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conquered the tract of country which now comprises Kishangarh, and
became its ruler under the sign-manual of the Emperor Akbar in 1594.
There is little of importance known regarding the affairs of the State
until 18 18, when a treaty was entered into by the British Government
with Kishangarh, together with the other Rajput States, as part of a
general scheme for the suppression of the Pindari marauders, by whom
the country was at that time overrun. This treaty contains the usual
conditions of protection on the part of the British Government, and
subordinate co-operation and abstinence from political correspondence
on the part of the chief.

The Maharaja Kalyan Singh, who was supposed to be insane, soon
became involved in troubles with his nobles, which eventually resulted in
his flight to Delhi. Affairs grew worse at Kishangarh, and British terri-
tory having been violated by the disputants, the leaders of both parties
were called upon to desist from hostilities, and to refer their grievances
to the mediation of the Government of India. The Maharaja was at the
same time warned that, if he did not return to his capital and interest him-



KISIIANGARH TOWN.

self in the affairs of the State, the treaty with him would be i
engagements formed with the insurgent Thakurs. This thw
the Maharaja back to Kishangarh, but, finding himself unable I
the State, he offered to lease it to Government His offer was rel
The Maharaja on this took up his residence at Ajmere. The fl
then proclaimed the heir-apparent as Maharaja, and laid siege I I
capital, which they were on the point of carrying when Kalvan -
accepted the mediation of the Political Agent, through whom m
were for the time adjusted.

The reconciliation, however, did not prove sincere, and Kulyin S
shortly afterwards abdicated in favour of his son, Makhdiim Singh, by
whom the late Maharaja, Dhiraj Frith wi Singh Bahadur, was
Prithwi Singh succeeded in 1S40; and the administration, whicl
under his personal guidance, was conducted with prudence, and more
than average ability. He died on the 25th December 1879, leaving
three sons, and was succeeded by the eldest, the present Maharaja
Sadul Singh, who was born about 1854. The chief possesses the right
of adoption, and is entitled to a salute of 15 guns.

Revenue, Agriculture, etc. — The produce of the State consists mainly
of cereals. Its revenue in 1881 was ^27,511. The customs receipts,
which formed a large portion of the revenue, were chiefly derived from
the Sambhar lake salt traffic. These receipts, however, owing to the
introduction of railway communication into Rajputana, and the abandon-
ment of duty on all through traffic, having become greatly diminished,
the Government of India agreed to compensate the Maharaja by a
money payment of ^"2000 per annum. The Rajputana State Railway,
constructed on the metre gauge, passes through the northern portion of
the State. The Nasirabad-Deoli road also traverses the State.

Kishangarh pays no tribute, and contributes nothing to any I
corps or contingent. The military force consists of 550 cavalry, 3500
infantry, 36 guns, and 100 artillerymen.

Kishangarh.— Chief town of the State of Kishangarh, Rijpul
and a station on the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway j situated :
26" 35' n., and long. 74 55' e., about 21 miles north-east of \
(Xusseerabad). Population (188 1) 14,824, namely, 7513 males and
females. Hindus number 9760; Muhammadans,3i4o;aml 'others,'
The town and fort of Kishangarh occupy a picturesque positi<
the banks of a small lake, called Gundolao, in the centre of which is
the Muhkum Bilas, or Maharaja's summer garden. The principal
temples in the town are Brijraj-ji-ka-Mandir, and those dedicated to
Mohan Lai Ji, Madan Mohan Ji, Narsingh Ji, and Chintaman }.. A:
Salimabad, about 12 miles from Kishangarh, is a temple known .
Marag Samparda, which is an object of pilgrimage at all
the natives of the surrounding districts.



224 KISHENGANJ—KISORIGANJ.

The town contains a number of banking houses, and the
principal industrial occupations of the people are the manufacture of
cloth, the cutting of precious stones, and the manufacture of drinking
vessels of khas-khas. There is a post-office, a dharmsdld for the recep-
tion of native travellers, and a staging bungalow near the railway
station, outside of the city ; but European visitors are usually accom-
modated in the Phul-Mahal, a garden-house belonging to the Maharaja,
on the borders of the lake immediately below the palace. This last
building is the highest and most conspicuous part of the fort, and
commands a magnificent view over the surrounding country. An
Anglo-vernacular school, founded by the Maharaja in 1 88 2, is largely
attended.

Kishengailj (properly, KrisJmaganj). — Village and head-quarters of
a police circle (thdnd) in Bhagalpur District, Bengal; situated 33 miles
north of Bhagalpur town. Lat. 25 41' 10" n., long. 86° 59' 20" e.
Contains the second largest market in the District, at which a consider-
able retail trade is carried on. Government distillery. Population
(1872) 1150 males and 1130 females; total, 2280. Not separately
returned in the Census of 188 1.

Kishni. — Town in Sultanpur District, Oudh ; situated in lat. 26 35'
n., and long. 8i° 41' e., on the right bank of the river Giimti, occupy-
ing a high plateau surrounded by ravines. Founded about 400 years
ago, by Raja Kishan Chand, ancestor of the Mandarik Rajputs,
whose capital it remained until they lost their independence. Kishni
contained (1869) 532 houses and 2297 inhabitants. Not separately
returned in the Census Report of 1881. Chief building, a mosque
built in the reign of Alamgfr.

Kisoriganj. — Sub-division of Maimansingh District, Bengal. Lat.
24 2' 30" to 24 49' 30" n., and long. 90 38' to 91 ° 18' e. Area, 744
square miles. Population (1872) 362,436; (1881) 467,320, namely,
males 233,022, and females 234,298, showing an increase of 104,884,
or 28*94 per cent, in nine years. Classified according to religion, the
population in 1881 consisted of — Muhammadans, 292,479; Hindus,
174,808; and Christians, t,^. Number of towns and villages, 1682;
houses, 83,812. Proportion of males, 49*8 per cent.; density of
population, 628*12 persons per square mile; villages per square mile,
2*26; persons per village, 277; houses per square mile, 119*04;
persons per house, 5*58. This Sub-division, which was constituted in
i860, consists of the 3 police circles (thdnds) of Kisoriganj, Niklf, and
Bajitpur. In 1883 it contained a Deputy Magistrate and Collector's
court, and 2 munsifs 1 courts, a regular police of 72 men, besides a
village watch of 947.

Kisoriganj. — Town, municipality and head-quarters of Kisoriganj
Sub-division and police circle, Maimansingh District, Bengal ; situated



KISORIGANJ VILLAGE— KISTNA.

on the Kundali/C'/^//, 13 miles east of the Brahmaputra. Lat -4 16' 20"
N., long. 90 48' 40' e. Population (1872) 13,637; (xgg,) /,
namely, Hindus, 5587, and Muhammadans, 7311. The town is a
second-class municipality, with an income in 1883-84 of ^36- of
which ^312 was derived from taxation; average incidence of taxation
5fd. per head of the population (13,114) within municipal limits.
Kisonganj is connected with the Brahmaputra by a road, and also by
the KundaM kha/, which, however, is only navigable during the rainy
months. A fair is held here annually during the ]hu\an Ja/ra, a festival
in honour of the birth of Krishna, lasting for a month, from the middle
of July to the middle of August.

Kisoriganj.— Market village in Rangpur District, Bengal ; situated
on or near the Sankos river. Exports of rice, jute, and tobacco.

Kistawar.— Town in Kashmir State, Northern India, and former
capital of a small principality. Situated in lat. 33 18' 30" n., long. 75'
48' e. ; on the southern slope of the Himalayas, near the left bank of
the Chenab (Chinab), which here forces its way through a gorge with
precipitous cliffs some 1000 feet in height. Ill-built houses; small
bazar ; fort. Manufacture of inferior shawls and coarse woollens.
Elevation above sea-level, about 5000 feet.

Kistna (Krishna). — A British District in the Madras Presidency. It
lies along the coast of the Bay of Bengal at the mouth of the river Kistna
or Krishna, which gives it the name it bears; between lat. 15 ;;
and 1 7 10' n., and between 79 14' and 8i° 34' e. Bounded on the
north by Godavari District ; on the east by the Bay of Bengal ; on the
south by Nellore ; and on the west by the Nizam's Dominions and
Karmil (Kurnool). The District was formed in 1859 by the amalga-
mation of the two Collectorates of Guntiir and Masulipatam, a small
portion of the latter being assigned to Godavari District. Prior to
1859 there had been in existence the three Districts of Guntiir,
Masulipatam, and Rajamandri (Rajahmundry) ; but these were after
wards consolidated into the two Districts of Kistna and Godavari.
each containing its own irrigation system, constructed in the dell
the two rivers which give their names to the Districts. Area, 8471
square miles, or about the size of Wales. Population (1881 ) 1,54
persons. The administrative head-quarters are at M.wi if mam.

Physical Aspects. — Kistna District is, speaking generally, a flat
country; but the interior is broken by a few low hills, the chief ol which are
Bellamkonda, Kondavir, Kondapalli, Jamalavayadurga, and Medurj
the highest being 1876 feet above sea-level. The principal rivei
the Kistna (^.), which cuts the District into two portions known as the
Masulipatam and Guntiir divisions ; the Muhyeru, Paleru,and Naguleru
(tributaries of the Kistna), and the Gundlakamma ; the first 01.
practicable for navigation. The KoLAR (Koller) Lake, whi<
vol. VIII. >'



226 KISTNA.

an area of 21 by 14 miles, and the Romperu swamp, are natural
receptacles for the drainage on the north and south sides of the Kistna
respectively. Koller Lake is navigable from June or July, according
to the setting in of the heavy rains, till February. The whole coast is
fringed with ridges of blown sand, the most recent formation in the
District. These ridges or sandhills attain a height of from 30 to 50 feet,
and the belt of sand is sometimes more than a mile in width. In some
places the sand is bound by spinifex, ipomcea, and other plants, while
in some nooks grow cashew-nut bushes (Anacardium occidentale).
Plantations of the casuarina trees are being extended on these sands.

The geological survey of the District is completed. Iron and copper
exist, and at one time the mines were worked ; but the smelting of
copper is now a thing of the past, and that of iron is also dying out.
Diamond mines are still worked, to a very slight extent, in five border-
ing villages belonging to the Nizam ; and at other places in the District
there are traces of mines which were abandoned long ago. Garnets
and small rubies are also found. The most trustworthy account of
the Kistna diamond mines is that of the French jeweller, Tavernier,
w r ho made six journeys to India to purchase precious stones. At
one mine he visited, he relates that he found 60,000 people at
work. From these mines were obtained the Koh-i-niir and the Regent
diamonds.

A few tigers and leopards are found in the Kondavir and Kondapalli
Hills, and in the hilly part of the Nuzvfr zaminddri and the Palnad ;
antelopes in the plain ; and spotted deer and sdmbhar. Every variety
of the game birds of India, except the pheasant, woodcock, and
hill partridge, abounds in the District ; and almost all the known
inland aquatic birds are found on the Kolar (Koller) Lake, when
it is full. The most deadly of poisonous snakes, the Russell viper
(Daboia russellii), the cobra (Naja tripudians), carpet snake (Echis
carinata), and one kind of karait (Bungarus arcuatus), are also met
with.

Forests. — There is now very little forest within the limits of the Dis-
trict, though formerly the hills of the remote Palnad were covered with
timber. A small revenue of ^1368, derived from jungle conser-
vancy, is spent in planting groves, etc. Soap-nut jungle (Sapindus
emarginatus) is found in the Bapatla and Gudivada taluks. Repalle
taluk supplies firewood to Masulipatam. A plantation of casuarina
trees in the barren sandy wastes on the coast of Bapatla taluk lost
10,000 trees in the cyclone of 1879; the trees were sold as they lay
for 3d. each, and fetched is. each when brought by sea to Madras.
The chief obstacle to the formation of forest reserve is the Opuntia
vulgaris or prickly-pear cactus. As is the case with most hill forts in
India, custard-apple trees are found near the old strongholds of Konda-



KISTNA.

palli, Kondavir, and Bellam Konda. Generally speaking, the District

is bare of trees.

History. — The history of Kistna District may be divided into
periods: — the early or Hindu period; the Muhammadan period;
the French period; and the period of British administratis:!.
The early history of the District is inseparable from that of the
Northern Circars and Godvvari District. The earliest tribes
to settle in the forests that once covered the District, were the hunters,
whose representatives still survive as the Chentsus and Yerikalas.
For some time before and after the Christian era, Buddhism was firmly
established on the banks of the Kistna. The Brahmans were invited
in the third century a.d. The kingdom of Andra, with its capital
Vengi, is mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrim, who
came to India in 640 a.d. to visit its Buddhist monasteries. By that
time the Pallava kings of Vengi had been conquered by the Cha-
lukyan kings of Kalyanpur. The Chalukyan kings were succeeded 1 \
Chola kings from the south, and in the Guntiir country are found
traces of the rule of Chola viceroys. The Jain kings of Dharnikota
were the next, if not contemporary, rulers. And it was during the
Jain regime in 1290 that the Venetian, Marco Polo, landed at a fish-
ing village in the Bapatla taluk of this District. The Reddi kings of
Kondavir shortly afterwards divided the sovereignty of the country with
Orissa Rajas from Bengal. Reddi kings reigned from 1328 to 1424.
The Gajapatis of Orissa, who succeeded the Reddi dynasty, went down
before the great Karnatik kingdom of Vijayanagar. With the capture
of the Kondavir fortress in 1579, the Hindu rule of Vijayanagar
place to the Muhammadan conquerors.

The first Musalman king to enter Kistna District was Muhammad
Shah, second of the Bahmani line ; and a general delegated by him,
with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk, established a Muhammadan garrison in
the fort of Kondapallf. On the fall of the Bahmanis and the pari
of their kingdom into the five States of Bijapur, Bidar, Berar, Ahmad
nagar, and Golconda, the region round Kondapalli fell to the share
of Golconda. A series of attempts made by the neighbouring :
to wrest the District from Musalman hands were all attei
with failure. From this time until 1759, when the British received
Masulipatam and other portions of the District, the reign of Muham
madan princes was only disturbed by the occurrences which :
in what has been called the French period.

In 161 1, the English and Dutch were engaged in trade at the K
ports of Masulipatam and Nizamapatam. In 1686, Masulipatam m
seized by the Dutch. Three years afterwards (1689), the Dutcl
expelled by the forces of Aurangzeb, and the District was included in
one of the twenty-two Provinces of the Mughal Empire. From tin



228 KISTNA.

death of Aurangzeb in 1707 until the British took possession half a
century later, Kistna District formed part of the Subah of the Deccan ;
and it was during the Subahdarship of the last Muhammadan viceroy,
Salabat Jang, that the incidents of the French period occurred.

The French period is remarkable for the first active interference of
a European in the internal politics of the Deccan. In 1741, Monsieur
Dupleix was governor of Pondicherri, and in 1750 French troops
stormed and took Masulipatam. A few months later was fought the
battle in which Nasir Jang, then Subahdar of the Deccan, was slain.
Muzaffar Jang was by French aid installed at Haidarabad. Salabat
Jang succeeded Muzaffar Jang, and came also under the influence of the
French. During the tenure of Salabat, the assistance of the French
was required against the Marathas, and the exertions of French troops
were rewarded by a grant of the province of Kondavir. After a short
time, mainly through the instrumentality of the enterprising Monsieur
de Bussi, Monsieur Dupleix administered a territory with six hundred
miles of seaboard, and larger than any as yet possessed in India by a
European power. Monsieur de Bussi was superseded by the Marquis
de Conflans, on the arrival of Count Lally at Pondicherri. Meanwhile
the English in Bengal became alarmed at the progress of the French
in the Karnatik, and a detachment under Colonel Forde and Captain
Yorke was sent to Masulipatam. The place fell before their gallant
and almost desperate assault. Salabat Jang, on the defeat of his allies,
found himself compelled to sign a treaty with the English by which he
resigned the greater portion of Kistna District.

The opening of the British period was disturbed by a prospect of the
restoration of French influence ; but with the return of Lord Clive to
Bengal in 1765, British authority was confirmed, and imperial sanads
were obtained from the Emperor of Delhi granting to the East India
Company the five Northern Circars. The publication of the sanads took
the Nizam by surprise ; and abandoning a war he had on hand with the
Marathas, he turned his forces against the English. The Nizam was
joined by Haidar Ali of Mysore, but the hostilities which broke out in
1767 speedily ended with a treaty which left the Company tributary
to the Nizam for most of the territory at stake. Guntiir was assigned
to Basalat Jang, brother of the Nizam, for life, and became during the
next twelve years a focus for French and Haidarabad intrigue against
the English. But in 1788, with the rendition to the Company of the
Guntiir Circar, Kistna District, excepting the wild country of the
Palnad, became an integral part of the East India Company's posses-
sions. The absolute right of sovereignty over the whole District was
not obtained until 1823.

Population. — As in other Madras Districts, the population has been
roughly counted every five years by the agency of the village



KISTNA.

establishments. In j86i, it was estimated at 1,296,652. In .
when the first regular Census was taken, the population was returned
at 1,452,374. According to the Census taken on the night of February
17, 1881, the population was 1,548,480, showing an increase of o<
or 6'6 per cent., in the ten years. The density of population in
1 87 1 was 171 persons to the square mile; in 1881, the density
183. Kistna ranks fifteenth in respect of density of population
among the Districts of the Madras Presidency. Males in 1
numbered 780,588 ; females, 767,892. Classified according to age,
there were in 1881 — under 15 years, males 310,158, and females
300,326; total children, 610,484: 15 years and upwards, males
470,430, and females 467,566 ; total adults, 937,996. Number of I
13; villages, 1810; occupied houses, 268,849; unoccupied, 18,963; towns
and villages per square mile, '215 ; occupied houses per village, 1
persons per occupied house, 5*8. Distributed according to religion,
Hindus numbered 1,425,013, or 92 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 87,161,
or 5*6 per cent.; Christians, 36,194, or 2*3 per cent. ; Jains, 8 ; and
'others ' 104.

Taking the Hindu population by caste, there were — Brdhmans
(priests), 94,893; Kshattriyas (warrior caste), 11,569; Shettis (traders),
69,854; Vallalars (cultivators), 522,696, or over 36 per cent, of the
whole; Idaiyars (shepherds), 101,578; Kammalars (artisans), 34-5-
Kannakan (writers), 305; Kaikalars (weavers), 47> I 99 ; Vanniyan
(labourers), 24,459; Kushavan (potters), 16,363; Satani (mixed and
depressed castes), 18,606; Shembadavan (fishermen), 5573; Shanan
(toddy-drawers), 30,643; Ambattan (barbers), 16,557; Vannan (washer-
men), 44,276 ; pariahs and ' others,' 385,914. Divided into their tribes,
the Muhammadans were thus returned — Arabs, none; Mughals, 52 :
Pathans, 88; Sayyids, 204; Shaikhs, 1979; and 'other' Muhamma-
dans, 84,838. The Christian population according to sect consisted of—
Protestants, 24,471; Roman Catholics, 9804; and 'othei
The Christian population included Europeans and Americans,
Eurasians, 73 ; native converts, 15,967; * nd 'others,' 20,10a
half the population were returned as workers ; of the workers, 34 pel
cent, were women.

The Census of 1881 distributed the males into the foll<
six groups as regards occupation : — (1) Professional ludn

State officials of every kind and the learned profession .
domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, 3986 ; (3) commei
class, including bankers, merchants, carriers, etc, 1 ncltl "

tural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 340,224; (5)
class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 100,254: (6) mdefim
and non-productive class, comprising general labourers male childr
and persons of unspecified occupation, 294,546.



2 3 o KISTNA.

Of the 1823 towns and villages in Kistna District, 289 in 1881 con-
tained less than two hundred inhabitants ; 517 from two to five hundred;
495 from five hundred to one thousand ; 403 from one to two thousand;
80 from two to three thousand ; 28 from three to five thousand ; 8
from five to ten thousand ; 1 from ten to fifteen thousand : 1 from
fifteen to twenty thousand ; and 1 from twenty to fifty thousand.
The urban population forms 7*9 per cent, of the whole, distributed
through the following thirteen principal towns : — Masulipatam (35,056) ;
Guntiir (19,646); Jaggayapet (10,072); Bezwada (9336); Chirala
(9061); Bapatla (6086) ; Nuzvid (5657) ; Mangalagiri (5617); Chella-
palli (5615) ; Kondapalli (4289) ; Nizampatam (4128) ; Valliir (4070) ;
and Mylaveram (3704). Masulipatam and Guntiir are municipalities,
with a total income in 1883-84 of ^4766, the incidence of taxation being
iojd. per head of the municipal population. The language spoken in
the District is Telugu. The Chentsus and Yerikalas speak dialects of
their own. The Yanadis and Banjaras are gipsy tribes. In 1881, the
Yerikalas numbered 5914; the Banjaras, 5565 ; and the Yanadis, n.

The people of Kistna District are generally poor, but an exception
must be made in the case of the rdyats of the Delta, who are as
a rule very well off. Throughout the Delta, the houses are for the
most part built with brick walls, and tiled or terraced roofs ; in other
parts, they are of mud walls with tiled roofs. Rice is the food of
all classes in the Delta, but only well-to-do people use it in the other
parts of the District. The total monthly expenditure of a prosperous
shopkeeper's family, consisting of five persons, would be about 28s.,
and that of an ordinary peasant about 16s.

Agriculture. — Of the total area of 4,093,718 acres, 667,696 were in
1S82 held as indm or rent-free ; of the remaining 3,426,022 acres,
1,461,964 acres were under cultivation, of which 12,615 acres were
twice cropped ; the whole untilled but cultivable area was returned
at 964,108 acres, and the uncultivable waste at 879,126 acres. In
1882-83, of the total area (Government and indm) of 4,093,718 acres,
1,886,063 acres were under actual cultivation, of which 14,123 acres
were twice cropped; cereals occupied 1,264,608 acres; pulses, 111,841;
fibres, 202,874; dyes (chiefly indigo), 122,975; oil-seeds, 112,385;
sugar (palm or palmyra), 6680 ; condiments and spices (mostly chillies),
55,105; drugs and narcotics (principally tobacco), 20,170; orchard
and garden produce, 3201 ; and starches (chiefly potato), 357 acres.
The staples raised in the District are rice, maize, rdgi, pulses,
hemp, flax, cotton, tobacco, gingelly, oil-seeds, chillies, wheat, garlic,
indigo, and various kinds of fruit. There are three classes of crops
grown — namely, pwidsa (early crop), sown in May or June, and
reaped in September ; pedda (great or middle), sown from July to
September, and cut between November and February ; and paira



KISTNA,

(late crop), sown in November and December, and gathered in
February and March. Rice of all kinds is sown in regar or black
soil. The area under rice in 1882-83 was 351,330 acres, or iS pel
cent, of the whole cultivated area. The price of the best rice per
maund (80 lbs.) was, in the same year, 5s. 3d.

The Delta is irrigated by the water of the Kistna river, which has
been diverted into channels by the anicut at Bezwara at a cost of



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 27 of 64)