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KONKAN.

Kanara has been transferred from Madras to the Bombay Pi
and now constitutes the southernmost District of the D
as the Konkan.

Physical Aspects, Natural History, and Geology.- -The folio
paragraphs have been condensed from a short mon<
physical features of the Konkan, by Major J. II. Lloyd:- V
ing the coast of the Konkan from seaward, the traveller sees
him a wild-looking country consisting of a confused ma^s of hill
hibiting every shade of brown, red, and purple ; in some par-
down to the sea, in others receding and giving space along the
for tracts of rice cultivation, or belts of cocoa-nut and palm. In the
foreground the sea beating on the rocks sets off the picture with a
fringe of surf, interrupted at intervals where the coastline is bf
by the mouths of creeks and rivers, and far in the background th<
rests on the line of Ghats, blocking the distant horizon with a long
cession of peaks, bluffs, and domes — cool and grey in the mon
misty and indistinct under the glare of noonday, and glowing with pink
and violet as the great trap precipices catch the rays of the setting sun.
As regards its geology, the Konkan is a country, broadly speak u
stratified primary rocks. The hills are composed of layers of trap
varying in composition, and capped by a stratum of laterite, while the
alluvial soil of the valleys is the result of the disintegration and
decomposition of these rocks carried down by drainage from the
hills.

On the shores of the salt marshes, locally known as Khar, and
along the tidal portion of the rivers which empty themselves into
the Arabian Sea, the soil is a stiff blue clay which, when red
from the action of the sea, is capable of being converted int< >
of considerable value. The narrow strip of sand along the i
on what geologists term littoral concrete, which bears the vari- •
of the palm tree, date, and palmyra in the north, cocoa-nut and
nut in the south. The annual rainfall of the Konkan is estimati
over ioo inches; and this rainfall added to the enormous bo
water thrown off the face of the Western Ghats during the
the whole traversing the region to the sea, accounts for the numen
rivers and streams in which the Konkan abounds. Th
of the country presents throughout the dry months i I
parched and barren appearance ; but this air of sterility is i
higher ground is reached.

In the open cultivated tracts are sun-baked rice-fields,
dried-up streams, and occasional groves with their denizei
cattle egrets, noisy koels, and active squirrels. In the loi
are found forests of teak (Tectona grandis), ain (Terrain
tosa), kinjal (Terminalia paniculata), fdngdrd (Erythnna



2 9 2 KONNA GAR—KOPAR GA ON.

and simul (Bombax malabaricum) ; among what scanty foliage there
is, the woodpecker, the babbler, and the coppersmith keep up a
din of confusing notes. On the higher slopes, the kokamb (Garcinia
indica), sissu (Dalbergia latifolia), and wild plantain spread over the
hills, and afford shelter to the green pigeon, green barbet, and bronze-
winged doves. On the highest ranges, in the shade of evergreen forests
of Ran-Jambul (Eugenia Jambolana), punschi (Carallia integerrima),
and many others, ferns and mosses adorn the surface of the ground ;
strange forms of plant and insect life continually demand the
naturalist's attention ; while the notes of the thrush, blackbird, and
ghat bulbul musically salute his ears.

Konnagar. — Village in Hiigli District, Bengal ; situated on the right
bank of the Hiigli river. Lat. 22 42' n., long. 88° 23' e. Inhabited
by a large Brahman community, but not otherwise of any import-
ance. Station on the East Indian Railway, 9 miles from the Howrah
terminus.

Koosee. — River in Purniah District, Bengal. — See Kusi.

Kooshtea. — Sub-division and town in Nadiya District, Bengal. — See
Kushtia.

Kopaganj. — Town in Muhammadabad tahsil, Azamgarh District,
North- Western Provinces; situated in lat. 2 6° o' 40" n., and long. 83
36' 35" e., on the Gorakhpur and Ghazipur road. Population (1872)
6633 ; (1881) 6301, namely, Hindus, 3616; and Muhammadans, 2685.
Area of town site, 147 acres. For police and conservancy purposes, a
house-tax is levied, yielding an income of ^103 in 1881. Founded
about the year 1745 by Iradat Khan, Raja of Azamgarh. Country
cloth is woven. Exports of sugar and grain ; imports of piece-goods,
metal, and manufactured wares. The trade, however, is small, and
the town is not now of any note. Retail markets twice a week.
Police outpost station ; post-office.

Kopargaon. — Sub-division of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay Presi-
dency. Area, 511 square miles; containing 121 villages, and 8956
houses. Population (1872) 66,739; (1881) 63,789, namely, 32,530
males and 31,259 females. In 1881, Hindus numbered 56,472;
Muhammadans, 2695 ; and 'others,' 4622.

Kopargaon is the most northerly Sub-division of the District, and was
formed in 1861-62 by splitting up the old Sub-division of Patoda, which
was found too large and unwieldy for administrative purposes. About
half the villages now forming Kopargaon belonged to Patoda, and to
these were added villages all along the south. The river Godavari enters
at the extreme north-west corner, traverses the Sub-division, and forms for
a short distance the eastern boundary. The bed of the river is con-
siderably below the general level of the country, and the high black soil
and clay banks are deeply fissured by the numerous minor streams



KOPARGAON VI LI.. 1 <;/■;.

which drain the Sub-division. Kopargdon i

plain, having a gentle slope from both sides towards the I

most of the villages the people are dependent on wells for theil

supply, as all but the largest tributaries of the GodaVari run -

after the monsoon rains have ceased. The cultivators

are in an impoverished condition, attributable in a great measure I

frequent occurrence of bad seasons. Sudden and violent

which deluge the country, are often succeeded by a long and i

drought. Out of the eleven years ending 1S84, six have be 1

of partial or absolute famine.

Kopargcaon until recently possessed only one made road, tl.
military route from Ahmadnagar to Malegaon, now maintained
Provincial Funds ; but it enjoys the advantage of numerous fair-
weather tracks. The Dhond-Manmar State Railway tr;i\
Sub-division from south to north, with stations at Belipur, Chitali,
Puntamba, Sanwatsar, and Kopargdon Road. The export of grain
the Puntamba station in 1880 amounted to 11 75 tons.

Of a total area of 511 square miles, 509 have been surveyed in detail.
Of these, 4283 acres are the lands of alienated villages. The
includes 290,874 acres of cultivable land; 17,588 acres of uncult:
land ; 269 acres under grass ; 2988 acres of forest reserves ; and 10. 1 1 6
acres of village sites, roads, and river-beds. Of the 290,874 acr
cultivable land, 21,636 acres are alienated lands in Government vill
Of 269,238 acres (the actual area of Government cultivable
254,274 acres were in 1882-83 held for tillage. Of these,
acres were under dry crops, and 9295 acres were watered garden land.
Of 198,982 acres, the actual area under cultivation in 1
crops occupied 186,399 acres; pulses, 9528 acres; oil-seeds, 506 .
fibres, 80 acres ; and miscellaneous crops, 2469 acres.

The Sub-division contains 2 civil and 3 criminal courts. There
police station (thdnd); regular police, 30 men ; village watchm<
Mrs), 162. Six weekly markets; 21 village schools for boys and a f<

Kopargaon. — Village in Kopargaon Sub - division, ^Ahmada
District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 19° 54' N-i loi V- 7
head-quarters of the Sub-division, 60 miles north of Ahmadna
the north bank of the Godavari river. Kopargaon was t ;
residence of Raghuba, the father of Baji Rao, the
palace is now used as the sub-divisional office. Populal
2020. In 1804, Balaji Lakshman, the Peshwa's governor of K
inveigled 7000 Bhils into his power at Kopargaon, and thre*
them into two wells. In 1818, on the final overthrow of t!u
power, Kopargaon was occupied by Madras troops. S
court, and a weekly market held on Monday. The K
station on the Dhond-Manmar State Railway is two miles from the v..



294 K0P1LAS—K0RA.

Kopilas. — Hill in Dhenkanal State, Orissa. Lat. 20 40' 40" n.,
long. 85 48' 53" e. ; height, 2098 feet. The hill takes its name from a
temple situated near its summit, which in February of every year is
visited by about 10,000 pilgrims, on which occasion a large fair is held,
and considerable trade carried on. At the top of the hill is a table-
land, which might be made a pleasant place of residence during the hot
months.

Kopili. — River of Assam. — See Kapili.

Koppa. — Taluk in Kadiir District, Mysore State. Area, 503 square
miles, of which only 75 are cultivated. Population (1872) 35,799;
(1881) 40,287, namely, 23,112 males and 17,175 females. In 1881,
Hindus numbered 39,023; Muhammadans, 978; and Christians, 286.
Revenue (1883-84), exclusive of water rates, ^24,760, or 10s. per
cultivated acre. The Koppa taluk is entirely Malnad, or high land. It
contains the sources of the Tunga river, and the sacred site of Sringeri,
founded in the 8th century by the Sivaite apostle Sankaracharya.
Country clothed with the finest forest. Products — coffee, extensively
cultivated in the hill ranges to the north, and on the slopes of the
Western Ghats ; rice, areca-nut, and cardamoms. The taluk contains 2
criminal courts and 7 police stations (thdnds) ; regular police, 58 men ;
village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 10. The head-quarters of the taluk
are at the village of Hariharpur.

Koppa. — Village in the taluk of the same name in Kadiir District,
Mysore State. Lat. 13 32' 4" n., long. 75 21' 51" e. Situated about
two miles to the east of Hariharpur.

Kora {Corah). — Western ta/isil or Sub-division of Fatehpur District,
North-Western Provinces ; lying along the northern bank of the Jumna,
and consisting of a cultivable plain, intersected by jungle-clad ravines.
The tahsil is divided into three portions by the rivers Rind and Nun,
which pass through it from west to south-east. In the northern and
central tract there is well-irrigation, but the southern tract is generally
unirrigated. The irrigation is entirely from wells and tanks, the rivers
not being used at all for that purpose. The most important soils are
— irrigated diimat, covering 22 per cent., and unirrigated dumat, which
extends over about 30 per cent, of the cultivated area. About 13 per
cent, of the area under cultivation consists of sigon. The rabi, or spring
crops, which occupy about two-thirds of the cultivated area, consist
chiefly of birr a, wheat, and gram ; and the autumn crops oijoar, bdjra,
and cotton.

The area of the tahsil, according to the latest official statement (1881),
was 230 square miles, of which 132 square miles were cultivated; 35*4
square miles cultivable; and 62*1 square miles uncultivable waste. The
area paying Government revenue or quit-rent was 229-4 square miles,
of which 132*1 square miles were cultivated. Government land revenue,



KORA TO WN—KORABA I

^19,231 ; total Government revenue, including rates and ccssi>,
^22,613; rental paid by cultivators, ,£32,618. Populati(
91,207; (1881) 81,164, namely, males 40,898, and femali
showing a decrease of 10,043, or 11 per cent, in the nine

since 1872. Classified according to religion, there were, in 1S81

Hindus, 75,486; Muhammadans, 5620; and Jains, 58. Of th<
villages comprising the tahsil, 152 had less than five hundred inhal
Kora is well supplied with roads, and a metalled road conm
the Mauhar station on the East Indian Railway. In 1S84, tin-
division contained 1 criminal court, 3 police circles (thdnds) } with a
regular police of 32 men, and a village watch of 165 chaukiddrs.

Kora (Corah). — Town in Fatehpur District, North- Western
vinces, and head-quarters of Kora tahsil Lat. 26° 6' 35
8o° 24' 20" e. Situated on the old Mughal road from Agra to Allah-
abad. Capital of a subah under the Mughal Empire, and still retaining
many architectural relics of its former magnificence. Amongst them
the most noticeable are — the Baradari of Rao Lai Bahadur, a
enclosed garden with two pleasure-houses, built towards the close of the
last century, under the Oudh Wazirs ; the Sorahi or mausoleum, a mile
west of Jahanabad; the sardi or travellers' halting-place in Jahai.
with handsome old walls and gates ; and a magnificent tank of
size and depth, still retaining a constant supply of clear water. The old
fort is now used as the tahsili, and contains the Government cour
offices. The Thakurdwara, opposite the Baradari, is a modern building
of some interest.

Population (1881) 2650, namely, males 119S, and femal
The two towns of Kora and Jahanabad are situated on opposite
of the road, and are known as one under the name of Kora- J
abad, although they are separately administered under Act xx. ot
Kora was formerly the seat of considerable trade; but lying
on the Mughal imperial highway, away from the modern Grand Trunk
Road and Railway, much of its business has been dil
places more favourably situated. It is, however, still a mark
agricultural produce, and copper and bell-metal vessels are manufa.
in some quantity. The town contains many old and substantially b
houses, mostlv, however, in a ruined state.

Kora (or Kdro).— Hill in Bankura District, Bengal : on the c.v
the provincial road from Raniganj to Bankura. An elongated hill, m
350 to 400 feet high, rising precipitously from the pla
north, and south, but from the east by a very gentle and lonj

Korabaga. - Zaminddri estate in Sambalpur
District, Central Provinces; 30 miles north-, tmbalpur t

Population (1881) 4i54, namely, males 2060, and femal
agriculturists, residing in 27 villages, on an area of 20 square mil



296 KORABAR—KORBA.

of which is covered with jungle. Chief product, rice. Korabaga, the
largest village, with a population in 1881 of 377, contains a school. It
is situated in lat. 21 45' 30" n., and long. 83 42' 30" e.

Korabar. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur, Mewar Agency,
Rajputana. Situated about 20 miles south-west of Udaipur city, and the
residence of a first-class noble of the State, who owns 53 villages. The
town gives its name to his estate.

Koracha. — Zaminddri estate in Brdhmapuri tahsil, on the eastern
border of Chanda District, Central Provinces. Comprising an area of
204 square miles and 52 villages, the largest being Manpur; population
(1881) 2916. Through this place numerous Chhatisgarh Banjaras pass
to and from the eastern coast with grain.

Korangi. — Town in Godavari District, Madras. — See Coringa.
Korari Kalan. — Town in Unao District, Oudh. Lat. 2 6° 27' N.,
long. 8o° 35' e. ; 16 miles south-west of Mohan, and 10 north-west of
Unao town ; 4 miles distant from Rasiilabad. Peopled about 1 100 years
ago by a Kunwar of the Bhar tribe. Six centuries later it passed into
the possession of Iswari Singh and Bisram Singh, Chauhan thdkurs of
Mainpurf, who exterminated the Bhars, and whose descendants still
possess the land. Population (1881) 2079, namely, 2008 Hindus and
71 Muhammadans. Two Sivaite temples.

Koratagiri (KertdgiH). — Taluk in Tiimkiir District, Mysore State.
Area, 383 square miles, of which 81 are cultivated. Population (1871)
73,933; (1881) 43,423, namely, 21,731 males and 21,692 females;
Hindus numbered 41,833; Muhammadans, 1234; and Jains, 356.
Land revenue (1881-82), exclusive of water rates, ^6235, or 2s. 4d. per
cultivated acre. Soil favourable both for crops and cattle. Iron is
smelted from the black sand brought by streams from the rocks. The
hills around Koratagiri are clothed with good fuel jungle.

Koratagiri (Kortdgiri). — Village in Tiimkiir District, Mysore State,
on the left bank of the Suvarnamukhi river, in lat. 13 31' 30" n., and
long. 77 16' 20" e. ; 16 miles by road north of Tiimkiir town. Popula-
tion (1881) 2016. Fort, founded by a local chieftain, was dismantled by
Tipii Sultan. Glass bangles and silk are manufactured. Head-quarters
of Koratagiri taluk.

Korba. —Zaminddri estate in the north of Bilaspur District, Central
Provinces, with a scattered population (1881) of 42,122 persons, namely,
males 21,276, and females 20,846, residing in 316 villages, on an area
of 823 square miles ; comprising both hill and plain. The chief village,
Korba, is situated on the river Hasdii, 48 miles east of Bilaspur town, in
lat. 22 21' n., and long. 82 45' e. Though wild and poorly cultivated,
the estate possesses timber and coal, and with better communications
would be valuable. At present it exports tasdr silk. The chief is a
Kunwar.



KOREA STATE AND II III..

Korea. — Native State of Chutia Nagpur, Bengal, I

22 55' 5°" and 2 3° 49' 15" N - lat., and between 8i° 5
48' 15" e. long. Bounded on the north by Rewa Si
Sarguja; on the south by Bilaspur District in the Central I
and on the west by Chang Bhukar and Rewa. Korei con
elevated table-land of coarse sandstone overlying the coal mo
from which spring several abruptly scarped plateaux, varying in hi
and irregularly distributed over the surface. To the cast is the S
plateau, with an elevation of 2477 feet ; the north of the Si I
occupied by a still higher table-land, with a maximum elevation oi
feet. In the west a group of hills culminates in Deogarh Peak,
Several streams rise in the hills, of which the largest is the Heshto,
a tributary of the Mahanadi. Large forest tracts of sal timber
but have not hitherto been utilized. Alternating with the :
areas are wide stretches of pasture land, from which grazing dues to the
extent of about ^150 a year are realized. Iron is found throughout
the State, and a tribe of Kols, called Agarias from their occupation, are
largely engaged in iron-smelting. Good coal is found in the Barakhar
rocks, which form the upper surface in the northern part of the S
and underlying the Mahadeva sandstones forming the central plateau.
Crops consist of rice, wheat, barley, Indian corn, mania, pulses, oil-
seeds, cotton, etc. Jungle products, stick-lac and resin. Tigers and
wild elephants formerly committed serious depredations; but of late
years the former have been reduced by increased rewards for
destruction, and the elephants have been captured or driven out by
successful kheda operations.

The area of the State is 1625 square miles, containing in 1
villages, 5798 houses, and a total population of 29,846 persons. I
according to religion, Hindus numbered 29,638, and Muhammadans
208. Classified according to sex, there were— 15,162 males and 1
females; proportion of males, 50-8 per cent. ; average density of
lation, 18*3 persons per square mile. Of aboriginal trik
returned separately in the Census Report of 1SS1). the most nui
and influential are the Gonds, who numbered 4^»44 in
two leading sub-proprietors of the State belong to this tribe. N
importance are the Cherus (3009 in 1872). These tri 1
as Hindus according to religion. The principal village and the
of the chief is Sonhat, situated on the plateau so named, at an
of 2477 feet; lat. 82 35' n., long. 23° 28' E. The chiefs
themselves Chauhan Rajputs, and claim descent from l
clan, who conquered Korea* 600 years ago. Estimated I
chief, about ^700 ; tribute, £-\°-

Kore&.— Hill range in the tributary State of Ko* '
Bengal, the highest point of which is situated in lat.



298 KOREGAON—KORIGA UM.

and long. 82 18' 30" e. Principal peaks:— (1) Deogarh, 3370 feet;
(2) Jutarsuka, 3238 feet; (3) Khoro, 3219 feet; (4) Churi, 3010 feet;
(5) Kuhi, 3007 feet; (6) Gagadand, 2945 feet; (7) Gogragarh, 2847
feet; (8) Machigarh, 2839 feet; (9) Jogi, 2805 feet; (10) Tithitangarh,
2790 feet; (11) Bunjari, 2775 feet; (12) Jangia, 2746 feet; (13)
Damaur, 2715 feet; (14) Gorba, 2708 feet; (15) Baskata, 2657 feet;
(16) Mardanighat, 2561 feet; (17) Sul.a, 2534 feet; (18) Maraon, 2505
feet; and (19) Baman, 2217 feet.

Koregaon. — Sub-division of Satara District, Bombay Presidency.
Area, 349 square miles ; containing 1 town and 73 villages, with 11,033
houses. Population (1872) 89,030; (1881) 81,187, namely, 39>39 2
males and 41,795 females. In 1881, Hindus numbered 78,548;
Muhammadans, 2196; and ' others,' 443. In 1884, the Sub-division
contained 1 civil and 2 criminal courts ; police station, 1 ; regular
police, 49 men ; village watch, 99. Land revenue, ;£ 24,429.

Kori. — River in the Native State of Cutch, Gujarat, Bombay Presi-
dency. Kori is the name applied to the eastern mouth of the Indus.
Although of little value for trade or irrigation, the locality is of historic
interest. Alexander the Great (325 B.C.) and Ptolemy (125 a.d.) knew
it as Lonibare, a chief entrance to the Indus. About 1000 a.d. the main
stream appears to have turned to the west ; but as late as the middle
of the 1 8th century the Koli branch had water enough to irrigate the
State of Lakhpat. According to tradition, the river was deep enough
to have a port at Sindhi, 50 miles up ; then shoaling, the port had
to be moved 14 miles lower down to Sindu. Afterwards the port
was fixed at Lakhpat, 20 miles from the mouth; and now the port
is at Koteshwar. These changes are attributed to the change in the
course of the main stream of the Indus. One period of this change
was particularly disastrous. During the nth or 12th century, while
the change was in progress, the great city of Alor and ' 1000 towns'
were swept away. In 1764, when the people of Cutch were beaten by
the people of Sind, Ghulam Shah, the Sindhi conqueror, built an
immense dam across the Kori, which almost entirely prevented the
Lakhpat rice-land irrigation, and caused a loss of revenue to Cutch of
^20,000 a year.

Korigaum. — Town in Poona (Puna) District, Bombay Presidency.
Situated on the right bank of the Bhima river, sixteen miles south of
Poona city ; the scene of the last of the three battles which led to the
collapse of the Maratha power. The battle was fought on the 1st
January 18 18 between Captain Stanton and Baji Rao Peshwa. Captain
Stanton, on his march to strengthen Colonel Burr, arrived at Korigaum
in the morning after a fatiguing night march, with a detachment of 500
Bombay Native Infantry, 300 irregular horse, and two 6-pounders
manned by 24 Madras artillerymen. He found the whole army of the



KORTALAIYAR U-Kl

Peshwa, some 20,000 strong, encamped on the 0]

Bhima river. The Manitha troops were immediately

against the exhausted handful of soldiers, destituti

and water. The engagement was kept up throughoul

resulted in the discomfiture and retreat of the Marathds. The 1

able feature of this engagement was that the British troo]

natives, without any European support excepting 24 artilleryn

whom 20 were killed and wounded. Of seven officers

were killed and one wounded ; total casualties, 276 killed,

missing. This gallant fight is now commemorated by a stone obelisk.

Kortalaiyaru.— River in North Arcot and Chengalpat I
Madras Presidency. — See Cortelliar.

Kosala. — Ancient Division of India. It was estimated by Hiuen
Tsiang (7th century) at 6000 //or 1000 miles in circuit. Its frontiers
are not named; but we know from the pilgrim's Itinerary that ii
have been bounded by Ujjain on the north, by Maharashtra on the
west, by Orissa on the east, and by Andhra and Kalinga on the
The limits of the kingdom may be roughly described as extending
from near Burhanpur on the Tapti, and Nanda on the I
to Ratanpur in Chhatisgarh, and Nawagadha near the source
Mahanadi. Within these limits the circuit of the large trai I
to Kosala is rather more than 1000 miles. — See Ajodhva.

Kosa Nag {Kaiser Nag, Quaizar Nag?). — Mountain lake and
of pilgrimage in Kashmir State, Northern India, on the north side
Fateh Panjal Mountains. Lat. 33 30' n., long. 74 52' e. According
to Thornton, it is three-quarters of a mile in length, by 500 yai
breadth. Supplied by the melting of the snow. Gives rise to the r;\Lr
Veshau, a tributary of the Jehlam. Venerated by the Hindus under
the name of Vishnu Padh, from a legend that the god produced it by
stamping with his foot. Estimated elevation above sea-level, 12,
feet.

Kosi— North-western tahsil of Muttra (Mathura) Distri
Western Provinces, lying along the western bank of the Jun
consisting mainly of an arid plain, intersected by ravil
(1881-82), 153 square miles, of which 125 square miles ai
19-8 square miles cultivable, and 8-2 square miles uncultival '
the total cultivated area, 83,117 acres, or 26 per cent
from the Agra Canal, which intersects the tahsU, cm
road about a mile south of Kosi town. Land revenue. /
Government revenue, including rates and ces



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