William Wilson Hunter.

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43 men; village watchmen, 185. Yearly land revenue, ,£18,663.

Kodachadri. — Mountain of the Western Ghats, boundary between
Shimoga District, Mysore State, and Kundalpur to I it k, South Kanara
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 13° 51' 40" x., long. 74 54' 40" E. ;
4446 feet above sea-level. A well-known landmark. On the M
side it rises 2000 feet from the plateau, and is clothed with magnificent
forests. Towards the west it falls precipitously to the plain of Kanara
for 4000 feet, and affords a view as far as the sea. Half-way up is a
temple to Huli Deva, the tiger-god.

KodagU. — The ancient name of Coorg. meaning 'Steep Mount
— See Coorg.

Kodaikanal (' The Forest of Creepers'). — Hamlet ofVilpatti village
in Palni taluk, on the Palni Hills, Madura District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. io° 13' 21" n., and long. 77 31' 3S" v.. A hill sanitarium, 7209
feet above sea-level. Population ofVilpatti (1S71) 757 : I [88i I 1080,
namely, 605 males and 475 females, occupying 210 houses. Hindus
numbered 794; Christians, 258; and Muhammadans, 28. Kodaikanal
is a summer resort of growing popularity. It contains two churches


and several English houses, and is about 40 miles by road from
Ammayanayakaniir station on the Tuticorin branch of the South Indian
Railway. The climate is similar to that of Utakamand (Ootacamund),
but somewhat milder, with a lighter rainfall, and without its raw and
treacherous moisture. But the site of the settlement is ill chosen,
and many more suitable spots exist on the Palni range.

Kodashiri. — Mountain in Cochin State, Madras Presidency. Lat.
io° 21' to io° 21' 45" n., and long. 76 23' 20" to 76 28' e.

Kodinar. — Town in the Amreli Division, Baroda State, Bombay
Presidency. Lat. 20 46' 30" x., long. 70 46' e. Population (1872)
6524; (1881) 6542, namely, 3291 males and 3251 females. Kodinar
is a walled town, situated in the Kathiawar peninsula on the bank of the
Singawada river, about three miles from the sea. There is a port
exporting grain, cotton, and ghi, and importing wheat, jodr, cloth,
spices, and dry goods. Vernacular school, post-office, and dispensary.

Kodlipet. — Town and municipality in the territory of Coorg, in the
extreme north of Yelusavirasime taluk. Distance from Merkara, 44
miles. Lat. 12 48' x., long. 75° 57' e. Population (1871) 1345;
(1881) 856, occupying 175 houses. Weekly market on Sundays; a
fine description of cloth is woven. School, with 15 pupils.

Kodumiir. — Town in Pattikonda taluk, Karmil (Kurnool) District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 15 41' 30" x., long. 77 50' 15" e. Popula-
tion (1871) 6064; (1881) 3736, namely, 1938 males and 1798 females.
Number of houses, 980. Hindus numbered 3097, and Muhammadans
639. Noted for its blankets.

Kodungallir ( Cranganore ; Kodungalur Singulyi — Yule ; Kzuanga-
loor — Tohfat-al-Mahajidin ; Cudnegalur and Crangalor — Bartolomeo).
— Town in Cochin State, Madras Presidency. Lat. io° 13' 50" x.,
long. 76 14' 50" e. Population (1876) 9475 ; number of houses, 1990.
Situated on the so-called island of Chetwai, at one of the three openings
of the great Cochin backwater, 18 miles north-north-west from Cochin
town. Now a place of little importance, but of great and varied
historical interest. Tradition assigns to it the double honour of having
been the first field of Saint Thomas' labours (a.d. 52 ?) in India, and the
seat of Cheruman PerumaTs government (a.d. 341). The visit of Saint
Thomas must be regarded as mythical. But it is certain that the
Syrian Church was firmly established here before the 9th century
(Burnell), and probably the Jews' settlement was still earlier. The
latter, in fact, claim to hold grants dated 378 a.d.

The cruelty of the Portuguese, and their Goa Inquisition, drove
most of the Jews to Cochin. Up to 13 14, when the Vypin harbour
was formed, the only opening in the back-water, and outlet for the
Periyar, was at Kodungalur, which must at that time have been
the best harbour on the coast. Dr. Day says : ' The Cranganore


(Kodungaliir) Division has been the scene of mo.t mom
changes in times gone by. Here the Jew and the Christian obi
a footing, and founded towns before the Portuguese landed in
India. Here the Perumals flourished and decayed. On this spot the
Portuguese fort was raised in 1523, which they contemplated making
the seat of their chief power in Malabar. Here fell the Portuguese
before Dutch prowess, whilst Cochin still continued in their possession.
Here the Dutch had to sell their fort and territory to a native prince,
before the British would fire a shot to hold back the victorious Tipu.
Now the fort is a ruin, mouldering in the dust, with but one solitary
tower overhanging the broad expanse of the river, which rolls on slowly
but deeply beneath. Its old moat is the resort of the crocodile and
paddy-bird ; and its once well-used streets resound no more to human
tread. The solitary stranger, perhaps, disturbs a snake in this path or
an owl in the dense overhanging trees, but rarely a mortal will meet his
eye. Cranganore fort is utterly and entirely deserted.'

In 1502, the Syrian Christians invoked the protection of the
Portuguese. In 1523, the latter built their first fort here; and in
1565 enlarged it. In 1661, the Dutch took the fort, the possession
of which for the next forty years was contested between the Dutch,
the Zamorin, and the Raja of Kodungaliir. In 1776, Tipu seized the
stronghold. The Dutch recaptured it two years later; and having
ceded it to Tipu in 1784, sold it to the Travancore Raja, and again
to Tipu in 1789, who destroyed and left it in the following year.

The present town consists of two villages, Metthala and Lakamalesh-
wara. In the latter are the ruins of some curious old pagodas. The
remains of the ancient watch-tower, and the palace of the titular Raja
of Kodungaliir, are of interest. A few miles inland is Ambalkota, where
the Jesuits had one of their earliest seminaries, and published in 1577
the first printed work in Malayalam. The town is considered of
sanctity both by Christians and Hindus.

Koel.— Tahsil in Aligarh District, North-Western Provinces. — See

Koel, North.— River of Chutia Nagpur, Bengal ; rises in lat 23 .;
n., and long. 84 30' e., in the Barwa Hills, in the west of Lohirdagrf
District; and, after passing through the centre of Palamau Sub-division,
falls into the Son (Soane) on the northern boundary of the District,
in lat. 24 32' n., and long. 83 56' e., about 20 miles above Dehrl
Tributaries— the Amanat and Auranga on the right, and some in
ficant streams on the left bank. The Koel has a rocky bed in its
earlier course, which becomes sandy as it nears the Son. Navigation is
obstructed by a ridge of gneiss rock crossing the river near Si
and even if this obstacle could be removed, the sudden freshets which
occur during the rains would render navigation extremely dangerous.

vol. viii. Q


Koel, South.— River of Chutia N£gpur, Bengal ; rises in lat. 23
18' 30" n., and long. 85 ° 6' 15" e., in Lohardaga District, a short
distance west of Ranchi town. It flows circuitously southwards,
until after a course of 185 miles it is joined by the Sankh river in the
Tributary State of Gangpur, whence the united stream becomes the
Brahmani, and ultimately flows into the Bay of Bengal in the north-
west of Cuttack District by the Dhamra estuary. The principal feeders
of the Koel are the North and South Karo, the Deo, and other minor

Kohat. — A British District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the
Punjab (Panjab), lying between 32 47' and 33 53' N. lat., and between
70 34' and 7 2 17' e. long. Kohat forms the south-western District
of the Peshawar Division, and is one of the north-western Districts
of the Punjab. It is bounded on the north by Peshawar District
and the Afridi Hills, and on the north-west by the Orakzai country ;
on the south by Bannu ; on the east by the river Indus ; and on the
west by the Zaimukht hills, the river Kuram, and the Waziri hills.
Area, 2838 square miles; population (1881) 181,540 persons. The
administrative head-quarters are at the town of Kohat.

Physical Aspect. — The District of Kohat consists chiefly of a bare
and intricate mountain region, deeply scored with river valleys and
ravines, but enclosing many rich valleys, and rendered economically
valuable by the rich deposits of rock-salt which occur amongst its
sterile hills. The eastern or Khatak country, especially, comprises a
perfect labyrinth of interlacing mountain ranges, which fall, however,
into two principal groups, to the north and south of the Teri Toi
river, although the line between them is not clearly marked by the
river. The hills in the north of the District are of limestone, and
those to the south of sandstone formation. The line of demarcation
between the two, however, generally runs a good deal north of the Teri
Toi. The lower Miranzai valley, in the extreme west, appears by
comparison a rich and fertile tract. In its small but carefully tilled
and abundantly irrigated glens, fig, plum, apricot, and many other
orchard trees flourish luxuriantly; while a brushwood of wild olive,
mimosa, and other thorny bushes, clothes the rugged ravines upon the
upper slopes, where, however, there are very few gardens. Occasional
grassy glades upon their sides form favourite pasture grounds for the
Waziri tribes.

The Teri Toi river, rising on the eastern limit of Upper Miranzai, and
running due eastward to the Indus, which it joins 12 miles north of
Makhad, divides the District into two main portions. The drainage
from the northern half flows southwards, in a complicated system,
into the Teri Toi itself, and northward into the parallel stream
of the Kohat Toi. That of the southern tract falls northwards also


into the Teri Toi, and southwards towards the Kuram and the Indus.
The frontier mountains, continuations of the Sated Koh system,
in places a considerable elevation, the two principal peaks, Dup
and Mazeo Garh, just beyond the British frontier, being 8260 and
feet above the sea respectively. The Waziri hills, on the south, extend
like a wedge between the boundaries of Bannu and Kohat, with a
general elevation of less than 4000 feet. The salt mines are situated
in the low line of hills crossing the valley of the Teri Toi, and e
ing along both banks of that river. The mineral occurs as a solid n> k
of bluish-grey colour, exposed at intervals for a distance of 40 miles,
so as to be quarried rather than mined. The deposit has a width of a
quarter of a mile, with a thickness of 1000 feet ; it sometimes forms
hills 200 feet in height, almost entirely composed of solid rock-salt,
and may probably rank as one of the largest veins of its kind in the
world. The most extensive exposure occurs at Bahadur Khel, in the
south of the District, on a stream draining into the Kuram river. Petro-
leum springs exude from a rock at Panoba, 23 miles east of Kohat ;
and sulphur exists in the northern range, but the supply of both is

History. — The annals of the District coincide with those of its two
principal tribes, the Khatak and Bangash Pathans, who constitute
together more than 60 per cent, of the population. The latter occupy
the Miranzai valley, with the western portion of Kohat proper; while
the Khataks hold the remainder of the eastern territory up to the bank
of the Indus. According to tradition, the Bangash Pathans were
driven from Gardez in the Ghilzai country by its present possessors,
and settled in the Kuram valley about the 14th century a.d. Thence
they spread eastward, over the Miranzai and Kohat region, fight-
ing for the ground inch by inch with the Orakzais, whom they O
up at last in the frontier hills. This migration probably took place
before the time of Babar, as that Emperor in his Memoirs mentions
the Bangash tribe among the races inhabiting the fourteen Provinces
of Kabul.

Throughout the Mughal period, their allegiance to the imperial
court seems to have been little more than nominal; but the Durani
Emperors extended their sway to these remote valleys, and Taimur
Shah collected a regular revenue from the Miranzai glens. Early
in the present century, Kohat and Hangu formed a governorship
under Sardar Samad Khan, one of the Barak/ai brotherhood, whose
leader, Dost Muhammad, usurped the throne of Afghanistan. The
sons of Sardar Samad Khan were driven out about 1828 by the 1
war Sardars, the principal of whom was Sardar Sultan Muhammad.
Meanwhile, the great Sikh reaction had been spreading on eve:;.
from its centre at Amritsar, and began to affect even the distant Pi

244 KOHAT.

hill country. In 1834, Ranjit Singh occupied Peshawar, and Sultan
Muhammad Khan retired to Kabul. But the Sikhs found themselves
unable to levy revenue from the hardy mountaineers ; and in the follow-
ing year Ranjit Singh restored Sultan Muhammad Khan to a position
of importance at Peshawar, and made him a grant of Kohat and Hangu.
Sardar Sultan Muhammad Khan continued to govern Kohat District
through his sons till the breaking out of the second Sikh w r ar. The
country, however, was generally in a disturbed state, and the Upper
Miranzai villages were practically independent. When the Sikh troops
took up arms at Peshawar on the outbreak of the second Sikh war,
George Lawrence, the British officer there, took refuge at Kohat, but
Sultan Muhammad played false, and delivered him over as a prisoner
to the Sikhs.

At the close of the campaign, Sultan Muhammad Khan and his
adherents retired to Kabul, and the District with the rest of the
Punjab was annexed to the British dominions. The boundaries to
the west were, however, left undefined. The people petitioned that
they had always belonged to Kohat, and in August 1851, Upper
Miranzai was formally annexed by proclamation, and an expedition
was immediately despatched up the valley to establish our rule. There
was no fighting beyond a little skirmishing with the Waziris near Biland
Khel. The lawless Miranzai tribes, however, had no desire to be under
either British or Afghan rule. They were most insubordinate, paid no
revenue, and obeyed no orders. Seeing this, the Punjab Government
wished to withdraw from Miranzai ; but the supreme authority super-
vened. The people still refused to pay revenue, and incursions across
the frontier continued to disturb the peace of the new District. At
last, in 1855, a force of 4000 men marched into the valley, enforced
the revenue settlement, and punished a recusant village at the foot of
the Zaimukht Hills. The Miranzais quickly reconciled themselves to
British rule; and during the Mutiny of 1857, no opposition of any sort
took place in the valley. In March 1858, it was finally decided that
the Kuram river was to form the western boundary of the District, thus
excluding Biland Khel on the opposite bank, which, although really a
part of Miranzai, was handed over to the Kabul Government.

The Khataks, who occupy the eastern half of the District, are an
important tribe, holding the west bank of the Indus for a distance of
120 miles from Hund, north of the Kabul river in Peshawar, to Kala-
bagh in Bannu. According to tradition, they left their native home in .
the Sulaiman mountains about the 13th century, and settled in Bannu
District. Thence they migrated northward two hundred years later,
through a quarrel with the ancestors of the Bannuchis, and occupied
their present domains. One of their leaders, Malik Akor, agreed with
the Emperor Akbar to protect the country south of the Kabul river

KOHAT. 245

from depredations, and received in return a grant of territory with
right of levying tolls at the Akora ferry. He was thus enabled to
assume the chieftainship of his tribe, and to hand down his authority
to his descendants, among whom was the warrior poet, Khushal Khan.

The Khatak chiefs ruled at Akora ; but after the establishment of the
power of Ahmad Shah Durani, it became the custom for a junior
member of the family to rule as sub-chief at Teri. This office gradually
became hereditary, and the sub-chiefs ruled the Western Khataks in
complete independence of the Akora chiefs. The history of these
affairs is very confused. The Akora chiefs were constantly interfering
in Teri affairs. There were generally two or more rival claimants ; the
chiefship was constantly changing hands, and assassination and rebellion
were matters of every-day occurrence. On the occupation of Pesha-
war by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh, the rival claimants were Rasiil
Khan and Biland Khan. At last, in 1835, Ranjit Singh granted Kohat
and Hangu to Sultan Muhammad Khan Barakzai, to whom Rasiil Khun
submitted, and obtained the government in return for a fixed tribute.
Rasiil Khan held peaceable possession till his death in 1843 ; when he-
was succeeded by his adopted son, Khwaja Muhammad Khan. The
latter was subsequently expelled for a short time by Muhammad Khan ;
but on the retirement of the Afghans from Peshawar, at the close of
the campaign of 1848, he again assumed the government of the Ten
country, in which the British authorities confirmed him, after the
annexation. Khwaja Muhammad has proved himself a loyal subject j
and in 1872 he obtained the title of Nawab, with the Knight Com-
mandership of the Star of India.

Population.— -The Census of 1855 returned the number of inhabitants
of Kohat District at 101,232. That of 1868 showed an increase of
44,187 persons, or 43-64 per cent. The latter enumeration extended
over an area of 2838 square miles, and it disclosed a total population
of 145,419 persons, distributed among 343 villages or townships, and
inhabiting 28,639 houses. In 1881, over the same area, the Census
returned a population of 181,540, showing a further increase of
36,121, or 24-8 per cent., since 1868. Total number of towns and
villages in 1881, 367; number of houses, 22,442; families, ja
Total population, 181,540, namely, males 101,369, and females 80,171.
From these data the following averages may be deduced :— Persoi
square mile, 64; villages per square mile, 0-13; houses per squari
mile, 9 ; persons per village, 494 ; persons per house, S'io ; proportion
of males, 55-62 per cent. Classified according to age, there
under 15 years - 40, 1 8 1 boys, and 3 4,747 i^ \ u,lal dllk ^ n '
74,928, or 41-3 per cent.; above 15 years of age-males, 01,
females, 45,424; total adults, 106,612, or 58-7 per cent.

As re-ards reli-ious distinctions, the District retains the M

246 KOHAT.

man faith of its early Pathan settlers. The Muhammadans number
169,219 persons, or 93*21 per cent., as against 9828 Hindus,
or 5*41 per cent.; 2240 Sikhs, or 1*23 per cent.; Jains, 41;
and Christians, 212. The Hindus chiefly belong to the trading
castes. They comprise 882 Brahmans, 1383 Khetris, and 5233
Aroras, with a small sprinkling of Rajputs, Jats, and Ahirs. Among
the Muhammadans, 7776 rank as Sayyids ; but the Pathans form
by far the largest division, numbering 116,431, or over two-thirds of
the whole population, consisting mainly of the Khatak and Bangash
tribes. The Khatak Pathans are tall and good-looking mountaineers,
fairer than their Peshawar brethren ; and though naturally wild and
lawless, have settled down under our firm administration into peaceful
subjects. The Bangash possess an equally fine physique, but lie under
the imputation of cowardice.

The District contains only one town with a population exceeding 5000
— viz. Kohat, the head-quarters station, with a total in 1881 of 18,179
inhabitants, including suburbs and military cantonment; Hangu, the
capital of the Upper Bangash, and Teri, head-quarters of the Khatak
Nawabs, also possess a certain political importance. Of the 367 villages
in the District in 1881, 148 contained less than two hundred
inhabitants ; 127 from two to five hundred ; 53 from five hundred to a
thousand ; 27 from one thousand to two thousand ; 6 from two to three
thousand ; 5 from three to five thousand ; and 1 upwards of five
thousand inhabitants.

As regards occupation, the Census of 1881 classified the male adults
under the seven following headings: — (1) Professional, 9035; (2)
domestic, 1669; (3) commercial, 1700; (4) agricultural and pastoral,
30,681; (5) industrial and manufacturing, 9246; (6) indefinite and
non-productive, 4701 ; (7) unspecified, 4156.

Agriculture. — Kohat District, though limited in its capabilities by its
generally hilly surface, has made rapid progress in cultivation since the
introduction of British rule. At the date of annexation, only 64,772
acres were under cultivation, out of a total area of 1,816,600 acres ;
but the figures rose steadily, being returned at 76,792 acres in
1860-61; 160,900 acres in 1868-69; I 63,oi5 acres in 1873-74; and
201,947 acres in 1876-77, when measurements were first taken by the
Settlement Department. These figures, however, are approximate only,
and probably considerably in excess of the truth, as in 1881-82, when
a circuit of the District was made by the patwdris or village account-
ants, the cultivated area was ascertained to be only 145,845 acres. In
the period of anarchy under the Barakzai Sardars, tillage had almost
disappeared ; the cattle had been carried off, and the zaminddrs had
fled to the hills. But since annexation, the area under the plough
has increased by 125 percent.


The agricultural staples include wheat and barley for the
harvest, with rice, millet, Indian corn, and pulses fur the aui
crops. Tobacco, mustard, and oil -seeds also cover small .
and cotton of inferior quality is grown in favourable years.
area under each crop in 1881-82 was returned as :
Wheat, 48,950 acres; barley, 18,765 acres; Indian cor
acres; rice, 4201 acres; bdjra, 35,581 acres \ jodr, 287 acres; ka
1883 acres; gram, 5860 acres; moth, 2715 acres; mOg and mash,
5006 acres; cotton, 2822 acres; etc. Cultivation has now nearly
reached its utmost limit in the glens and hollows of these barren
hills. Irrigation from the hill streams supplied water to 40,607
in 1882-83. Manure is abundantly used in lands near the villages,
and more sparingly elsewhere. Rotation of crops exist only in its
simplest form.

Prices ruled as follows on the 1st of January 1S73 : — Wheat,
18 sers per rupee, or 6s. 3d. per cwt. ; barley, 34 sers per rupee,
or 3s. 4d. per cwt. ; Indian corn, 25 sers per rupee, or 4s. 6d. per
cwt. ; bdjra, 26 sers per rupee, or 4s. 4d. per cwt. During the
recent Afghan campaigns, the prices of all descriptions of food-gn
all sorts rose extremely high. Prices have since fallen, but up to the
end of 1882 had not sunk to their normal rates before the war. On
the 1 st January 1882, wheat was 14 sers per rupee, or 8s. per cwt. ;
barley, 29^ sers per rupee, or 3s. 9jd. per cwt.; Indian corn, 21 J, sers
per rupee, or 5s. 2|d. per cwt. ; and bdjra, 19 sers per rupee, or 5s. tid.
per cwt. In October 1882, rates were — for wheat, 18$ sers per rupee,
or 6s. id. per cwt. ; barley, 30^7 sers per rupee, or 3s. 8d. per cwt :
Indian corn, 24 sers per rupee, or 4s. 8d. per cwt. ; and bdjra, z~
per rupee, 4s. 5d. per cwt.

Commerce and Trade, etc.— The principal industry of the District is
that of its salt mines, situated in the range of hills along the Ten ToL
Five mines are now open — Malgin and Jatta on the northern bank,
and Narri, Bahadur Khel, and Kharrak on the opposite side of the
river (each of which see separately). Traders resort to the mines
Afghanistan and the Punjab towns. The Preventive Establishment,
maintained by Government for the protection of the salt revenue,
prised in 1881 a body of 208 officers and men. The total quanl
salt quarried at all five mines during the year iS 70-71, an
407,098 maiuids, or 294,680 cwt., yielding a duty of ,£8556. In I
the total quantity of salt quarried was 525,494 standard l
375,352 cwt., yielding a duty of ^9°73- The average duty n
during the nine years ending 18S1-S2 was ^9°93 a )' car - ;
nourishes chiefly during the winter months, as the camels cannot
in the hottest part of the summer. The headquarters of the
establishment are at Jatta. Gun and ritle barrels ma-

24 8 KOHAT.

Kohat town have a considerable reputation along the north-western
frontier. Coloured scarves, woollen carpets, country cloth, and pottery
are also made at Kohat, Hangu, and Teri.

The frontier military road forms the chief channel of communication
for wheeled conveyances and artillery. There is a good metalled road
to Kushalgarh (29 miles), a point on the Indus on the road to Ravval
Pindi, where there is a good boat bridge, and the terminus of a branch

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 29 of 64)