William Wilson Hunter.

The imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) online

. (page 37 of 64)
Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 37 of 64)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

itself stands in the plains. The hills run in two parallel ranges, con-
tinuations of the Siwalik chain in Nahan State. Between them flows the
river Ghaggar, while the forest of Morni clothes their sides. In its
midst lie two considerable lakes, at an elevation of about 2000 feet
above sea-level. A hill divides their surface, but some underground
communication apparently exists, as the level of both always remains
the same. The people regard them as sacred, and a great gathering
annually takes place at a ruined temple in honour of Krishna, on the
banks of the larger lake.

The village and fort of Morni are perched high up among the
mountain - sides. The people are a simple race, seldom visiting
the plains, and clinging to their proprietary rights with the usual


tenacity of hillmen. Kanets, Bruits, Gujars, and Kolia fori
principal castes. Originally ruled by Rajput Thakurs owing all( [
to the Sirmiir Raja, Kotaha became an independent pi
about the 15th century; and after the suppression of the Gurkha* in-
vasion by the British in 181 5, was made over once more to its 1
rulers. In 1849 it came under the same reforms as the oth<
Sutlej States, since which period the representatives of the chief
become simple jdgirddrs. Hinduism is the almost universal rel
Polyandry, frequent in the neighbouring hill tribes, does not occur.
roads exist passable even by a pony, and the villages are mere cl
of huts. Nevertheless, cultivation has spread over most of the avail-
able hill-sides, and irrigation from the Ghaggar or from drainage fer-
tilizes every possible field. The inhabitants are extremely industl
and take great pains in cultivating their terraced slopes.

Kotai.— Ruined city on the shores of the Rann of Cutch (Kachchh),
Gujarat. — See Kotae.

Kotalpur. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle (thdnd) in
Bardwan District, Bengal ; situated on the road from Bankurd and
Bishnupur to Jahanabad, and thence to Calcutta. Lat 23 1' 15
long. 87 38^35" e.

Kotapalli. — Village in Godavari District, Madras Presidency. —

Kotapalli. — Sub-division of Bastar Dependency, Central Provi:
comprising 60 villages, the chief of which are Pamar and Teklct.
,an area of 400 square miles. The population is composed of I
Marias, and Telingas. The teak forests, once very valuable, have
overworked. The timber is felled and dragged to the Tal river, and
then floated down the Godavari. Kotapalli village is situated in lat.
1 8° 13' n., and long. 8o° 49' 30" e.

Kotappakonda (or Yellamunda).— Hill village and celebrat
n Narsaraopet taluk, Kistna District, Madras Presidency. I
10' x., long. 8o° 5' e. ; the hill-top is 1587 feet above sea-level,
ation (1881) 2504; number of houses, 396. A hill 8 miles SOUtl
Narsaraopet, with a temple to Siva, about 600 feet above the pla
lpproached by a winding flight of stone steps. A festival, attends
oy about 60,000 persons, is held here at the new moon in 1
There is a considerable trade in timber at the festival and fair,
sorts of wood, from bamboo switches to logs and beams, are l
:here, and are sold before the day is over.

Kot&X {Kotaur,YLoTTLdpa— Periplus; Korrwpa Mi^/wr
Cottara— Peutinger Tables ; Kodu-aru, ' river-fort — Mahyahn .
nTravancore State, Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 9
28' 30" e. Population (1871) 7338; number of hoi
lation not returned in the Census of 1S81. A very old town


irregular streets. Contains an ancient pagoda with an important in-
scription. A sub-magistrate and munsif 'are stationed here. A good
school, a Catholic church, and a weaving colony are the only other
features of Kotar. The port is now little frequented.

Kotaraikarrai. — Taluk in Travancore State, Madras Presidency.
Area, 234 square miles. Population (1875) 53, 137 ; (1S81) 55,924,
namely, 28,253 males and 27,671 females; density of population,
2^8 persons to the square mile; number of houses, 12,174. Hindus
numbered 45,383 ; Muhammadans, 4327; and Christians, 6214.

Kotaraikarrai. — Town in Travancore State, Madras Presidency.
Lat. 9 o' 15" n., long. 76 49' 15" e.

Kotaria. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur (Oodeypore),
Rajputana. Situated about 26 miles to the south of the capital, and
the residence of a first-class noble of the State, who owns 60 villages.
The town gives its name to his estate.

Kotayam (Cottayam Kotium). — Town in Travancore State, Madras
Presidency. Lat. 9 36' n., long. 76 34' e. Population (1871) 6333;
(1881) 11,293; number of houses, 2309. Head-quarters of Kotayam
District, and seat of the magistrate and civil courts, post-office, high-
class school, and several churches. Situated on the bank of a small
river running into the great Cochin backwater. The centre of the
Syrian Christian community, who form the majority of the population.
Their churches are very old and interesting. The Church Mission
Society has been at work at Kotayam since i8i6,and the Syrian bishop
also resides here.

Kotayam. — T&luk or Sub-division of Malabar District, Madras
Presidency. Area, 656 square miles. Population (1881) 165,775,
namely, 81,345 males and 84,430 females, dwelling in 28 villages, con-
taining 25,646 houses. Hindus numbered 124,099; Muhammadans,
39,825 ; Christians, 1842 ; and ■ others,' 9. In 1883, the taluk contained
3 civil and 2 criminal courts ; police circles {th&n&s), 8 ; regular police,
105 men. Land revenue, ,£10,450.

Kotchandpur. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle (thdnd)
in Jhanidah Sub-division, Jessor District, Bengal ; situated on the left
bank of the Kabadak river. Lat. 23 24' 45" n., long. 89 3' 20" e.
The largest seat of the sugar trade and manufacture in the District,
both it and the adjacent village of Sulaimanpur being covered with
refineries. In 1882, 63 sugar factories produced 156,000 maunds, or
5691 tons of sugar, valued at £93,900.

Kote-betta. — Mountain in the territory of Coorg, being the highest
peak of a spur which branches off from the Subrahmanya range of the
Western Ghats, about 9 miles north of Merkara, 5375 feet above the
sea. The summit divides into two peaks, on one of which stands a
small stone temple dedicated to Siva. There are two reservoirs of

KO THAR I A— KO Til IDE. 3 , ,

water, one for the use of the Brahmans, the other for the Co.
view is reckoned the finest in the magnificent highlands
Black bears are found on the hill.

Kotharia.— Petty State in the Halar division of Kathiawar, Bombay
Presidency. It consists of 6 villages, with i proprietor. Area, 6 square
miles; population (1881) 2336. The revenue is estimated at ^1500;
and tribute of ^94, 16s. is paid to the British Government, and
^29, 16s. to the Nawab of Junagarh.

Kothi (Koti). — Petty Hill State in the Punjab, subordinate to the
Raja of Keunthal, and conterminous with the Simla territory on the
south and east. Lat (centre of State) 31 7' n., long. 77 15' v.. Area,
36 square miles. Population (1881) 5435 ; revenue, .£606. The chief,
Bishnu Chand, a Rajput, received the title of Ranafor services rendered
during the Mutiny of 1857. His family originally came from Patna" in
Bengal. Mashobra, a suburb of Simla, is in Kothi territory. In a deep
valley east of Mashobra is the little hamlet of Sipi, where an annual
fair is held every May, which is attended by the people of the neigh-
bouring hills in large numbers, and is also a popular resort of holiday-
makers from Simla. Naldera, also in Kothi territory, is a little 1
situated on a beautiful plateau overlooking the Sutlej, bordering a fine
deodar forest often occupied by the tents of European visitors from

Kothi.— Petty State in Baghelkhand, under the Baghelkhand Agency,
the Central India Agency, and the Government of India. Lat.
to 24 53' n., and long. 8o° 39' to 80" 54' e. The town of Kothi
lat. 24 45' e., long. 8o° 40' n. The ruling family have long retained
possession of their jdgir, by timely submission to the succe
querors of Bundelkhand. They were never dispossessed either in the
time of the Bundela Rajas or of Ali Bahadur. In 1S10, a sanad was
granted to Lai Diiniapat, the jdgirddr then in possession, making him
directly dependent on the British Government, like the other chieftains
in Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand. The present (1883) chief, R ; i
Bahadur Singh, Raja Bahadur of Kothi, is a Rajput by ca
area of the State is about 90 square miles ; number ot 1
Population (1881) 18,386, namely, males 9218, and fen
Classified according to religion, there were— Hindus, 15,649 I M»ni
madans, 284 ; Christians, 6 ; and aboriginal tribes, -M47-
form the predominant caste, numbering 349°- Estimated rev
the State, ^3529. The chief exercises jurisdiction within his
territory, independent of the British courts of law, except in crimes
of a heinous nature, or where Europeans are concerned, when
jurisdiction lies with the Political Agent.

Kothide.-Guaranteed Thakurate or petty State under the
Bhil or Bhopawar Agency, Central India. The estate cv.

3 1 2 K0T1—K0T K AM ALIA.

Bhfl paras or hamlets, with a total area of about 4000 acres, 250 acres
of which are under cultivation. There are 6 wells for irrigation. Popu-
lation (1881) 289. Revenue about ^50. The Bhumia of Kothide,
Moti Singh, born about 1850, is a younger branch of the Garhi family.
He holds his villages from the Raja of Dhar on the condition of being
responsible for robberies committed. The estate is now under British
administration, in consequence of the indebtedness of the chief.

Koti. — Petty Hill State in the Punjab, subordinate to Keunthal. —
See Kothi.

Kotipalli. — Village in Ramachandrapur taluk, Godavari District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 16 40' n., long. 82 ° 6' e. Population
(1881) 2065 ; number of houses, 398. This village, situated on the
left bank of the Gautama Godavari, halfway between Rajamahendri
(Rajamundry) and Coringa, is the only portion of the District which
belongs to the Maharaja of Vizianagaram, with the exception of a few
yards of land at Rajamahendri. Kotipalli is considered by the Hindus
a very sacred place ; every twelfth year the village is crowded with
devotees ; while near the pagoda the river is looked upon as peculiarly

Kot Kamalia. — Town and municipality in Montgomery ta/isi/,
Montgomery District, Punjab. Situated in lat. 30 43' 45" n., and long.
7 2 42' e., on the old high north bank of the Ravi, 5 miles north-west
from the present bed of the river. Distant from Montgomery town 27
miles west, from Chichawatni railway station 13 miles north. Kamalia
is a very ancient town, and is identified by General Cunningham with
one of the towns in the Malli country taken by Alexander. An ancient
mound of brick ruins adjoins the present site. Tradition assigns the
foundation of the modern town to Khan Kamal, a Kharal chieftain,
in the 14th century, from whom it derives its name, and whose descend-
ants still occupy it. The town is an uninteresting place, with low and
mean-looking houses. It is traversed by a single bazar from east to west.
The streets are, as a rule, well paved, and though many of them are
narrow and crooked, the drainage, and indeed the sanitary arrangements
generally, are excellent.

Population (1868) 5695 : (1881) 7594, namely, Muhammadans,
4227; Hindus, 3295; Sikhs, 66; Jain, 1 ; 'others,' 5. Number of
houses, 1 02 1. Since the British annexation, a brisk trade in the pro-
duce of the Ravi lowlands has sprung up, and the importance of Kot
Kamalia has been immensely increased by the opening of the Sind,
Punjab, and Delhi Railway. The town is now a place of considerable
commerce, collecting wheat, grain, and pulses from the surrounding
villages and Jhang; gur and sugar from Jalandhar and Amritsar; wool
from Jhang ; piece-goods from Calcutta, Karachi, Amritsar, and Miiltan ;
majith or madder and fruits from Afghanistan. The exports consist of


Hingis, quilts, darns or cotton carpets, etc. In 1857, the in ■•.
tribes held the town for a week, and completely sacked it.
station, post-office, schools; sardi, with accommodation for Eui
travellers. Municipal revenue in 1875-76, ^242 ; in 1
or an average of is. 5d. per head. The municipal inco
derived from octroi.

Kot KangTa. — See Kangra (Town).

Kotkhai Kotgarh (correctly Kotguru).—TahHl of Siml I
Punjab. Area, 14 square miles. Population (1881) 9847, namely,
, males 4854, and. females 4993. Hindus numbered 9675 ; Muhamma-
dans, 131 ; Sikhs, 2 : and 'others,' 39.

Kot Putli. — Town in the Torawati District of Jaipur -
Rajputana, belonging to the chief of Khetri, a tributary of Ji ipur, on
whom it was conferred in perpetuity by Lord Lake in 18c
military services ; distant from Jaipur city 74 miles norths
Putli possesses a fort and other strong positions, which were of
importance when held by the Marathas. Annual revenue, ;£ 10,000.
Population (1881) 8084. Hindus numbered 61 18; Muhamin
1956; and 'others,' 10. Post-office.

Kotra Nayani. — Petty State in the Halar division of Kithi
Bombay Presidency. It consists of 1 village, with 4 separate share-
holders. Area, 3 square miles; population (1881) 1256. The revenue
is estimated at ^600 ; and tribute of ^54, 4s. is paid to the Gaekwar
! of Baroda, and ^14, 10s. to the Nawab of Junagarh.

Kotrang. — Town and municipality in Hugh' District, Benga
situated on the right bank of the Hugli river, about 7 miles above
Howrah. Lat. 22 41' 20" N., long. 88° 24' e. Population 1 1
6811; (1881) 5747, namely, Hindus, 47*° 5 Muhammadans, 99'J
'others,' 46. Municipal income (1871), ^205; (1881
average incidence of taxation, is. o^d. per head. The vil!
cipally noted for its brick manufactories, and for a large prork
belonging to the Calcutta municipality.

Kotra Pitha.— Petty State in the Gohelwar division of Kithi
Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. It consists of 13 villages with 5
shareholders. Area, 25 square miles; population (1881) 7186. I h<
revenue is estimated at ^6000; and tribute of £&$ is I' ald t0
British Government, and ^72, 16s. to the Nawab of Jul

Kotra SangAnl.— Petty State in the Hakir division
Bombay Presidency. It consists of 18 villages ; area, 3;
I population (1881) 8642. The revenue is estimated at
tribute of ^1161, 12s. is paid to the British Government

* Totri '(KotreeY-Tdluk of Sehwan Sub-division. Karachi (Kui
District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Area, including ■ 1-

3 i4 KOTRL

Kohistan (1881), 3491 square miles; with 31 villages and 1 town.
Population (1881) 36,827, namely, 20,834 males and 15,993 females,
occupying 3161 houses. Hindus numbered 4976; Muhammadans,
30,547 ; Sikhs, 851 ; Christians, 407 ; aboriginal tribes, 26 ; Parsis, 17 ;
and Jews, 3. The taluk contains 1 civil and 3 criminal courts ; police
stations, 12 ; regular police, 140 men ; village watch, 15.

Kotri. — Town and municipality in Karachi (Kurrachee) District,
Sind, Bombay Presidency, and head-quarters of Kotri taluk. Popu-
lation (1881), including the neighbouring hamlets of Khanpur and
Miani Multani, 8922, namely, 5813 Muhammadans, 2160 Hindus, 407
Christians, 17 Parsis, and 525 'others.' Situated in lat. 25 21' 41" n.,
long. 68° 21' 37" e., on the right bank of the Indus, here confined by a
tolerably permanent bank. Kotri has been placed in considerable
danger, however, by sudden and violent inundations of the Baran
mountain torrent, to protect it from which a dam was erected some
years since. A station on the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway, which
communicates with the seaport of Karachi (106 miles). By the river,
here 600 yards wide, and from 9 to 10 feet deep in ordinary seasons, Kotri
has regular communication with Sukkur (270 miles), Mithankot (430
miles), and Multan (570 miles). Besides the steamers, native vessels go
up and down with merchandise. The river bank, crowded with flotilla
steamers, barges, and small native craft, all discharging or collecting
cargo, often presents an animated scene, not to be found at any other
station nearer than Sukkur (Sakkar). Sidings convey goods from the
railway to the river by zigzag routes, so constructed as to suit any
condition of the stream, in flood or drought.

Head-quarters station of Deputy Collector, Civil Surgeon, Conser-
vator and Registrar of the Indus, and judge of subordinate civil court.
Protestant and Roman Catholic churches. Civil hospital, court-
house, subordinate jail, post-office, Government and other schools, and
travellers' bungalow. The Indus Steam Flotilla formerly had its head-
quarters at Kotri, with a large floating dock for the repairs of its
steamers. Since the connection of the railway in the Indus valley with
the general railway system of India, the Indus Steam Flotilla has been
abolished, and its fleet of steamers sold. The European quarter, north
and west of the native town, stands embosomed in foliage, handsome
trees lining all its well-kept and neatly laid-out roads.

Local trade inconsiderable; large transit traffic between Karachi
and the Punjab. The articles of merchandise sent upwards comprise
beer, wine, and spirits for the European troops quartered in the
Punjab ; metals, railway materials, piece-goods, and silk. The return
trade consists principally of wool, cotton, grain, oil -seeds, indigo,
g/ii, oil, saltpetre, and sugar. Water from Kotri is forwarded to
Karachi, especially for the manufacture of ice and for drinking pur-


poses. Government ferry plies between Kotri and GicM

Malik Sardar Khan, chief of the Niimria or 'nine men' dan, 1
almost all the town in jdgir. Unimportant village before the British
conquest, except in a military point of view. Encamping place in i
of the Bombay division of the British army advancing upon Afghani
Municipality, established 1854; income (1882-83), /
diture, ^1619 ; incidence of municipal taxation, 2s. 2d. per
Epidemic of cholera in 1879, since which date great attention has been
paid to sanitary arrangements. In 1878 the railway was opene
Kotri to Sukkur and Miiltan, by which the importance of Kotri
place of trans-shipment has been diminished.

Kottapatam {Kotapatnam). — Port in Ongole taluk, Nellon
Madras Presidency. Population (1881) 6267; number of hoi.
The average annual value of imports, for the five years ending 1
was ^4839; and of exports, ^12,921. In 1882-83, the im;
valued at ^1263 ; and the exports at ^8066. — See also

Kottayam. — Town in Travancore State, Madras Presided v.—


Kottlir. — Town in Pollachi taluk, Coimbatore District. M
Presidency ; situated at the foot of one of the passes in the Anamalai
Hills, in lat. io° 32' n., and long. 77 2' e. Population (1881) 7406 ;
number of houses, 1869. Hindus numbered 7153; Muhammadans,
241 ; and Christians, 12.

Kourtalam.— Town in Tinnevelli District, Madras Presider.
See Courtallum.

Kovilam— Town in Chengalpat District, Madras Presidency.-


Kovtir (Koviiru).— Town in Nellore fd/uk, NeUore District, Mad

Presidency. Lat. 14° 30' N., long. 8o° 2 e. Population ( .
number of houses, 945. An agricultural centre, 3 miles north v ^
town, on the northern bank of the Pennar. Police station (tha^

Koyakhai.-River of Orissa. A deltaic offshoot of the MaMi
which bifurcates from the main stream opposite Cutta* It, and
turn throws off numerous distributaries, and finally Bnd
the Bay of Bengal, or the Chilka Lake, as the Kusbhadi
and Day a. _ .

Koyambatur.-District, tdluk, and town, Madras Presidency.—

Kranganiir (Cranganore).— Town in Cochin State. Madias

dency. — See Kodungalur.

Krishna.-District and river, Madras Presidency.—** K
Krishnaganj.-Town and head-quarters of ■, ..

Nadiya District, Bengal ; situated on the right bank 0, t


river. Lat. 23 25' n., long. 88° 45' 50" e. One of the principal seats
of trade in the District.

Krishnaganj. — Sub-division of Purniah District, Bengal. Lat. 25
54' 15" to 26 35' N., and long. 87 39' 30" to 88° 33' 45" e. Area 1340
square miles, with 1992 villages and 97,408 houses. Population (1872)
564,430 persons; (1881) 631,301, namely, males 324,317, females
306,984. Muhammadans in 1881 numbered 395,224, or 62^6 per
cent ; Hindus, 236,038, or 37*4 per cent. ; Christians, 10 ; ' others/
29 : total, 631,301. Proportion of males in total population, 51*3 per
cent. ; density of population, 471*12 persons per square mile ; villages
per square mile, 1*49; persons per village, 317; houses per square
mile, 7 3 '66 ; persons per house, 6*4. This Sub-division comprises the
3 police circles (than as) of Bahadurganj, Krishnaganj, and Kaliaganj.
In 1883 it contained 1 civil and 2 magisterial courts, with a regular
police force of 128 men, besides 1439 village watchmen.

Krishnaganj. — Town in Purniah District, Bengal, and head-quarters
of Krishnaganj Sub-division and police circle ; situated on the high
road to Darjiling, east of the Mahananda river. Lat. 26 6' 28" n.,
long. 87 59' 13" e. The town and immediately surrounding villages
form a municipal union, containing, in 1872, a population numbering
8490, and in 188 1, 6000, namely, Hindus, 2973, and Muhammadans,
3027. Municipal income in 1882-83, ^371, derived from a house-tax;
average incidence, is. ifd. per head of the population. The public
offices are situated 4 miles north-west of the town, at the village of
Bhariadangi, where there is also a civil court, sub-registry office, English
school, post-office, and charitable dispensary. The police station and
staging bungalow are in Krishnaganj itself.

Krishnagar (Krishnanagar). — Head-quarters Sub-division of Nadiya
District, Bengal. Lat. 23 17' to 23 48' 45" N., and long. 88° io' to
88° 50' 45" e. Area, 701 square miles, with 544 villages or towns, and
70,576 houses. Population (1881) 374,973, namely, males 181,880,
and females 193,093. Hindus numbered 205,298 ; Muhammadans,
l6 7>37 8 ; Christians, 2295; 'others,' 2. Proportion of males in total
population, 48*5 per cent.; density of population, 535 persons per
square mile; villages per square mile, 78; persons per village, 689;
houses per square mile, 107; persons per house, 5*3. This Sub-
division comprises the 6 police circles (thdnds) of Krishnagar, Hans-
khali, Krishnaganj, Chapra, Nakasipara, and Kaliganj. In 1883 it
contained 5 civil and 10 magisterial courts, and a regular police force
of 265 men, besides 813 village watchmen.

Krishnagar. — Town, municipality, and administrative head-quarters
of Nadiya District, Bengal ; situated on the left bank of the Jalangi
river. Lat. 23 23' 31" n., long. 88° 32' 31" e. Population (1872)
26,750; (1881) 27,477, sub-divided as follows: — Hindus, iS,62S ;


Muhammadans, 8281; 'others,' 568: total, 27,477, namely, 1
males and 14,214 females. Area of town site, 4814 acres. Muni
income (1876-77), ^1867 ; (1883-84), ^2354 ; average bcidec
taxation, is. 7|d. per head. Besides the usual Government oft
courts, Krishnagar is also a station of the Church Missionary -
and of a Roman Catholic Mission, each body having its own «
and schools. The Krishnagar College, affiliated to the Calcutta
University, was attended by 41 students in 18S2-83; ar >d its attached
collegiate school by 209 pupils in the same year. Both college and
collegiate school have shown a steadily decreasing number of pu]
late years, owing to the prevalence of malarious fever in the Distrii t.
The town is a seat of considerable trade, and is noted for its manu-
facture of coloured clay figures, a speciality carried on by a few artists
of the Kumbhar or potter caste. Krishnagar is the residence oi
Rajas of Nadiya, one of the old historical families of Bengal, 1
account of whom see Nadiya District.

Krishnagiri (Kistnagiri). — Tdluk in Salem District, Madras 1
dency. Area, 680 square miles (435,077 acres). Population | 1
120,929, namely, 58,911 males and 62,018 females, occupying 21,55s
houses in 541 villages. Hindus numbered 115,163; Muhammadans,
5226; Christians, 514; and 'others,' 26. The area liable to revenue is
distributed as follows: — Government villages, 246,189 acres, and muta
and shrotriem villages, 188,888 acres. The extent actually under cultiva-
tion in rayatwdri villages is 95,869 acres, paying £1 1,471. The Si
of cultivation are rdgi on dry and paddy on wet lands ; but other
crops, as vardgu, cumbu, and cholam, are also largely grown. Irrigation
is carried on from the Pennar (Ponnaiyar) and other small rivers, tanks
(333), minor reservoirs (71), and wells (6262); irrigated area,

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 37 of 64)