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by cultivators, ,£22,937. Population (1872
namely, males 34,002, and females 31,291, showing a
8515, or 11-5 per cent., in the nine years since 1872. Classified
ing to religion, there were, in iSSi-Hindus, 56,275 M lammai



3oo KOSI TO WN—KOTA.

8093; Jains, 924; 'other,' 1. Of the 55 villages comprising the tahsil,
14 contained less than five hundred inhabitants.

The crops most extensively grown in Kosi tahsil are jodr, gram,
and barley. The villages, with but a few exceptions, are held under
bhdyachdra tenure, divided into infinitesimal shares among village
communities ; so that, excepting a few shopkeepers and menial
servants, almost every resident is, to some extent, a landed proprietor.
As a natural result of this sub-division of estates, there is not a single
large landed proprietor. In 1883, the tahsil contained 1 criminal
court, with 3 police circles (thdnds), a regular police force numbering
42 men, besides 190 village watchmen {chaukiddrs).

Kosi. — Town and municipality in Muttra (Mathura) District, North-
western Provinces, and head-quarters of Kosi tahsil. Stands in lat.
27 47' 40" n., and long. 77 28' 45" e., on the open plain, 10 miles
west of the Jumna, and 29 miles north-west of Muttra town, on the
metalled road to Delhi. Population (1872) 12,770; (1881) 11,231,
namely, Hindus, 6831 ; Muhammadans, 3866; Jains, 533; and Chris-
tian, 1. The town contains the largest cattle mart in the District,
police station, post-office, dispensary, and Anglo-vernacular school.
The streets are fairly well drained, and paved with brick and stone.
During the Mutiny, the District officials took refuge at Kosi for a while,
but were compelled to flee by the defection of the Bhartpur (Bhurtpore)
force. The townspeople, however, remained well affected. Municipal
revenue in 1881-82, .£1077, or is. nd. per head of population.

Kosigi. — Town in Adoni taluk, Bellary District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. 1 5 51' n., long. 78 17' e. ; 18 miles north of Adoni. Population
(1881) 4907. Hindus numbered 4530; Muhammadans, 376; and
Christian, 1. Number of houses, 979. An irregularly-built town, con-
taining not a single good street. It is situated at the foot of a rock,
on which stand the ruins of fortifications and temples. According to
tradition, Kosigi was founded by Surapah Naik, an officer of the
Anigundi Raja, who visited the place on a marauding expedition. Not
far from the town is a curious isolated rock known by the name of
1 The Sisters ' — Akkachellelu. The north-west line of the Madras
Railway has a station here.

Kota. — Village in Giidur taluk, Nellore District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. 14 3' n., long. 8o° 5' e. Population (1881) 4400; number of
houses, 978. Hindus numbered 4242, and Muhammadans, 158.
Station of a sub-magistrate. Police station and post-office.

Kota. — Village in Wiin District, Berar. Lat. 20 31' 30" n., long.
78 19' e. ; 14 miles north-east of Yeotmal. Contains 434 houses;
population (1881) 195 1. Large weekly market. Police station, school,
and serai.

Kota (or Kotu, Koter, Kotar, Kohatur, Kottur). — A primitive tribe



KOTA.

inhabiting the Nilgiri Hills, Madras Presidency. The k
have no traditions; but the Todas, another primitive tril
Nilgiris, assert that the Kotas were a caste of artisans, brought

plains to work for the Todas on certain conditions. The I. •
according to Dr. Shortt, 'are well made and of tolerable height, rather
good-featured and light-skinned, having a copper colour, and
them are the fairest-skinned among the hill tribes. They have well-
formed heads covered with long black hair, grown long and 1- I
tied up carelessly at the back of the head.' The women are of mo I
height, of fair build of body, but not so good-looking as the I
They have more of a snub nose, and a somewhat vacant e\;-r<
The Kotas recognise no caste among themselves, but are divided into
ken's, and a man of one ken must seek a wife in another. They are
not allowed to keep buffaloes j but they have cows, which they neither
milk for consumption nor for sale. The buffaloes are kept by the
Todas, by whom the Kotas are called kuof ox cow-people. The 1
eat all sorts of flesh, even carrion. Mr. Metz observes that 'at no
time do they thrive so well as when there is a murrain among the
herds of the Todas and Badagas.' They are addicted to drinking and
opium-smoking. All the other hill tribes have a great contempt tor
the Kotas on account of their eating carrion. They live in villa.
from 50 to 60 houses, built of mud and thatch, and irregularly arranged
The verandahs of some houses have stone pillars, sculptured by cutters
from the low country. In each village, one or two houses are set apart,
to which the women retire during seasons of purification.

The Kotas worship one God, Kamataraya, and his wile; cadi of
whom is represented by a silver plate. They have two great annual
festivals, one in honour of Kamataraya, and the other in honour of
dead who have died during the year. The former lasts for a for;:
Their national dance requires six or eight performers, who
in a row, their motions being uniform. The main characters;
the dance is the way in which the draperies of the performers
to and fro with the measure.

The Kotas marry only one wife, unless she should be barren, whl
they may take another; in this case the two wives live togethei
same house. Widows may re-marry. The Kotas have tv,
ceremonies, at both of which cows and buffaloes an
After ceremonies performed in the house, the corpse is taken
due or burning ground, and burnt with certain implemei
deceased. The bones are then collected, and buried near the 1
place, and a stone is placed over them. The skull is, ho*
till the 'dry' or second funeral, which must take pi
Thursday. At the 'dry' funeral each skull is wrapped m a new clc
and placed on a cot ; and after certain ceremonies the



302 KOT ADU—KOTAE.

burned, together with the bows, arrows, and other implements of the
deceased.

The Kota language is a dialect of Kanarese. The Kotas are the
artisans of the hills, and are necessary to all the tribes as their black-
smiths, carpenters, tanners, rope and umbrella makers, potters,
musicians, and workers in gold and silver. The Kotas in 1881 num-
bered 1062.

Kot Adu. — Town in Sinanwan tahsil, Muzaffargarh District, Punjab.
Lat. 30 28' 14" N., long. 71 o' 30" e. Situated on the road from
Muzaffargarh to Dera Ismail Khan, 33 miles from Muzaffargarh town,
and 10 miles from the river Indus, in lat. 30 28' 14" n., long. 71 o' 30" e.
Population (1868) 2761 ; (1881) 2574, namely, Hindus, 1627 ; Muham-
madans, 946; and Sikh, 1. Number of houses, 460. Municipal
income (1881-82), ^"107. Kot Adu is in all respects an ordinary
village with narrow lanes and mud-built houses, and derives its only
importance from being an agricultural centre, a halting-place for
travellers marching along the left bank of the Indus, and the largest
village in the Sinanwan tahsil, of which it was at one time the head-
quarters. Its only manufacture is that of ornamented bows and
arrows. Police outpost station, rest-house, school, and dispensary.

Kotae. — Remains of an old city, twelve miles north of Bhuj,
on the shores of the Rann of Cutch (Kachchh), with several
ruined temples of perhaps the early part of the 10th century.
The Sun temple, known as Ra Lakha's, ascribed to Lakha Phulani,
who is said to have fixed his capital here for a time, is built of
the yellowish and red stone used also at Kera, and is roofed in
a peculiar way. The aisles are covered by a sort of groins, like the
side-aisles in some Chaitya caves ; the nave is roofed the same way as
at the Amarnath temple, — the central area being covered with massive
slabs hollowed out in the centre, in which a pendant has been
inserted. Outside, it has a slanting roof divided into four sections of
slightly different heights, that next to the spire being the highest, and
the remote end the lowest ; each section is terminated by a neatly
carved gable-end. The whole has been built without any cement, and
most of the stones are hollowed out on the under or inner side as if for
the purpose of making them lighter. The porch has long since fallen
away. The door of the temple has been neatly carved with the nine
grahas or patrons of the planets over the lintel ; the jambs are also care-
fully sculptured. The shrine door is elaborately carved with two rows
of figures on the frieze, Ganapati on the lintel, and the jambs richly
ornamented. The area behind the central jamb is roofed with large
slabs, carved with sixteen female figures linked in one another's arms in
a circle, with the legs crossed and turned towards the centre. Each
holds a rod or bar in either hand, the left hand being bent down and



KO TA GIRI—KO TA If. ^

the right up, and so interlaced with the arms of the figures on
side. In two neat gokhlas or niches, advanced from the front wall of
the shrine, and with two colonnettes in front of each, there haw-
standing images in alto relievo, neatly canopied by a lotus
buds growing over the muguts or head-dresses. Enormously
munis or bhringis seem to have been the supporters.

Beyond a ravine to the north-east are fragments of two oth<
facing west. Of the first, and higher up of the two, only plain square
pillars of the mandap and the lower part of the vimdna are stai
The general style is the same as that of the other temples, hut mu< h
plainer. The stones are cut away below as at the first temple. The
lower of the two is also only a fragment of the shrine of a Siirya temple,
with Ganapati on the lintel, and the nine grahas on the frieze. There
are no figures outside. Foundations still remain on this part of the
hill, showing that whole edifices must have been carted away for build"
ing purposes elsewhere. — Burgess' Archaeological Sur-cey of Western
India.

Kotagiri. — Hill station and tea-growing centre in Nflgiri District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. u° 20' to n° 20' 10" n., long. 76° 51' to
76° 56' e. Contains 934 houses and (1881) 3691 inhabitant-,
about 12 square miles. It is in the Paraganad Ndd, situati
the north-east end of the plateau, 17 miles from Utakamand (Oota-
camund), and 12 from Coonoor, at an average height of 6500 feet
above sea-level. In the opinion of residents, it has the best climate
to be found on these hills ; and the Marquis of Dalhousie preferred
it to Utakamand. The station, which was founded in 1S30, 1
or 15 European houses, and a small church. The residents are nearly
all proprietors of neighbouring tea estates. The annual rainfall
about 50 inches. Near Kotagiri is the military sanitarium of
hatti, now abandoned. A ghat or pass in fair order leads from Kot;i:
to the plains of Coimbatore. Dispensary, rest-house, l\\zat\ |
station, and post-office.

Kotah. — Native State in Rajputana, under the political super-
intendence of the Kotah Agency. The State lies bet*
30' and 25 51' n. lat., and between 75° 4<>' and 76
Bounded on the north and north-west by the river Chanj
separates it from Bdndf (Boondee) State; on the east by Gwalior, t
Tonk district of Chhapra, and by part ofjhalawar; on th
the Mokandarra Hills and Jhalawar; and on the west by
(Oodeypore). Area, 3797 square miles. Population ( l
density of population, 136 persons per square mile.
Kotah. .

Physical Aspects.— Kotah State slopes gently northwards &01
high table-land of Mahva, and is drained by the Chambal wit]



304 KOTAH.

tributaries, all flowing in a northerly or north-easterly direction. The
Mokandarra range, from 1200 to 1600 feet above sea-level, runs from
south-east to north-west, forming the southern border of Kotah, and
separating it from Jhalawar. The Mokandarra Pass through these
hills, in the neighbourhood of the highest peak (167 1 feet), has
been rendered memorable by the passage of Colonel Monson's army
on its disastrous retreat in 1804. The defile is strikingly picturesque,
and forms one of the chief outlets between the Deccan and Northern
India. The hills are for the most part clothed with a thick jungle of
stunted trees and undergrowth. There are no forests of any size, but
several extensive game preserves, chiefly covered with grass. The
largest of these is about 7 miles from the city of Kotah, and is 12
miles in length, with an average breadth of 4 miles. Of the tributaries
of the Chambal within the State, the Kali Sind, with its feeder, the
Parwan, is the principal. It enters Kotah from the south, and joins the
Chambal near the village of Piparda. The Parbati flows due north for
80 miles, and falls into the Chambal in the extreme north-eastern
corner of the territory. It forms the north and south-eastern boundary
of the State for a considerable portion of its length, separating it from
the Chhapra pargand of Tonk on the south, and from Gwalior on
the north. The rivers contain trout and mahsir, besides other fish ;
crocodiles are numerous, and those in the Chambal are of large size.
There are no natural lakes, but numerous small artificial tanks, for
irrigation purposes, have been made by throwing masonry embank-
ments across watercourses. The wild animals of the State include
the ' golden ' lion, the tiger, four varieties of leopards, two of cheetahs
(hunting leopard), hyaena, wolf, bear, jackal, wild dog, etc. ; the bison,
the sdmbhar, the nilgai^ the chital (spotted deer), and antelope. Kotah
is celebrated for its parrots ; birds of every variety abound.

History. — The territory of Kotah is an offshoot from Biindi (Boondee),
forming with that State the tract named Haraoti after the dominant
tribe of Hara Rajputs. About the year 1625, Kotah and its depen-
dencies were bestowed on Madhu Singh, second son of Rao Rattan
of Biindi, in acknowledgment of his services during the campaign
which forced the imperial prince, who afterwards became the Emperor
Shah Jahan, to flee almost unattended from Burhanpur. Madhu
Rao, who assumed the rank and title of Raja, ruled for several
years. He distinguished himself as a commander in the Mughal
service ; and his territory was augmented until it touched Malwa on
one side, and Biindi on the other. He was succeeded by his eldest
son, Mokand Singh, who with his four brothers fought desperately in
a battle at Ujjain, against the revolt headed by Prince Alamgir, after-
wards the Emperor Aurangzeb. All the brothers were slain, with
the exception of the youngest, Kishor Singh, who, though desperately



KOTAH.

wounded, eventually recovered. The son of Mokand Singh
Singh, succeeded to the dignity of Raja. In the beginning'-
18th century, the State, already weakened by civil dissensioi
attacked by Jaipur (Jeypore), and also by the Mardtl.
fully enforced their claims to tribute. Kotah was only saver
absolute ruin at this juncture by the talents of the minister Zaiim S
into whose hand the Maharao Umed Singh surrendered all
Jhalawar). By playing off one party against another, Zdlim -
succeeded in piloting the State safely through the storms of a ,
in which the whole of Central India was desolated by Mai
Pindari, and other predatory hordes ; and in the course of forty-five
years, he raised Kotah to the rank of one of the most flourishing
powerful States in Rajputana. He was one of the first Rajput -
to co-operate with the British Government for the suppression of the
Pindarfs.

Through Zaiim Singh a treaty was made in 1817 by which Kotah
was taken under British protection; the tribute formerly pai
the Marathas was made payable to the British Government, who
accounted to Sindhia for his share; and the Maharao agreed to
furnish troops when required. A supplementary article vested the
administration in Zaiim Singh and his heirs for ever. Even during
Zdlim Singh's lifetime, on the succession of a new chief, inconvei li
was felt through this arrangement, and a British force had to be
sent to insist upon it. On Zaiim Singh's death, his son was notori-
ously unfit to govern the State; and hence it was finally resolved,
in 183S, with the consent of the chief of Kotah, to dismember the
State, and to create a new principality of Jhalawar as a separate-
provision for the descendants of Zaiim Singh (see Jhalawar). The
Maharao's tribute was reduced by ^"8000, which sum m
paid by Jhalawar, and he agreed to maintain an auxiliary :
cost of not less than 3 hikhs of rupees (say ^30,000). This auxiliary
force, known as the Kotah contingent, mutinied in 1857. The
Maharao's troops also revolted, and murdered the Political A _
his two sons. The Maharao made no attempt to assist the
Agent, and, as a mark of the displeasure of Government, his sahltt
reduced from 17 to 13 guns.

The present Maharao, Chhatra Sal, a Chauhan Rajput. 1
about 1837. He succeeded his father in 1866, and on his accession he-
was restored the full salute of 17 guns, and has also been guaranl
the right of adoption.

A few years later, the confusion into which the affairs of the- Si
fallen induced the Maharao to request the interference of I
Government. Nawab Sir Faiz AH Khan Bahadur, I
upon appointed in 1874 to administer the State, subject to :'

vol. viii. L



3 o6 KOTAH.

and control of the Governor-General's Agent in Rajputana. Since his
departure from Kotah, the administration has been superintended by a
British political officer.

There are in Kotah many nobles, generally the descendants of
former Rajas through a cadet branch, who, as a rule, hold their
estates on a semi-feudal tenure. The State claims to be the absolute
owner of all the soil in the territory. Even jagirddrs of the
highest class have no power to dispose of their lands by sale. A
jdgir once granted on a feudal tenure cannot be resumed except
for disloyalty or misconduct ; the grantee has, however, the power of
alienating a portion of his grant as a provision for younger sons or
other near relatives, and he may raise money on it by mortgage, but
this cannot be foreclosed. The present policy of native chiefs tends
towards making their subjects of the agricultural class mere tenants-at-
will. Yet, as shown by Colonel Tod, the rdyats have certain bapoti
(or ancestral occupancy) rights, which even arbitrary native governments
are chary of interfering with. So long as the cultivator pays all his
instalments of rent due, his land cannot be resumed or granted to
another. All classes depend for their subsistence on the produce of the
soil. The majority of the cultivators are poverty-stricken, and live from
hand to mouth, although many tracts produce enough grain for exporta-
tion in considerable quantities after the needs of home consumption are
satisfied.

Crops, etc. — In addition to the usual Indian grains, wheat, cotton,
opium, and a little tobacco of good quality are cultivated. Rotation of
crops is known and practised to a certain extent. The manufactures
are very limited. Cotton fabrics are woven, but are being rapidly
superseded by the products of Bombay and Manchester. Articles of
wooden furniture are also constructed. The chief articles of export
from the State are opium and grain. The imports chiefly consist of
salt, cotton, and woollen cloth.

Population. — Previous to 1881, no regular Census had ever been
taken of the whole territory. The enumeration of that year showed
the total population of the State to be 517,275, males numbering
269,924, and females 247,351. This population dwelt in six towns
and 1605 villages, and occupied 130,698 houses. Number of persons
per square mile of area, 136*2; number of persons per house, 3"9-
Classified according to religion, Hindus numbered 479,634; Muham-
madans, 32,866 ; Jains, 4750 ; and Christians, 25. Among the Hindus,
43,458 were returned as Brahmans, 15,255 as Rajputs, 425,671 as
'other Hindu castes/ which included 20,717 Mahajans or Baniyas,
33,488 Gujars, 5009 Jats, 1754 Kachhis, 6576 Ahirs, 4 6 >9 2 5 Minds,
48,882 Chamars, 43,469 Dhakurs, 16,773 Balais, 8801 Bhils, and
193,277 'others.' The Muhammadans, classified according to tribes,



KOTAK 30?

are thus distributed :— Shaikhs, 18,545 ; Sayyid . 1

Pathans, 9078; and 'others,' 2873. The male populati

into the following seven main groups, namely :— ( 1 ) Agricultui ~

(2) day labour, 66,805 ; (3) handicraft, 20,399 i

(5) service, 21,039 ', (6) miscellaneous, 30,244 ; and

42,232. About 90 per cent, of the feudal jdgirddr

of the ruling family.

Administration. — The gross revenue for the year 1881 l
^294,197, of which the land yielded ^177,321. The expenditu
the same year amounted to ^239,666, of which ,£38,472, inclu
,£20,000 for maintenance of a contingent force, formed tribute
to the British Government, and £"1439 tribute due to !.
(Jeypore).

The criminal court at the capital is presided over by a
a staff of ministerial subordinates. He has the power of inflj
penalties up to one year's imprisonment, a fine of £20, and whi]
to the extent of 12 stripes. A special constabulary, and on
jail for the whole State, have been established at the capital since the
introduction of the present administration. The jail, and the jail and
city police, are presided over by the judge of the chief appellate
court. For police purposes, the State is divided into 19 //.
with special road guards for the protection of travellers and ;
Guards are detailed by turns from the different regiments, and relieved
yearly.

No regular department of education has as yet been de
Kotah. There is a school at the capital, in which English, Persian,
Sanskrit, and Hindi are taught. The staff consists of 9 teacher
the average attendance of pupils is 210. The State maintai:
schools; but the principal villages possess indigenous insl
where Gurus, or priests of the Jain sect, teach arithmetic and * 1
chiefly to sons of Brahmans and Baniyas, with a view to fitting
a political or mercantile career.

The city post-office is the only imperial institution of the kind it
State. The only postal route connected with Kotah ia that fro
Jhalrapatan to Deoli.

The British contingent supplied by the State of K
as the Deoli Irregular Force. The troops which the Mah
to maintain are limited to 15,000 men of all descriptions ; there .1
2 field and about 90 other serviceable guns in the State

Climate.— The climate is very sultry during the prevaJ
hot winds at the commencement of summer, ani I
during the rainy season. Endemic fever and spleen ini
after the close of the rains. The other disc.
ophthalmia, venereal, chest, and rheumatic affect;



3 o3 KOTAH TOWN—KOTAHA.

occasionally breaks out in epidemic form. The mean temperature in :
1882 was 82 F. The average annual rainfall registered at the city of
Kotah, for the seven years ending 1881, was 2877 inches.

Kotah. — The principal town of the State of Kotah in Rajputana.
It is situated in lat. 25 10' n., and long. 75 52' e., on the right bank
of the river Chambal (here crossed by a ferry), and on the route from
Nasirabad (Nusseerabad) to Sagar (Saugor). East of the town extends
an extensive artificial lake, the Kishor Sagar, which affords great facilities
for irrigation. The gardens, however, are neither well laid out nor, until ]
recently, well cared for. The town is of considerable size, and contains
a population (1881) of 40,270 persons, namely, Hindus, 30,217;
Muhammadans, 9005; and 'others,' 1048. There are many Hindu
temples and some mosques. The central jail of the State is established
at Kotah, and, for police purposes, the town 1 is divided into 25 wards.
There is also a State dispensary, and one school, in which English,
Persian, Sanskrit, and Hindi are taught. The post-office in the city is
the only imperial institution of the kind within the State. A municipal
committee has been formed, and some progress has been made towards
the conservancy and sanitation of the city. The heat in Kotah is very
great, and there is much sickness during the rainy season. Dr. Moore
has pointed out that Kotah, with the Chambal on one side, and the
Kishor Sagar Lake on the other, combining to produce a copious
percolation of water underneath the city, must always be an unhealthy
locality.

Kotaha. — Pargand in the Narayangarh tahsil, Ambala (Umballa)
District, Punjab ; consisting of the hill portion of the District, and
stretching down for a short distance into the plains. Lat. 30 32' 30"
to 30 45' 30" n., and long. 76 51' to 77° 1 3' e. Area of the hill tract,
97 square miles. Population (1868) 5660, or 58 per square mile. The
population of parganas is not returned in the Census Report of 1881.
Bounded on the west by the Pinjaur valley, and on the north and east
by the Nahan or Sirmiir (Sarmor) mountains. The town of Kotaha



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