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of the Punjab Northern State Railway. The road to Bannu is metalled
in patches, but is barely practicable for wheeled traffic. A road via
Hangu to Thai was commenced during the Afghan war, and although
much money was spent, it was abandoned while still unfinished. One
or two roads led into Peshawar District via Mir Kalan and Khairabad,
but they are not practicable for wheeled traffic. The road to Peshawar
leads for 12 miles through Afridi territory, through a defile known as
the Kohat Pass, a rough tract frequently covered with large boulders.
The above are the only roads in the District ; the cross tracks between
the different villages are often difficult even for horsemen. They cross
rough rocky hills and precipitous ravines, and in the cultivated tracts
are much broken up by irrigation cuts. The Frontier Telegraph Line
from Peshawar crosses the District, with a station at Kohat town.

Administration. — The total imperial revenue raised in the District
during the year 1851-52 amounted to ^9824. By 1882-83, the
revenue had increased to ^14,477, of which ^8909 were derived from
the land. The other principal items of revenue are salt and stamps.
A small Provincial and local revenue is also raised for home expendi-
ture. The administrative staff consists of a Deputy Commissioner, with
one or more Assistant and extra - x^ssistant Commissioners. Nawab
Khwaja Muhammad Khan, K.C.S.L, of Teri, exercises the powers
of an honorary magistrate within the Teri Sub-division. In 1882,
the District contained 10 civil and revenue judges, and as many
magistrates.

The imperial police force in 1882 numbered 439 officers and men,
besides a municipal constabulary of 54 men at Kohat ; the rural watch-
men (chaukiddrs) numbered 115 men; making a total force of 608, or
one to every 4*66 square miles of area and every 299 of the population.
The District jail at Kohat had a daily average of 164 prisoners in
1882. The troops quartered in the District usually comprise 1 mountain
battery and 1 garrison battery of artillery, 1 regiment of cavalry, and
3 regiments of infantry, making a total of about 3000 men of all
arms. The head-quarters are at Kohat town, but numerous outposts
are maintained along the frontier line. Education remains in a
very backward stage. Four Government or aided schools, and 43
indigenous schools, had a total roll of only 745 pupils in 1872-73. In
1882, the Government-inspected schools numbered only 6, with 632



KOHAT TAI1SIL AND TOWN.

pupils, while the indigenous village schools were returned at 251, with
2447 pupils. The only municipality in the District is that
town (q.v.).

Medical Aspects. — The proximity of the hills renders Kohat
paratively cool, except during the summer months; hut no record oi
temperature is available. The rainfall for the sixteen years ending
1881-82 is returned as follows: — 1866-67, l S' 1 inches; 1867-68, 141
inches; 1868-69, J 3'4 inches; 1869-70, 19-1 inches; 1870-71, 187
inches; 1871-72, 18*4 inches; 1872-73, 24 inches; 1873-74, 18
inches; 1874-75, 24*4 inches; 1875-76, 30-6 inches; 1876-77, 24-5
inches; 1877-78, 34-9 inches; 1878-79, 25-3 inches; 1879-80, 8-6
inches; 1880-81, 15*3 inches; 1881-82, 13-9 inches: annual a\^
19*64 inches.

The health of the cantonment and civil station, which formerly bore
a bad reputation, has materially improved of late years, owing to the
introduction of a better water-supply. In the District, smallpox, fevers,
and bowel complaints form the principal endemic diseases. The
number of recorded deaths from all causes reported in 1882 amounted
to 3178, or 17 per thousand; but these figures cannot be regarded as
trustworthy. Of the total, 2262 were assigned to fever, and 316 to
small-pox. The 3 Government charitable dispensaries at Kohat, Hangu,
and Teri afforded relief in 1882 to 30,052 persons, of whom S21 were
in-patients. [For further information regarding Kohat, see the forth-
coming Gazetteer of Kohat District, to be published by the authority
of the Punjab Government in the course of the present year (1885).
Also the Punjab Census Report for 1881; and the several Annual Pro-
vincial Administration and Departmental Reports from 1S80 to 1884. ]

Kohat.— North-eastern iahsil of Kohat District, Punjab, com
of a rugged hilly tract stretching below the Orakzai mountains. Area,
803 square miles. Population (t88i) 65,245, namely, males 37,249, and
females 27,996; average density, 81 pe.sons per square mile. (
fled according to religion — Muhammadans numbered 59,71 1 ; Hindus,
3901 ; Sikhs, 1566; and ' others,' 67. Revenue of the tahsil, £s i 1*<
The administrative staff, including head-quarters offices, compi
Deputy Commissioner, with 4 Assistant or extra-Assistant Commis-
sioners, 1 tahsilddr, 1 munsif, and 4 honorary magistrates. These
officers preside over 9 civil and 10 criminal courts; number of police
circles (t/idnds), 5; strength of regular police, 148 men; village watch-
men {chaukiddrs), 79.

Kohat— Town, municipality, military cantonment, and administi
head-quarters of Kohat District, Punjab. Situated in lat. 33' 35' 3
and long. 71 28' 43" e., near the north bank of the Kohat Toi river, 2
miles from the southern base of the Afrfdi Hills. Distant fr<
war 37 miles south, from Bannu 84 miles north-east, from Rawal Pindl



250 KOHAT TOI—KOHISTAN.

105 miles west. Elevation above sea-level, 1767 feet. Population
(1868), including cantonments, 11,274. Population (1 881)— town and
suburbs, 13,490; cantonments, 4689; total, 18,179; namely, Muham-
madans, 13,752; Hindus, 2798; Sikhs, 1562; and 'others,' 67.
Number of houses, 2061. The present town lies in an amphitheatre
of hills, at some distance from the old site. Built on undulating
ground, with excellent natural drainage. One good main street ; the
remainder are tortuous alleys, often ending in ciils-de-sac. Surrounded
by a slight wall, 12 feet in height. Government schoolhouse ; jail.
Small trade, but of relative importance as the chief mart for the hill
tribes, who bring down grass and firewood. Manufacture of gun and
rifle barrels, at a village near the site of the old town.

The cantonment and civil station lie to the east and north-east of the
native town, occupying an elevated site. There is accommodation for
about 3000 troops, including a battery of artillery, 1 regiment of
cavalry, and 3 regiments of infantry, together with a garrison company
of artillery, stationed in the fort. Climate pleasant; but the water-
supply is polluted, and the general unhealthiness of the station has been
attributed to this cause. The fort, erected by the British Government
after the annexation, stands north of the cantonment and town.

Municipal revenue in 1875-76, ^757 ; the highest amount of muni-
cipal income ever realized was ^3477 in 1880-81, but this was solely
due to the large trade of the town during the Afghan war. In 1882-83,
the municipal revenue was ,£1527, or an average of 2s. 3d. per head of
population (13,490) within municipal limits.

Kohat Toi. — River in Kohat District, Punjab; rises beyond the
British frontier, in the valley which separates the two parallel ranges
of the Orakzai Hills. Issues upon British territory, in lat. ^Z 3 6 ' N ->
and long. 71 9' e., a little north-east of Hangu. Receives a consider-
able tributary, which drains the Lower Miranzai valley, and opposite
Kohat town sweeps southward, diverted by the curve of the Adam Khel
Afridi Hills; fifteen miles lower down, turns eastward, and, after a
further course of 17 miles, falls into the Indus, in lat. 33 24' n., and
long. 71 51' e., 36 miles south-east of Kohat in a straight line.

Kohistan.— Taluk or Sub-division of Karachi (Kurrachee) District,
Sind, Bombay Presidency. Area, 2652 square miles. Population
(1872) 5681; (18S1) 11,957. Bounded on the north by the Sehwan
Sub-division ; on the east by the Jherak (Jerruck) Sub-division ; on the
south by the Kadeji Hills and Karachi taluk; and on the west by the
Hab river and the Kithar range. Consists of a barren and hilly tract
of country, composed of outlying spurs from the Kirthar range. The
southern portion merges into several extensive plains, separated by low
lines of hills, which afford abundance of forage for herds of cattle
from the neighbourhood of the Indus after falls of rain. The valley









KOHISTAN.

of the Mohul, 20 miles long by 10 broad, is enclosed by hi.
feet altitude. The chief streams are the Hab, Ikiran, and Malir. N<
canals exist; agriculture is all but unknown; and the Baluchi
live almost entirely by pasturing goats and sheep.

The population is nomadic and fluctuating, the whole taluk
taining only 6 permanent villages. The Balrichfs inhabit chiefly the
northern portion; the Numrias and Jokias, who are Sindi tribes, range
over the central hills and the southern plains. As a rule, none of the
people erect any buildings more substantial than a mat hut, whi<
be put up in a couple of hours. The Niimrias or ' nine men,' who are
descended from a family of Rajput freebooters and exiles, are especially
averse to dealings with Government, and all the tribes are
adepts at cattle-lifting.

The treasury derives no revenue from this extensive taluk, as
the land-tax has been remitted for twenty years, the cost of its collec-
tion proving to be greater than the amount realized. The Govern-
ment establishment consists only of a kotwdl, with the powers of a
subordinate magistrate. The police force comprises 77 men, under a
chief constable. The principal village is Biila Khan's Thano, which
communicates by road with Kotri (32 miles east) and Karachi (67
miles south-west).

The ancient system of blood-feud still prevails amongst the
Baluchi tribes of Kohistan, inducing much bloodshed and internal
confusion. A feud may arise from the most trivial causes, such
as a wrestle, in which a man of one tribe knocks off the turban
of a man belonging to another clan. The insult thus offered i>
supposed to extend to all the relations and tribesmen on either side.
and can only be wiped out in the blood of the offender himself or his
family. When the insulted tribe has thus taken vengeance for the
affront, the other tribe proceeds to avenge in turn the murder of their
clansman, and in this manner the quarrel may continue for many
years. To check this state of things, it becomes necessary to inv
the chief of the tribe, though sometimes the injured party, whose turn
it is to take revenge, so as to prevail upon him to accept a com;
tion in the shape of money, camels, or cattle ; after which the I
a natural death.

A former Collector relates a case in which one Ndr Muhammad.
an influential member of the Barejo tribe, seduced a I.e.:
woman, and slew her husband. He attempted to purchase peace,
but the Loharam's refused. He was tried for murder, but es<
through the inapplicability of English procedure to such wild and
barbarous tribes. In a little time some Loharanis were found with arm>
in their hands, going to murder their enemy, and were bound 01
keep the peace. Shortly afterwards, however, in 1S71, his toemen met



252 KOIL—KOKUR.

him in a pass near Taung, and cut him to pieces with swords, together
with his stepson. When the case came on for trial, the Barejos tried
to implicate a third man, a Gabol, as they had a feud with that branch
of the tribe also. This example will illustrate the continuance of the
vendetta amongst the rude Baluchi clansmen, even after twenty-five
years of British rule.

Koil. — Central northern tahsil of Aligarh District, North-Western
Provinces ; comprising the pargands of Koil, Morthal, and Barauli, and
consisting for the most part of a level and well-tilled plain, watered by
the Ganges Canal, and traversed by the East Indian and Oudh and
Rohilkhand Railways. The tahsil is divided into unequal parts by the
Grand Trunk Road, and into two still more unequal portions by the
Ganges Canal. Total area, according to the Settlement Records of
T ^74 5 356 square miles, or 227,897 acres, of which 5575 acres were
held revenue free, and 53,088 acres were barren. The assessable area
was 169,234 acres, of w r hich 151,856 acres were under cultivation, and
17,378 acres cultivable. Population (1872) 230,894 ; (1881) 227,654,
namely, males 123,029 and females, 104,625, showing a decrease of 3240
in the nine years since 1872. Classified according to religion, there
were, in 1881 — Hindus, 188,443; Muhammadans, 38,128; Jains, 786;
and 'others,' 297. Number of villages, 348, of which 247 contained
less than five hundred inhabitants. Land revenue (Settlement Report,
1874), ^36,057 ; total Government revenue, ^39,662 ; rental paid by
cultivators, ,£57,671. In 1883, the tahsil contained, including the
general head-quarters courts for the District, 4 civil and 10 criminal
courts ; number of police circles (thd/ids), 3 ; strength of regular police,
275 men; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 359.

Koil. — Town and municipality in Aligarh District, North-Western
Provinces. — See Aligarh Town.

Koil Kuntla. — Taluk or Sub-division of Karmil (Kurnool) District,
Madras Presidency. Area, about 530 square miles. Population
(1881) 76,296, namely, 38,196 males and 38,100 females. Hindus
numbered 68,699; Muhammadans, 6420; and Christians, 1 177.
Villages, 86; houses, 17,747. In 1883 there were 2 criminal courts;
regular police, 63 men ; police stations, 9. Land revenue, ^23,245.

Koilpatti. — Revenue-free village in Satiir taluk, Tinnevelli District,
Madras Presidency. Population (1881) 1213; houses, 262. Hindus
numbered 1139; Muhammadans, 18; and Christians, 56. Station on
the South Indian Railway, Madras to Tuticorin ; market on Monday ;
police station.

A zaminddri estate, consisting of n villages; area, 12,836 acres,
paying a peshkash or permanent assessment of ^323; annual revenue
derived by the zaminddr, ^1058.

Kokiir. — Celebrated spring in Kashmir State, Northern India;



KOL. 253

situated at the northern base of the Pir Panjal Mountain. Lai
3,6' N., long. 75 19' e. Issues by six mouths from the bottom
limestone cliff. The stream thus formed flows into the Bareng river.
Thornton mentions that the Afghan court, when established in
Kashmir, drank no other water except that of the Kokiir spring.

Kol. — The name of a collection of aboriginal tribes, mainly occupy-
ing the mountainous districts and plateaux of the Chutia Nagpur
Division of Bengal, and found to a smaller extent in the Tributary
States of Orissa, and in some Districts of the Central Provinces. Kol
is a generic word for the whole group of tribes included linguistically
within the term Kolarian ; but it is generally applied in a more
restricted sense, embracing the three principal tribes, the Munda Kols,
whose home is in Lohardaga District; the Larka Kols or Hos of Sing-
bhiim District; and the Bhiimij Kols of Manbhum. Of this latter
tribe, those who live on the borders of Chutia" Nagpur proper recognise
no distinction between themselves and the Mundas. They intermarry,
and associate and coalesce in all matters indicating identity of race.
The Bhiimij farther to the east have become too Hinduized to acknow-
ledge the relationship ; and those of Dhalbhum on the borders of
Midnapur consider themselves autochthones, and will not admit that
they are in any way connected with the Mundas or Hos.

Origin. — Behar, the ancient Magadha, has numerous antiquities
attributed to the Cherus and Kols ; and from traditions handed down,
it appears that the sovereigns of the country were at one time Cherus,
the people being for the most part Kols. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton
points to Kabar, the most important of the ruins in Behar attributed
to the Cherus or Kols, as evidently the work of a powerful ruler,
and probably the stronghold of the princes of the race. Numerous
antiquities, forts, and ruins are universally ascribed by the present
inhabitants of Behar to that ancient dynasty and primitive race. Ac-
cording to legends and texts in the Rig-veda and the Bhagavata Purrina,
Cherus and Kols occupied the Magadha country at the time of the
birth of Gautama Buddha; and it has been noticed that the sculptures
at Buddh-Gaya portray not Aryan, but Turanian or Kol features. 1 >r.
Buchanan-Hamilton states that the dominant race, the Cherus. probably
accepted the doctrines of Buddha and became Aryanized, while the
Kols rejected them, and adhered to the life of freedom in which they
are still found. The Kols appear as the earliest historical settlers in
the Gangetic valley; and they had been long established there, and
had attained some advance in civilisation, when they were dislodged
and driven back by the Savars, a Dravidian people, about 500 A.D.

The following description of the Kols of the present day is quoted
in a condensed form from Colonel Dalton's description in his hthno-
logy of Bengal (Calcutta, 1872), to which admirable work the re



254 K0L -

referred for a full account of these and the other Kolarian tribes (pp.
150 to 235).

' Of the great Kol empire there are now no remnants in Behar. The
Cheru chiefs, on being expelled from it, fell back into what is now the
Palamau Sub-division of Lohardaga ; whilst the chief seat of the Munda
race is now the plateau of Chutia Nagpur proper. The central table-
land, on which the tribes rallied, is admirably adapted for defence.
The approaches to it from the north, north-west, east, and south, are
exceedingly precipitous, the paths winding up defiles which a handful
of resolute men could hold against hosts of invaders. The highlands
in the western and south-western direction stretch into Sarguja and
Jashpur, uniting with the Vindhyan mountains in a western direction
and the Satpura range to the south-west. They divide the waters of
the Narbada and Mahanadi, forming a covered way by which fresh
accessions of cognates strengthened the growing colonies of Kols on
the Jharkhand or forest tract ; and thus were founded the " strongholds
of the ten chiefs," referred to in the Puranas, and in Colonel Wilford's
essays, as the Dasarana, or ten forest forts east of the Son. These
Jharkhand or Chutia Nagpur chiefs appear to have maintained their
isolated and elevated defensive positions throughout the long series
of Hindu dynasties, and to have come with an indifferent reputation
under the Muhammadan Government.

' Little is found in Munda or Bhumij folk-lore that throws light on
the early history of the race. The families that rank highest among
them have lost such traditions in the hazy fables which Hindus have
invented for them. The lower classes, as a rule, declare themselves to
be autochthones ; and even the chiefs found their claims to be of noble
birth on miracles that took place in the country which they call their
fatherland. But in a manuscript account of the family of the Rajas of
Chutia Nagpur, it is stated that the Mundaris came to Jharkhand,
afterwards called Chutia Nagpur, from Pipra and Paligarh, names that
occur in the Santal traditions.

1 Village Organization.— -The Mundas say they had no Raja when
they first occupied Chutia Nagpur. They formed a congeries of small
confederate states. Each village had its chief, also called a munda,
literally " a head " in Sanskrit ; and as a village often consisted of one
family, the inhabitants were all of Munda dignity, and hence it became
a name for the whole tribe. What the original name for the tribe in
their own language may have been, I do not know ; but as the Mun-
daris on the plateau call themselves Konk Pat Munda, Konk or
Konkpat may have been a national denomination. They appear to
have only one word for ruler, the term gumki, and they apply it to
every one in authority. In Manbhiim District, the word munda be-
comes mura, which is also Sanskrit, and has the same meaning. As



KOL.

these Kols have taken up the word munda, the Santals have appropri-
ated the term mdnj/ii, and the Bhdmij sirddr. The Munda vi

had each its own staff of officers ; and from the customs that still ;
in most old villages, the organization that descended from primitive
times appears to have been very complete. The system mment

that obtained among the Mundas and Unions of Chutia Nagpur,
their polity was disturbed by the conversion of their < hie£ may still be
discerned in the existing organization. The country was divided into
groups of twelve or more villages, called par/ids, each under a I
man, who was generally called the munda. Although not recogl
by the authorities in the administrative divisions of the present time,
the people still acknowledge the par/id jurisdiction ; and questions
affecting their social relations are still adjusted in par Ad cone lave.
Each village had, besides, its establishment of hereditary public
servants, who still exist. The principal of these are the representatives
of the most influential of the patriarchs. They originally formed the
colony, and each is literally a pillar of the little state called khunt.
The head of one of these khunts or families is the chief or munda,
of another the pd/in, or priest, and there is sometimes a third called
md/iato, the munda 's deputy. The headmen had no superior rights in
the lands cultivated by other villagers. They were not landlords but
chiefs, and they and the people acknowledging them held the soii they
cultivated in virtue of being the heirs of those who first utilized
it ; and when it became necessary to distinguish such men from culti-
vators of inferior title, the former were called bhuinhdrs, breakers of the
soil. When the Mundas and Uraons submitted to a Raja, and all
were required to contribute to his maintenance, the people in each
village were divided into two classes. The more privileged, who
retained the designation of bhuinhdr, had to give honorary attendance,
and constituted the militia of the state. The remainder supplied
and raiment; but these obligations were eventually commute
money payment or rent, and the lands cultivated by this class were
called rdjhas, or rent-paying, in contradistinction to the bhuh
which were, no doubt, originally rent-free. At a late period, the
was allowed to hold in each village a proportion of land i
mdnji/ias, which was cultivated for his sole benefit; and ti
who cultivated this land for him or his assigns had lands allotted to
them, subject to no other service and no rent, called belli
Besides the above, there were lands set apart for the expenses periodi-
cally incurred in the propitiation of the national and local deiti
which means the Kols provided against the dangers that threatened
their gods from impending changes of belief. The produce of the
lands has never, so far as known, been appropriated to the 5 rvi
the Hindu divinities, though the people contribute something yearly



2 5 6 KOL.

towards the public worship of Kali, inaugurated by the zamindars /
if, however, the villagers were all to adopt a new religion, they would
doubtless assert their right to devote the assets of what may be called
their church lands to the service of the newly-adopted faith.

' The Religion of the Mundas possesses a Shamanistic rather than a
Fetish character. They make no images of their gods, nor do they
worship symbols ; but they believe that, though invisible to mortal
eyes, the gods may, when propitiated by sacrifice, take up for a time
their abode in places especially dedicated to them. Thus they have
their "high places" and their "groves," — the former, some mighty
mass of rock to which man has added nothing, and from which he
takes nothing; the latter, a fragment of the original forest, the trees
in which have been for ages carefully protected, left when the clearance
was first made, lest the sylvan gods of places, disquieted at the whole-
sale felling of the trees that sheltered them, should abandon the
locality. Even now, if a tree is destroyed in the sacred grove (the
jdhird or sama), the gods evince their displeasure by withholding
seasonable rain. Sing Bonga, the creator and preserver, is adored as
the sun. Prayer and sacrifice are made to him as to a beneficent
deity, who has no pleasure in the destruction of any of his creatures,
though, as a father, he chastises his erring children ; and to him our
gratitude is due for all the benefits we enjoy. He is said to have
married Chandra Omol, or the moon, but she deceived him on one
occasion and he cut her into two ; but repenting of his anger, he allows
her at times to shine forth in full beauty. The stars are her daughters.
The worship of the sun as the supreme deity is the foundation of the
religion of the Kols in Chutia Nagpur, and also of the Uraons, who
address him as Dharmi, the Holy One. He is not regarded as the



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 30 of 64)