of Jaunpur town. Lat. 25 58'
7" n., long. 82 36' 58" e. The village, which has a population of only
930 souls, is of no importance save as the head-quarters of the tahsil,
which were removed here on the destruction of the former tahsili at
Tighra by the mutineers in January 1858. The village contains a first-
class police station and an imperial post-office ; bi-weekly market held
on Wednesdays and Saturdays.

Khutgaon. — Zaminddri estate in Chanda District, Central Pro-
vinces; 20 miles south-east of Wairagarh; comprising 42 villages,
spread over an area of 157 square miles. Number of houses, 692.


1 1

Population ( 1 88 1 ) 3614. Khutgaon village is situated in I 1

N., long. 8o° 14' e.

Khwa. — River and town, British Burma. — Set Kw.\.
Khyoung-tshun. — Village in Bfld-gywon island, Amherst D

British Burma. — See Kyaung-sux.

Khyrim (or Nong Khrem).— Petty State in the Khasi Hill .
presided over by a stem or chief named U Klur Singh. Population
(1881) 24,425 ; estimated revenue, ^820. The minerals are lime,
coal, and iron. The iron-ore of Khyrim is the purest found in the
Khasi Hills. In former times, smelting operations were conduct,
a large scale, as evidenced by the deep excavations and largi
slag. The greater part of the smelted iron used to be exported I I
plains in lumps or bars, and was more highly valued than English iron
by native smiths. Under the competition of the cheaper article from
England, this trade has now died out ; but at the present da; .
implements, such as ddos or hill-knives, koddlis or mattocks, hammers,
crow-bars, and wedges, are still manufactured and exported to Sylhet.
Other manufactures are the weaving of cotton and erid silk cloth, and
the making of mats and baskets. The cultivated crops are rice, millet,
cotton, potatoes, oranges, chillies, betel-nut, and pan leaves. Th 1
products gathered in the jungle include caoutchouc, cinnamon, lac,
black pepper, and honey.

Kiamari. — Island on the further side of Karachi (Kurrachee)
harbour, Karachi District, Sind, Bombay Presidency ; lying in lat.
24 49' 15" n., and long. 67° 2 e., and forming one of the municipal
quarters of Karachi Town, with which it is connected by a road called
the 'Napier Mole,' 3 miles long, constructed in 1S54. Kiamari
landing-place for passengers and goods destined for Karachi, and
contains 3 piers, the principal of which is the Merewether pier, cal
after the late Sir William Merewether, who was for many years I
missioner in Sind; the foundation-stone was laid by Lord Rif
November 1SS0. There are here a commissariat store, customs bouse,
naval building-yard, etc. Station on the Sind, Punjab, and I >elbi Railway.

Kiching— Village in Morbhanj State, Orissa, Bengal ; situal
lat. 21 55' 30" n., and long. 85' 52' 30" 1:., in a jungly b
south of the State. It is now inhabited only by aboriginal
ruined temples, tanks, and other architectural remains • " 1,:

civilised population in ancient days. Two of the tern
are still visited by pilgrims, and are kept in som
surrounding jungle is thickly scattered with fragments 1
sculptured idols, and human figures in alto-relievo. '1 he t
are said to have formed part of a series of 60 similar on
miles apart in a circle 40 miles in diameter, of which
some others at Udaipur on the Baitarani arc now visited.


Kidderpur. — Village on the left bank of the Hugh', immediately
south of Calcutta, in the District of the Twenty-lour Parganas, Bengal.
Lat 22 32' 25" n., long. 88° 22' 18" e. The seat of the Government
dockyard, constructed in the last century by General Kyd, after whom
the village is named. Between 1781 and 1821, 237 ships were built at
the Kidderpur docks, at a cost of upwards of two millions sterling ; and
in 1 8 18, the Hastings, a 74-gun ship, was launched here. The India
General Steam Navigation Company have also a dock at Kidderpur,
but neither this nor the Government yard is now used for shipbuilding,
but merely for repairs, fitting out, etc.

Kiggat-nad. — Tdluk or Sub-division in Coorg, Southern India.
Bounded on the north by Merkara tdluk ; on the south-west and south
by Malabar District and the Wynad ; and on the east by Mysore State.
Area, 410 square miles; number of villages, 49; number of houses,
3548. Population (1871) 27,738; (1881) 31,230, namely, 16,991 males
and 14,239 females, of whom 6555 are Coorgs. Kiggat-nad occupies
the south-east corner of Coorg, and is the most sparsely populated
tdluk in the territory. It is watered by the Lakshmantirtha and
Barapole rivers, and contains 181 square miles of forest, of which
the most valuable portion is the reserved teak forest of Nalkeri,
whence timber is carted to Mysore. Rice is cultivated along the
narrow valleys of the hill streams. The whole area is mountainous,
being traversed by spurs of the Brahmagiri range, which abound in
sdmbhar deer, and are the favourite resort of sportsmen. Coffee estates
have been opened out on the rich black soil of the northern portion of
the tdluk, which is traversed by the Mysore-Cannanore road. Another
road leads from Gonikopal to the Wynad. The head-quarters of
Kiggat-nad are at Hudikeri, lat. 12 6' n., long. 7 6° 1' e.

Kilakarai (the Korkhoi of the Periplus). — Seaport in Ramnad
zaminddri, Madura District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 9 14'
20" n., and long. 7 8° 50' 10" e., near the mouth of the Gundar.
Population (1871) 11,303; (1881) 11,887, namely, 5029 males and
6858 females. Muhammadans numbered 8274; Hindus, 2926; and
Christians, 687. Number of houses, 2749. Average value of imports
for the five years ending 1882-83, ;£3 2 >445> an d exports, .£16,595.
In 1882-83 the imports were valued at £19,253, and the exports at
£14,088. Kilakarai is supposed by some authorities to have been
Kurkhi, the earliest capital of the Pandyas. One account would assign
its foundation to the Chola, Chera, and Pandya kings, who joined in
building it to commemorate the place where a great rain-storm detained
them for a month, when on their way to celebrate the marriage of a
Pandya prince.

Kilang. — Village in Kangra District, Punjab. — See Kolang.

Kila Sobha Singh. — Town in the Pasriir tahsil of Sialkot District,


Punjab; 23 miles south-east of Sialkot town. Lat 32 14' w.
74 48' 15" e. Population (1868) 5153; (1881) 4521, namely,
Hindus, 2734 Muhammadans, and 19 Sikhs. Founded about a CO
ago by Alawalia Sardar Bhag Singh, who erected a mud fort and 1
it after his son Sobha Singh. Residence of a colony of Kashmiri shawl-
weavers, who manufacture edging for exportation to Amritsar (Umritsar).
Of late years many silk factories have been established, and the industry
is in a promising condition. Exports of sugar, grain, and other local
produce. The public buildings consist of a police station, disjM 1
post-office, and a boys' and a girls' school. Municipal revenue in
1881-82, ^366, or is. 75-d. per head of population within municipal limits.

Riling" (or Um-idm). — River of Assam, which rises in the Khasi
Hills, not far to the west of the Shillong peak, and flowing north-east
into Nowgong District, empties into the Kapili river a short di~
before that stream falls into the Kalang near Jagi. Its bed is r-uky
throughout its entire course, but in the plains it is navigable by boats
of 4 tons burthen during the greater part of the year. Um-idm is the
Khasi name of the river ; in Nowgong it is called the Kiling.

Kiliyar.— River in Travancore State, Madras Presidency.

Killianwala.— Battle-field in Gujrat District, Punjab.— See CHILIAN-


KilpurL— Eastern tahsil of the Tarai District, North-Western Pro-
vinces, consisting of a long submontane belt, much of it covered with
forest. Area, 413 square miles, of which 79 are cultivated. Population
(1872) 51,480; (1881) 48,99°. namely, males 27,051, and females
21,939. Land revenue, ^2193.

KimedL— Zaminddri hill tract, on the western border o< Ganjam
District, Madras Presidency. It contains the three estates of Pari l
Kimedi; Pedda or Boda Kimedi, also called Vizianagramj and
Chinna Kimedi or Pratapgiri. Each estate consists of two dist
divisions, a lowland and an upland tract ; the former held as an ordu
zaminddrt under the regular District officers, while the latter is
the supervision of a special Government Agency.

Parla Kimedi is the largest zatrinddri in the District. It 1
area of 410 square miles, exclusive of about 3 54 square miles ol ...
or hill country. Population of lowland tract (187
240,980, namely, 120,487 males and 120,493 females;
houses, 50,708: Hindus numbered 240,266; Muhammadans,
Christians, 118; and 'others,' 99 . In 1881 the ********
villages, with a population of 39,152, namely, 20,218 m
females occupying 8936 houses. Hindus numbered 3 -5- -; and Muhammadans, 200. The peshkash, ■ ancn

assessment, of Parla Kimedi is ^8783. The estate yields an annua
revenue of £i$,z lS t0 the ^minddr.


Pedda Kimedi, which is situated north of Parla Kimedi, pays a
peshkash of ,£2332, and yields an annual revenue of ^10,087. The
Census returns of 1881 do not show the figures of Pedda Kimedi
zaminddri ; those of 187 1 gave the area as 195 square miles; villages,
194; population, 40,650. In 1881, the Mdliyas or hill tract of Pedda
Kimedi contained 260 villages, with a population of 26,605, namely,
13,665 males and 12,940 females, occupying 5416 houses. Hindus
numbered 26,563, mostly Kandhs ; Muhammadans, 41 ; and Christian, 1.
Area, about 377 square miles.

Chinna Kimedi, the most northern division, pays a peshkash of
^1994, and yields an annual revenue of ;£ 11,641. Area of low-
lands, 56 square miles, with 131 villages, containing 6665 houses.
Population (1871) 28,491; (1881)35,954, namely, 17,851 males and
18,103 females. Hindus numbered 35,926; and Muhammadans, 28.
The extensive Mdliyas (about 1975 square miles) attached to Chinna
Kimedi have been resumed by the British Government, and their
ancient feudal connection with the zaminddr has ceased. In 1881,
these Mdliyas contained 138 villages, with a population of 11,849,
namely, 6254 males and 5595 females, occupying 2671 houses.
Hindus numbered 11,835, principally Kandhs; Muhammadans, n;
and Christians, 3.

The whole Kimedi country was ruled from a remote date by a
descendant of the royal house of Orissa. In 1607, the then
Kimedi Raja allotted Vizianagram and Pratapgiri to his younger
son Unanga Bhima Deo Kesari, whose descendants divided the
estate into two zaminddris, which were temporarily reunited
under Bhima Deo, who proved very troublesome to the British
Resident. Troops were sent against him in 1769, and his fort
at Karla was taken. The following year, in consequence of his
suspected intrigues with Sitarama Razu (of Vizianagram in Viza-
gapatam District) and the Marathas, Pratapgiri, his principal strong-
hold, was seized. On this, the old Raja accepted the terms offered
him; but in 1772 it was again found necessary to enter the country.
After a hard-fought contest, the British gained possession of all his
forts, and the Raja had to submit to strict conditions, including
the partition of his estate between his two sons. This arrangement
was fraught with most disastrous consequences to the country, for
it led to internecine struggles, lasting for a quarter of a century.
The brothers ravaged one another's territory, and burnt one another's
villages, till in 1800 they were both thrown into jail in Ganjam for
disturbing the peace. They were replaced by their respective sons,
who carried on the feud ; and until very recently, although open
hostilities were impossible, the feeling of hatred continued. The
country is now peaceful and flourishing, and connected by road with


the coast. The principal towns are Parte Kimedi, Digupodi,


Kimiria.— A deltaic distributary of the Brahmani river, I
District, Orissa, which branches off opposite the village i Irapur,

and, after receiving the waters of the Genguti, Kelo, and I;
again into the parent stream at the village of Indpur.

Kimlia.— Pass in Bashahr State, Punjab, over the outer Himalayan
range, bounding Kunawir to the north. Lat. 31 14' .\\, Ion- ;
r Phornton states that it can be crossed only during the months « :
June, and July ; later in the year, the snow becomes treacherous,
swallowing pack-sheep and goats, with their drivers. Elevation
sea-level, about 17,000 feet.

Kinhi. — Zaminddri estate in Balaghat District, Central Provii
comprising 64 villages, on an area of 159 square miles, partly above
and partly below the hills. Kinhi, the chief village, is situated in lat.
21 37' n., and long. 8o° 29' e., 25 miles south-east of Biirha, The
present chiefs trace their descent from the head herdsman of the I
and Bhonsla kings of Nagpur, who tended the royal flocks on the
upland pastures of Lanjf. Since the estate was divided into
shares, its value has greatly decreased.

Kin-rwa. — Village in the Kin-rwa revenue circle, Shwe-gyin District,
Tenasserim Division, British Burma. Government rest-house; small
police force. Population (1877) 1349; (1881) 1 107, chiefly enga_
orchard cultivation. Number of houses, 2 n. Prior to annexation, a small
Burmese military force was stationed here. The word ' Keng' or ■ Kin '
means a military station. The termination rwa is simply 'villag

Kirakat (Kardkat). — Eastern tahsil of Jaunpur District, North-
Western Provinces, lying on either side of the river Giimti, and com
prising the pargands of Chandwak, Daryapur, Pisara, and Gujira.
Bounded on the north by Azamgarh District ; on the east by N
and Ghazipur Districts; on the south by Benares District; and on th<
west by Jaunpur tahsil In the south-east of the tahsil are wide trad-
of uncultivable usar plains, and glass is largely produced from the
saline efflorescence (reh) which covers them. There are no lakes in the
tahsil. Water is found at a depth of from 28 to 40 feet, and wells
tanks are numerous. The Grand Trunk Road from Azan arh t<-
Benares passes through the east of the tahsil from north to soutl
several other roads afford communication with Kirakat. the
quarters town. Total area, according to the latest official
171 square miles, of which 12C6 square miles are cultivated,
square miles cultivable, and 157 square miles barren. '1 he are
assessed for Government revenue is i66'6 square miles, of which
116*2 square miles are cultivable. Government land revenue,
.£11,695; total Government revenue, including local rat


^14,255. Amount of rental, including rates and cesses, paid by
cultivators, ^31,444. Population (1872) 114,167; (1881) 136,748,
namely, males 68,806, and females 67,942, showing an increase of
22,581, or 19-8 per cent., in nine years. Classified according to
religion, there were, in 1881 — Hindus, 128,905; Muhammadans,
7840; and 'others,' 3. Of the 324 villages, 223 contained less than
five hundred inhabitants; 71 between five hundred and a thousand;
and 30 between one thousand and five thousand. There were no
towns containing more than five thousand inhabitants. Of the total
population, 2557 are returned as landholders, 27,068 as agriculturists,
and 12,610 as engaged in occupations other than agriculture. The
majority of the cultivators belong to the Rajput, Koeri, Ahir, and
Chamar castes. In 1884 the tahsil contained 2 criminal courts, 2
police circles (thdnds), a regular police force of 36 men, and a village
watch of 187 chaukiddrs.

Kirakat. — Town in Jaunpur District, North-Western Provinces, and
head-quarters of Kirakat tahsil. Situated on the north or left bank of
the Giimti, distant 16 miles south-east of Jaunpur city, with which it
is connected by an unmetalled road. Lat. 25 38' 5" N., long. 82 57'
41" e. Population (1881) 3251, namely, males 1577, and females
1674. A house-tax, for police and conservancy purposes, realized
.£93 in 1882-83. Kirakat is a long narrow town, with a main road
running east and west, parallel with the Giimti. Besides the usual
sub-divisional courts and offices, it contains an Anglo-vernacular school,
imperial post-office, and first-class police station. Bi-weekly market on
Wednesdays and Saturdays.

Kiratpur. — Town in Najibabad tahsil^ Bijnaur (Bijnor) District,
North-Western Provinces, situated 10 miles from Bijnaur town, at the
junction of the unmetalled roads from Bijnaur and Mandawar to Najib-
abad. Lat. 29 30' 5" n., long. 78 15' 5"e. Population (1872) 9579;
(1882) 12,728, namely, males 6347, and females 6381. Classified
according to religion, there were, in 18S1 — Muhammadans, 8370;
Hindus, 4350 ; and Christians, 8. Area of town site, 236 acres. A
small municipal revenue for police and conservancy purposes is raised
by means of a house-tax. The town was founded about the year 1450,
in the reign of Bahlol Lodi ; and the ruins of the old castle or fort still
exist, though fast falling to decay. Walls of great strength are yet
standing on either side of the main gateway, within which is a hand-
some and well-preserved mosque. Kiratpur is now merely an agri-
cultural centre, of purely local importance, with a petty manufacture of
lacquered wooden work.

Kirki (Kirkee or Khakdi). — Town and cantonment in the Haveli
Sub-division of Poona (Puna) District, Bombay Presidency. Station on
the south-east extension of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 116


miles south-east of Bombay and 4 north-west of Poona ; lat 1

N., and long. 73 54' e. On the 5th November 1S1 7, the fil
three battles which led to the collapse of the Manitha powex
fought near Kirki, then a mere village. The British force under
Colonel Burr was 2800 strong, of whom 800 were Europeans.
Peshwa's force under Bappu Gokla numbered 18,000 horse and 8000
foot, with an immense train of ordnance. The Peshwa* Baji I
witnessed the battle, and his own defeat, from Parbatti hill, one mile
south of Poona. Population (1871) 3098; (1881) 7252, namely,
males and 3353 females. Hindus numbered 4938 ; Christian-,
Muhammadans, 893; Jains, 107; Parsis, 35 ; and 'others,' 33.

Kirli. — A petty State in Khandesh District, Bombay President v. —
See Dang States.

Kirnapur. — Estate in Burha tahs'il, Balaghat District, Central
vinces. Population (1881) 12,667, namely, males 6214, and females
6453 ; residing in 29 villages, on an area of 40 square miles, and
inhabiting 2751 houses. Conferred in 1828 upon Chimna Patel, the
once powerful possessor of Kamtha and the surrounding taluks.
Kirnapur, the principal town, and residence of the chief, stands on
high ground, in lat. 21 39' n., and long. 8o° 22' e., 16 miles south-east
of Burha, and contains some ancient temples. It has a good Govern-
ment school, and a police outpost, and the District post to Lanji
passes daily.

Kirran (or Sdki). — River in Gurdispur and Amritsar (Umi
Districts, Punjab; rises in lat. 32 8' N., and long. 75 30' e., in the
extensive swamps of Bahrampur, west of Dinanagar in the former 1 1
trier, and runs parallel with the Ravi until it passes into Amritsar.
It flows past the towns of Ramdas and Ajnala, and joins the Ravi in
lat. 31 45' N.. and long. 74° 37' e., near the village of, just
above the bridge of boats on the Amritsar and Gujranwala road. It
never runs absolutely dry, but contains little water, except in the

Kirthal.— Village in Meerut (Merath) District, North-Western
vinces. Lat. 29 14' 15" N., and lon S- 77° 17' 15" K - i 2 4 miles north-
west of Meerut city. Population (1872) 5651 ; (1881) S'^ G > namely,
Hindus, 4415; Muhammadans, 827; and Jains, 274. The village stands
on a raised site, bounded on the west by a lake or marsh, htt
depth of 10 feet in January. A cut drains the surplus water inl
Jumna (Jamuna). Few trees, no bazar, unmade and broken
damp situation, defective sanitary arrangements. Inhabitants suffer Hum
enlarged spleen and other malarious diseases.

Kirtiliasa.— River in Dacca District, Bengal; one ol
channels by which the Ganges now finds its way into the Mcgima.


In Rennel's map of the last century, the Ganges is shown as joining
the Meghna at Mehndiganj, considerably to the south of the Kirtinasa.
But the Kirtinasa is now the principal channel of the Ganges, branching
off near Rajnagar, and falling into the Meghna, in lat. 23 14' N., and
long. 90 37' e., near Kartikpur. The Kirtinasa has a width of from
3 to 4 miles, with a strong current, which renders navigation difficult
during the rains. The original bed of the Ganges is now almost dry
in the hot season.

Kishangarh (Krishnagarh). — Native State under the political super-
intendence of the Eastern States Agency of Rajputana ; situated
between lat. 26 17' and 26' 59' n., long. 74 43' and 75 13' e. The
area is 724 square miles, and the population in 1881 was returned at
112,633, namely, 59,098 males and 53,535 females; dwelling in 3
towns and 210 villages, and occupying 24,928 houses. Persons per
square mile, 155*5; per house, 4*5. Hindus numbered 97,846;
Muhammadans, 8492 ; and Jains, 6295. Taking the Hindu popula-
tion by caste, there are — Brahmans, 14,154; Rajputs, 8054; Mahajans,
10,599; Jats, 10,458; Balais, 7177; Chamars, 3807; Gujars, 7201;
and 'other Hindus,' 42,701. Divided into their tribes, the Muham-
madans are thus returned — Pathans, 1308; Sayyids, 265; and
'others,' 6919. The Census distributes the adult male population into
the following groups as regards occupation — Agriculture, 13,436; day-
labour, 4946 ; handicraft, 5396 ; service, 5038 ; miscellaneous, 4630 ;
and no occupation, 3034 : total, 36,480. The principal towns are
Kishangarh (the capital), Rupnagar, and Sarwar.

History. — The founder of the State was Kishan Singh, the second
son of Maharaja Udai Singh of Jodhpur, who, leaving his patrimony,

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